Ambohima, GRISWOLD 1990

Griswold, Charles E., Wood, Hannah Marie & Carmichael, Anthea D., 2012, The lace web spiders (Araneae, Phyxelididae) of Madagascar: phylogeny, biogeography and taxonomy, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 164 (4), pp. 728-810: 765-770

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2011.00779.x

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/97784765-6917-FFD4-0548-7595BFBCFA46

treatment provided by

Marcus

scientific name

Ambohima
status

 

AMBOHIMA GRISWOLD 1990  

Ambohima Griswold 1990: 126   ; Platnick 2011.

Type species: Ambohima sublima Griswold 1990   , by original designation.

Diagnosis: Male palpal bulb ( Figs 10A–B View Figure 10 , 22A–D View Figure 22 ) lacking median apophysis, with conductor greatly hypertrophied, apex directed mesad, origin of embolus retrolateral, embolus concealed in conductor groove completely encircling bulb; male palpal tibia with unique, backwards-pointing prolateral hook ( PTA) ( Figs 24D, E View Figure 24 , 25E, F View Figure 25 ); male metatarsi I ( Fig. 42A–O View Figure 42 ) and II ( Fig. 1 View Figure 1 ) having prolateral, spinule-lined concavity at midsegment, at base of concavity a short, prolateral process surmounted by stout clasping spine. Epigynum with broad, oval posterior median lobe ( ML), copulatory openings slit-like and converging anteromedially ( Fig. 30D, F View Figure 30 ).

Synapomorphies: Synapomorphies for Ambohima   include the loss of the male palpal median apophysis ( Figs 10A–B View Figure 10 , 22A–D View Figure 22 ) and the backwards-pointing prolateral hook ( PTA) on male palpal tibia ( Figs 24D, E View Figure 24 , 25E, F View Figure 25 ), both unique in Phyxelididae   ; and epigynal copulatory openings that are slit-like and converging anteromedially ( Fig. 30D, F View Figure 30 ) and spermathecae with an anterior straight or spiral blind-ending duct ( Figs 31B View Figure 31 , 33E View Figure 33 ).

Description: Total length 3.70–10.90. Typical markings with carapace orange-brown, margin of pars thoracica dusky, with broad, dusky, V-shaped mark anteriad of thoracic fovea and dusky longitudinal band on each side extending anteriorly along pars cephalica, with dusky reticulations laterad of eyes; black pigment surrounding each eye and extending between AM and between lateral eyes ( Fig. 6A–F View Figure 6 ); chelicerae, sternum, labium, coxae, legs, and palpi yellow-brown to orange-brown, sternum dusky, labium and palpal coxa lighter near tips ( Fig. 47C View Figure 47 ), legs unmarked or with annulations ( Figs 3A, B View Figure 3 , 7B View Figure 7 ); abdomen grey-brown, dorsum with anterior light longitudinal markings that may comprise a herringbone pattern, chevrons, or a median band that is narrowed posteriorly with lateral extensions ( Fig. 7A–H View Figure 7 ), dorsum unmarked in A. maizina   sp. nov. ( Fig. 6G View Figure 6 ), venter with pair of bold, entire, longitudinal light bands ( Fig. 6H View Figure 6 ); differences from these markings are noted in species descriptions. Carapace length 1.15– 1.48 times width, height 0.21–0.45 times width, thoracic fovea narrow oval, length 0.14–0.28 carapace length; PER straight to slightly recurved, AER straight, PER width 2.00–3.22 times OA length; clypeal height 1.23–5.51 times AM diameter; chelicerae smooth or with very weak wrinkles, length 4.06–8.00 times clypeal height, pro- and retromargins of fang furrow with 5–8 heterogeneous teeth ( Fig. 49A, B View Figure 49 ); sternum length 1.10–2.53 times width, base narrowed, apex may be prolonged, pointed, a right angle, or blunt; labium broad, notched at base, length slightly greater than width ( Fig. 47C View Figure 47 ). Legs long to elongate, femur I of females 1.18–2.72, of males 1.57–3.62 times carapace length, metatarsus I of males 1.38–3.77 times carapace length; leg formula 1423; male metatarsi I and II with prolateral, spinule-lined concavity at midsegment, at base of concavity a short, prolateral process surmounted by stout clasping spine ( Fig. 1 View Figure 1 ), legs otherwise unmodified; metatarsi lacking apical combs; calamistrum subapical, origin at 0.40–0.50 distance from metatarsus base, length about one-third metatarsus length ( Fig. 46F View Figure 46 ). Spination (based on Ambohima sublima   : different species and even individuals within species exhibit small variations in the presence/absence and position of spines). Male: palp: femur d0-0-0-1; leg I: femur p0-1-1–1, r0-1-0-1, tibia p0-1-1-0, v1-0-1-0, r0-1-1-0, metatarsus p0-1(clasper)-0-1, v1-1-1-1, r0-1- 0-1; leg II: femur d1-0-1-0, p0-1-1-1, r0-1-0-1, tibia p0-1-1-0, v0-0-0-1, r0-1-1-0, metatarsus p0-1(clasper)- 0-1, v2-2-0-1, r0-1-0-1; leg III: femur p0-0-0-1, tibia d1-0-0-0, p0-1-1-0, v0-0-0-2, r0-1-1-0, metatarsus p0-1-0-2, v2-2-0-1, r0-1-0-2; leg IV: femur d1-0-0-0, p0-0-0-1, r0-0-0-1, tibia d1-0-0-0, p0-1-1-0, v0-0-0-2, r0-1-1-0, metatarsus v2-1-1-2. Female: palp: femur d0-0-0-1, patella d0-0-1, tibia d0-0-0-1, p0-1-1-0, tarsus p1-0-1-0, v0-0-1-2-1-2-3-2, r1-0-0-0-0; leg I: femur d1-0-0-0, p0-1-1-1, r0-0-1-1, tibia p0-1-1-0, v0-1-1-1, r0-1-1-0, metatarsus p0-1-0-1, v2-0-2-1, r0-1- 0-1; leg II: femur d0-1-1-0, p0-1-1-1, r0-1-1-1-1, tibia p0-1-1-0, v0-1-0-2, r0-1-1-0, metatarsus p0-2-0-1, v2-2-0-1, r0-1-0-1; leg III: femur d1-0-1-0, p0-1-1-1, r0-1-0-1, tibia p0-1-1-0, v0-1-0-2, r0-1-1-0, metatarsus p0-1-0-2, v2-0-2-1, r0-1-0-2; leg IV: femur d1-1-0-0, p0-0-0-1, r0-0-0-1, tibia p0-1-1-0, v0-1-0-2, r0-1-1-0, metatarsus p0-1-0-1, v2-0-2-1, r0-0-0-1. Abdomen dorsal markings as in Figures 6A–G View Figure 6 , 7C–H View Figure 7 , typically with posterior chevrons dorsally although markings obscure to uniform in some species, venter with longitudinal bands narrow and entire. Tracheae (observed in penultimate male Ambohima sublima, CASENT   9016997) with medians and laterals simple. Spinnerets (based on SEM examination of Ambohima ranohira   and A. sublima   ): Female ALS ( Fig. 52B View Figure 52 ) with two MAP spigots, the anterior largest, with large tartipore adjacent to these; PI spigot field of 30 to more than 80 spigots with rounded bases, interspersed with numerous small tartipores; male ALS ( Fig. 53B View Figure 53 ) with posterior MAP spigot reduced to nubbin, but with comparable number of PI spigots as female; female PMS ( Fig. 52C View Figure 52 ) with anteriorly encircling row of 15–25 PC spigots, these crowded together so that the bases are laterally flattened, centrally a large mAP spigot with a broad, squat base and conical shaft, mesad and posteriad of this are 5–7 AC spigots, and posteriorly one CY spigot with a long, conical base and conical shaft; males ( Fig. 53C View Figure 53 ) retain the AC spigots but lack the CY spigot, PC spigots are replaced by nubbins, and the central mAP spigot is replaced by a large nubbin; female PLS ( Fig. 52D View Figure 52 ) with retroapical stout, curved seta (black in life), one subapical MS spigot with 1–2 flanking nubbins, a field of 12–20 AC spigots, and one basal and 1 anteromedian CY spigot; males ( Fig. 53D View Figure 53 ) lack the CY spigots, have fewer AC spigots, and the MS spigot region is replaced by a huge nubbin. Palpal femur with anterobasal group of 3–8 setae set in enlarged bases, at least some distal setae shortened and enlarged as thorns, these setae forming a row or triangular group ( Fig. 46C View Figure 46 ); male palpal tibia ( Figs 24D, E View Figure 24 , 25E, F View Figure 25 ) with a sclerotized dorsal bladeshaped process ( DTA), a dorsally prolonged prolateral hook ( PTA) and a prominent retrodorsal lobe ( RL); cymbium narrowed for apical half; palpal bulb ( Fig. 45C, D View Figure 45 ) with small, sclerotized petiole at base of subtegulum, this with 4–5 anneli, tegulum central, small relative to hypertrophied conductor, reservoir course a simple curve within tegulum, without switchbacks, median apophysis absent; embolus slender, a narrow tapering blade to a thread-like spine, lamellar pars pendula ( PP) large ( Figs 21B, C View Figure 21 , 22A, C View Figure 22 ), readily detached from truncus of embolus (E), conductor (C) greatly hypertrophied, with embolic groove completely encircling bulb, apex ( CA) directed mesad ( Fig. 23B View Figure 23 ). Epigynum ( Figs 31A View Figure 31 , 32D View Figure 32 , 34E View Figure 34 ) with broad, oval to trapezoidal ML, copulatory openings slit-like or hidden beneath recurved lateral transverse ridges ( LTR); spermathecae with an anterior straight or spiral blind-ending duct, fertilization duct posterior ( Figs 31B View Figure 31 , 33E View Figure 33 ).

Composition: Ten species.

Distribution: Madagascar ( Figs 57–59 View Figure 57 )

AMBOHIMA ANDREFANA   SP. NOV. ( FIGS 4A–D View Figure 4 , 6A, B View Figure 6 , 10A–C View Figure 10 , 21A–E View Figure 21 , 31E–I View Figure 31 , 39G–L, 42A–C, 46C, 57)

Types: Holotype male ( CASENT9005932) and paratype female ( CASENT9019919) collected in dry forest on sandy soil at an elevation of 770 m at Parc National Zombitse , 19.8 km 84° E Sakaraha, 22°50′36″S, 44°42′36″E, Toliara Province, Madagascar, 5–9 February 2003, by C. Griswold, D. Silva, and J. J. Rafonomezantsoa, deposited in CASC. GoogleMaps  

Etymology: The specific name is from the Malagasy word for west; a noun in apposition.

Figure 39. Ambohima   female genitalia. A–F, A. ranohira   . G–L, A. andrefana   . A–C, G–I, epigyna, ventral. D–F, J–L,

ML

Musee de Lectoure

AM

Australian Museum

PI

Paleontological Institute

PMS

Peabody Essex Museum

AC

Amherst College, Beneski Museum of Natural History

CY

Centre des Yersinia

CA

Chicago Academy of Sciences

LTR

University of Leicester

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Phyxelididae

Loc

Ambohima

Griswold, Charles E., Wood, Hannah Marie & Carmichael, Anthea D. 2012
2012
Loc

Ambohima Griswold 1990: 126

Griswold CE 1990: 126
1990