PHYXELIDIDAE LEHTINEN 1967

Griswold, Charles E., Wood, Hannah Marie & Carmichael, Anthea D., 2012, The lace web spiders (Araneae, Phyxelididae) of Madagascar: phylogeny, biogeography and taxonomy, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 164 (4), pp. 728-810: 761-762

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2011.00779.x

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/97784765-6913-FFDA-057B-76C1BE85FCE8

treatment provided by

Marcus

scientific name

PHYXELIDIDAE LEHTINEN 1967
status

 

PHYXELIDIDAE LEHTINEN 1967  

Amaurobiidae   Phyxelidinae Lehtinen 1967: 328. Griswold 1990.

Phyxelididae Lehtinen 1967   . Elevated from subfamily of Amaurobiidae   to family and placed as sister group of Titanoecidae   by Griswold et al. 1999: 59. Discussion in Griswold et al. 2005: 35.

Diagnosis: Entelegyne, cribellate spiders with thornlike setae located probasally on both female and male palpal femora ( Figs 9F View Figure 9 , 51D View Figure 51 ), a calamistrum that originates medially on the female metatarsus IV ( Figs 46F View Figure 46 , 51A View Figure 51 ), PMS paracribellar spigots that encircle the spinneret margin anteriorly and that are crowded together such that the bases are laterally flattened ( Figs 52C View Figure 52 , 54B View Figure 54 ) and male metatarsus I modified with clasping structures ( Figs 1 View Figure 1 , 42–44 View Figure 42 View Figure 43 View Figure 44 ).

Synapomorphies: Synapomorphies for the family implied by the phylogenetic analysis of Griswold et al. (2005) were thorn-like setae located probasally on both the female and male palpal femora, a calamistrum that originates medially on the female metatarsus IV, PMS paracribellar spigots that encircle the spinneret margin anteriorly and that are crowded together such that the bases are laterally flattened, and male metatarsus I modified with clasping structures. In this analysis ( Griswold et al., 2005) further synapomorphies united the tribes Phyxelidini   and Vidoleini   : a bilaterally divided chilum ( Figs 8D View Figure 8 , 47B View Figure 47 ) and branched median tracheae. Other potential synapomorphies uniting Phyxelidini   and Vidoleini   include epiandrous spigots separated into two bunches ( Figs 48D, E View Figure 48 , 50A, D View Figure 50 ) and a conspicouous, enlarged, dark seta ( Figs 47D View Figure 47 , 55B, F View Figure 55 ) arising laterally from the tip of the PLS. This seta could not be scored for the Vytfutia   specimens available for the 2005 paper; subsequent examination of new Vytfutia   specimens revealed that it is lacking in Vytfutiini   . These synapomorphies remain valid after the present study.

Description: Eight eyes in two nearly straight rows ( Figs 1 View Figure 1 , 47A View Figure 47 ), canoe-shaped tapeta ( Fig. 47B View Figure 47 ), chelicerae with a large boss ( Fig. 50B View Figure 50 ), and with teeth and thickened setae along the fang furrow ( Figs 49A, B View Figure 49 , 50C View Figure 50 ), may be scaly or ridged cuticle laterally as possible stridulatory surface ( Fig. 50B, E View Figure 50 ); cheliceral gland opens on flat cuticle ( Figs 49F View Figure 49 , 50F View Figure 50 ); chilum entire ( Vytfutiini   ) or divided ( Phyxelidini   , Vidoleini   ) ( Figs 8D View Figure 8 , 47B View Figure 47 ); endite with apical serrula ( Fig. 49C, E View Figure 49 ); labrum with flattened, anteriad pointing labral tongue, tongue apex free, deeply concave, with plumose setae dorsally and laterally on labrum, minute, bristle-like setae occur distad of tongue apex ( Fig. 49D View Figure 49 ); sternum shield-shaped, posteriorly blunt to pointed, labium free ( Fig. 47C View Figure 47 ); tarsal trichobothria absent, with only a single, subapical trichobothrium on metatarsi, multiple dorsal trichobothria on tibiae, trichobothria with transverse ridges ( Fig. 51E View Figure 51 ); tarsal organ capsulate with round orifice ( Figs 48F View Figure 48 , 51G View Figure 51 ); setae plumose ( Fig. 50F View Figure 50 ), rarely ( Malaika   ) also with feathery scales; palpal femora of both sexes with probasal thorns comprising enlarged setal bases and/or thickened setae ( Figs 46C View Figure 46 , 48A View Figure 48 , 51D View Figure 51 ); femora to metatarsi of legs with spines; trochanters shorter than coxae ( Fig. 46A View Figure 46 ), trochanters unnotched ( Fig. 46B, E View Figure 46 ), autospasy at coxa–trochanter joint; males of most species with metatarsus I modified ( Figs 1 View Figure 1 , 42–44 View Figure 42 View Figure 43 View Figure 44 ), median concavity typically retrolateral, prolateral in Malagasy taxa, only leg I modified in most genera, legs I and II modified in Ambohima   ( Fig. 1 View Figure 1 ) and Manampoka   ; leg tarsi with three claws, STC with single row of teeth, ITC smooth or with a single tooth, serrate accessory setae, claw tufts and scopulae absent ( Figs 48B View Figure 48 , 51F View Figure 51 ); female palp with toothed claw ( Figs 48C View Figure 48 , 51C View Figure 51 ); metatarsi III and IV apical preening combs present ( Vidoleini   ) or absent ( Phyxelidini   , Vytfutiini   ); calamistrum linear, originating near middle of metatarsus IV ( Figs 46F View Figure 46 , 51A View Figure 51 ), with multiple rows of teeth on calamistral setae ( Fig. 51B View Figure 51 ); lateral tracheae simple, medians simple ( Vytfutiini   , some Phyxelidini   ) or with few to many branches ( Phyxelidini   , Vidoleini   ); pedicel with lorum transversely divided ( Fig. 46D View Figure 46 ), epiandrous spigots grouped into two lateral bunches ( Phyxelidini   , Vidoleini   ) ( Figs 48D, E View Figure 48 , 50A, D View Figure 50 ) or absent ( Vytfutiini   ); cribellum divided ( Fig. 54D View Figure 54 ) with two fields of uniformly distributed strobilate cribellate spigots ( Fig. 54C View Figure 54 ); female ALS with one ( Vytfutiini   ) or two (Phxelidini and Vidoliini) MAP spigots and one large tartipore at the inner edge and field of more than 30 PI spigots with round base margins, these interspersed with tartipores ( Figs 52B View Figure 52 , 55A, D View Figure 55 ); male ALS similar except posterior MAP spigot replaced by nubbin ( Figs 53B View Figure 53 , 56B View Figure 56 ); female PMS with numerous (12–30) PC spigots encircling anterior margin ( Figs 52C View Figure 52 , 54E View Figure 54 ), PC spigot bases elongate, pressed together and flattened ( Fig. 54B View Figure 54 ), each PC spigot surmounted by a single strobilate shaft, spigot cuticle ridged; one large mAP spigot with nubbin and tartipore posteriad to this, posteriorly several AC and 1–4 CY spigots ( Figs 52C View Figure 52 , 55C View Figure 55 ); male PMS with PC spigots replaced by encircling row of nubbins, with large median tartipore and nubbin that replaces mAP spigot ( Figs 53C View Figure 53 , 56F View Figure 56 ); female PLS with domed apical segment, with stout, curved seta apicolaterally ( Fig. 55B, F View Figure 55 ) (Phxelidini and Vidoleini   ), absent from Vytfutiini   ; with apical MS spigot, MS flanking PC spigots present or absent, field of several AC and two or more mesal CY spigots ( Figs 52D View Figure 52 , 55E View Figure 55 ); males lack CY spigots, MS spigot replaced by large nubbin ( Figs 53D View Figure 53 , 56E View Figure 56 ); anal tubercle small, simple, with slender setae ( Fig. 54F View Figure 54 ); male palpal tibia with dorsoapical process (DTA) ( Figs 25E View Figure 25 , 26D View Figure 26 , 28B, E View Figure 28 ), sclerotized ( Phyxelidini   , Vytfutiini   ) or partly sclerotized and partly hyaline ( Vidoleini   ), additional RTA present in Vytfutia   , some taxa may have enlarged retrolateral lobes (RL) ( Figs 24D, E View Figure 24 , 25E View Figure 25 , 26D View Figure 26 ) and/or prolateral processes (PTA) ( Figs 24D View Figure 24 , 25E, F View Figure 25 ); cymbium without processes, trichobothria or chemosensory scopulae ( Figs 22B View Figure 22 , 27B View Figure 27 ); male palpal bulbs diverse ( Figs 21A–C View Figure 21 , 26A–C View Figure 26 , 27A– D View Figure 27 ), Vytfutiini   and Phyxelidini   with conductor (C) and median apophysis (MA), the latter lacking in Ambohima, Vidoleini   with three to five conical tegular processes of dubious homology; female epigyna simple with median (ML) and lateral (LL) lobes, without teeth ( Figs 26G View Figure 26 , 31A View Figure 31 , 32D View Figure 32 ), vulvae entelegyne, various, fertilization ducts (FD) posterior ( Figs 31B View Figure 31 , 33E View Figure 33 , 35E, H View Figure 35 ); webs cribellate, may be substrate limited and radiate from retreat ( Griswold et al., 2005: fig. 202A, B, E, F), or have aerial sheets ( Fig. 2A View Figure 2 ), spiders walk on or hang beneath webs ( Figs 2B View Figure 2 , 5 View Figure 5 ), cribellate silk carding type II form (carding leg braced with mobile leg IV), at least Phyxelidini   wrap prey after bite with slow alternating movements of legs IV; cribellate band (studied in Phyxelida   ) entire, cribellar fibrils cylindrical with nodules, axial fibres and reserve warp present ( Griswold et al., 2005: fig. 121A–C).

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Phyxelididae

Loc

PHYXELIDIDAE LEHTINEN 1967

Griswold, Charles E., Wood, Hannah Marie & Carmichael, Anthea D. 2012
2012
Loc

Phyxelididae Lehtinen 1967

Griswold CE & Ramirez MJ & Coddington J & Platnick N 2005: 35
Griswold CE & Coddington J & Platnick N & Forster R 1999: 59
1999
Loc

Amaurobiidae

Lehtinen PT 1967: 328
1967