Rahavavy, Griswold & Wood & Carmichael, 2012, Griswold & Wood & Carmichael, 2012

Griswold, Charles E., Wood, Hannah Marie & Carmichael, Anthea D., 2012, The lace web spiders (Araneae, Phyxelididae) of Madagascar: phylogeny, biogeography and taxonomy, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 164 (4), pp. 728-810: 798-800

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2011.00779.x

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/97784765-6974-FFB7-053C-73BCB89FFD82

treatment provided by

Marcus

scientific name

Rahavavy
status

GEN. NOV.

RAHAVAVY   GEN. NOV.

Type species: Phyxelida fanivelona Griswold 1990   , here designated.

Etymology: The generic name is from the Malagasy for sister, and is feminine in gender.

Note: Two Malagasy species were described in 1990 from females only and placed in the genus Phyxelida   , i.e. Phyxelida malagasyana Griswold, 1990   and Phyxelida fanivelona Griswold, 1990   . Results from the molecular analysis for an array of phyxelidid taxa ( Fig. 60 View Figure 60 ), and morphological data from the newly discovered males of these species, i.e. the prolateral position of the metatarsal clasping structure ( Fig. 44D–I View Figure 44 ), reveal that they are not congeneric with Phyxelida   but instead belong in a clade with other Malagasy phyxelidids. These species are herein transferred to the new genus Rahavavy   .

Diagnosis: Male metatarsi I ( Figs 44D–I View Figure 44 , 51H, I View Figure 51 ) with prolateral, spinule-lined concavity at midsegment with short, prolateral process surmounted by stout clasping spine at base of concavity, male metatarsi II unmodified (unlike Ambohima   and Manampoka   ); male palpal bulb ( Figs 18C View Figure 18 , 19A View Figure 19 , 27D View Figure 27 ) with median apophysis (like Manampoka   but unlike Ambohima   ); epigynum differs from Ambohima   in that anterior margins of the median lobe are transverse rather than oblique, and from Manampoka   in that the median lobe is short, extending slightly posteriorly ( Fig. 35A, D, G View Figure 35 ); female vulva differs from Ambohima   in being capsulate with internal chambers ( Fig. 35C, E, H View Figure 35 ).

Synapomorphies: The male palpal tibia with a DTA that is inrolled and extending retroapically ( Figs 20A, C View Figure 20 , 28D, E View Figure 28 ) and stout, thorn-like setae on the palpal femora of both sexes ( Figs 9F View Figure 9 , 48A View Figure 48 , 51D View Figure 51 ) are synapomorphies for Rahavavy   .

Description: Total length 3.10–8.60. Markings differ significantly among species and are described under each species description. Carapace length 1.21–1.60 times width, height 0.30–0.56 width; thoracic fovea narrow oval, length 3–5 times width, strongly limited at least anteriorly and laterally, length 0.10–0.20 carapace length; PER straight to slightly recurved, AER straight, ocular area width 1.94–3.71 times length; clypeal height 1.06–2.29 times AM diameter; chelicerae smooth with fine scales laterally ( Fig. 50E View Figure 50 ), with small boss ( Fig. 50B View Figure 50 ), length 4.09–7.69 times clypeal height, pro- and retromargins of fang furrow with 5–7 heterogeneous teeth ( Fig. 50C View Figure 50 ), cheliceral gland on flat cuticle, with numerous pores ( Fig. 50F View Figure 50 ); sternum length 0.97–1.33 times width, apex a blunt point ( Fig. 9F View Figure 9 ). Legs long to elongate, femur I 0.96– 1.60 times carapace length; leg formula 1423; male metatarsi I ( Figs 44D–I View Figure 44 , 51H, I View Figure 51 ) with prolateral, spinule-lined concavity at midsegment, at base of concavity a short, prolateral process surmounted by stout clasping spine, legs otherwise unmodified; metatarsi lacking apical combs; calamistrum subapical, origin at 0.40–0.45 distance from metatarsus base, length about 0.5 times metatarsus length. Spination (based on males and females of Rahavavy fanivelona   : differences observed in R. ida   and R. malagasyana   are noted in [brackets]). Male: palp: femur d0-0-0-0; leg I: femur d0-0-1-0, p0-0-1-1, r0-0-0-1, tibia p0-1-1- 0[1], v1-0-0-2, r0-1-1-0, metatarsus p0-1-1(clasper)-1, v0-0-0-2, r0-1-0-0; leg II: femur d0-0-1-0, p0-0-1-1, r0-0-0-1, tibia p0-1-1-0, v2-1-2, r0-1-1-0, metatarsus p0-1-1-1, v0-2-1-2, r1-1-0-0; leg III: femur p1-1-0-0, tibia d1-0-0-0, p0-1-1-0, v1-0-0-2, r0-1-1-0, metatarsus p0-1-0-2, v2-2-0-1, r1-1-0-2; leg IV: femur d1-1-0-0, p0-0-0-1, r0-0-0-1, tibia p0-1-1-0, v1-0-0-2, r0-1-1-0, metatarsus d1-0-0-0, p0-0-1-2, v2-1-1-1, r0-0-0-2. Female: palp: femur d0-0-0-1, tibia p0-1-1-0, tarsus p1-0[1]-1-0, v0-0[1]-1-3-1[3]-2-2, r0[1]-0-2-0; leg I: femur d0-1-0-0, p0-1[0]-1-1, r0-1[0]-0-1[0], tibia p0-1- 1-0[1], v1[0]-1[0]-2, r0-1-1-0, metatarsus p0-1-0-1, v2-1[2]-0-1, r0-1[0]-0-1[0]; leg II: femur d1[0]-1-0-0, p0-1-1-1, r0-1[0]-0-1[0], tibia d1[0]-0-0-0, p0-1-1-0, v2[0]-2[0]-2, r0-1-1-0, metatarsus p1-1-0-2, v0-2- 2[1]-1, r1-1-0-2; leg III: femur d0-1[0]-0-0, p0-0-1-1, r0-0-0-1, patella d0-0-1[0], tibia d1[0]-0-0-0, p0-1-1-0, v1[0]-1-2, r0-1-1-0, metatarsus p1-1-0-2, v2-0-2-1, r1-1-0-2; leg IV: femur d1-0[1]-1[0]-0, p0-0-0-1[0], r0-0-0-1, tibia d1-0-0-0, p0-1-1-0, v1[0]-1[0]-2, r0-1- 1-0, metatarsus p1-0-0-2, v1[0]-0[2]-0-1, r1-0-0-2. Abdomen dorsal markings as in Figure 9A–D, G, I View Figure 9 , with median longitudinal line or marks and lateral spots or posterior chevrons dorsally, venter with longitudinal bands narrow and entire. Male epiandrum with two bunches of spigots, about 20 on each side ( Fig. 50A, D View Figure 50 ). Tracheae (examined in penultimate males of Rahavavy malagasyana, CASENT   9005755) with simple lateral and median branches. Spinnerets (based on R. fanivelona   , whose organs are typical of the genus): female ( Figs 54A–F View Figure 54 , 55A–F View Figure 55 ), male ( Fig. 56A–F View Figure 56 ): with cribellum divided ( Fig. 54D View Figure 54 ), more than two-thirds as wide as the base of the ALS, but very short (width greater than 10 times cribellum length), with uniformly distributed strobilate cribellar spigots ( Fig. 54C View Figure 54 ); cribellar spigots replaced by nubbins in male ( Fig. 56D View Figure 56 ); female ALS with two large MAP spigots with squat bases and long, tapering shafts on mesal margin ( Fig. 55D View Figure 55 ), these separated from remainder of spinning field by shallow fold, with large tartipore situated on opposite side of fold; field of at least 36 PI spigots with rounded bases with concentric ridges ( Fig. 55A View Figure 55 ), with a rounded margin between the base and shaft, and long, tapering shafts with longitudinal ridges; at least 20 small tartipores are scattered throughout PI spigot field; male ALS ( Fig. 56B View Figure 56 ) similar except posterior MAP spigot reduced to nubbin and with fewer PI spigots (about 27) and small tartipores (fewer than 16); female PMS ( Fig. 54B, E View Figure 54 ) with at least 15 PC spigots with strobilate shafts crowded together to encircle the anterior margin of the spinneret ( Fig. 54B View Figure 54 ), replaced by nubbins in the male ( Fig. 56F View Figure 56 ), one anteromedian mAP spigot with large, squat base and slender shaft ( Fig. 55C View Figure 55 ), replaced by a nubbin in male ( Fig. 56C, F View Figure 56 ), at least nine AC spigots, and a posterior CY spigot with a large, conical base and nearly cylindrical shaft; male lacks any vestige of CY spigot, and has fewer AC spigots ( Fig. 56C, F View Figure 56 ); female mAP spigot is accompanied by two mesal nubbins; the male mAP nubbin has another small nubbin mesad of it; PLS of both sexes with large, stout, curved seta (black when viewed with light microscopy) at ectal margin; female PLS ( Fig. 55B, E, F View Figure 55 ) with large anterior MS spigot with cylindrical base and shaft, accompanied by two flanking nubbins, MS replaced by single large nubbin in male ( Fig. 56E View Figure 56 ); female has two CY spigots, anterior and basal, which have large, conical bases and tapering shafts, at least 14 AC spigots, and at least five small tartipores; male ( Fig. 56E View Figure 56 ) lacks CY spigots, and has fewer AC spigots (nine) and tartipores (three or fewer). Palpal femur with anterobasal row of 5–8 stout setae set in enlarged bases, these setae shortened and enlarged as thorns ( Figs 48A View Figure 48 , 51D View Figure 51 ); male palpal tibia ( Figs 20A, C View Figure 20 , 28D, E View Figure 28 ) with inrolled DTA extending retroapically, RL weakly developed; palpal bulb ( Fig. 45A, B View Figure 45 ) with petiole not apparent, anneli of subtegulum weakly developed, tegulum central, convex, oval, course of reservoir a simple curve within bulb, without switchbacks, median apophysis present, fleshy, arising at mid-bulb near embolic base; embolus slender, ranging from a narrow tapering blade to a thread-like spine, lamellar pars pendula accompanying embolus, conductor hypertrophied, with embolic groove completely encircling bulb, apex ( CA) directed mesad or laterad, blunt to pointed ( Figs 27A–D View Figure 27 , 29A– E View Figure 29 ). Epigynum ( Fig. 35A, D, G View Figure 35 ) with broad, oval to trapezoidal median lobe ( ML), copulatory openings large, slit-like or hidden beneath recurved lateral transverse ridges ( LTR); vulva complex, with capsulate structures(s) with internal chambers ( Fig. 35B, C, E, F, H, I View Figure 35 ).

Composition: Three species.

Distribution: Madagascar ( Figs 58, 59 View Figure 59 ).

RAHAVAVY FANIVELONA ( GRISWOLD, 1990)   COMB. NOV. ( FIGS 9D–F View Figure 9 , 18A–C View Figure 18 , 27A–D View Figure 27 , 35A–C View Figure 35 , 41C, D View Figure 41 , 44D, E View Figure 44 , 45A, B View Figure 45 , 50A–F View Figure 50 , 51A–I View Figure 51 , 54A–F View Figure 54 , 55A–F View Figure 55 , 56A–F View Figure 56 , 58)

Phyxelida fanivelona Griswold 1990: 182   ; Platnick 2011.

Types: Holotype and two paratype females from Fanivelona (Ambinanysakaleona)   , 20°32′S, 48°33′E, Fianarantsoa District, Madagascar (September; no collector data), deposited in AMNH, examined. GoogleMaps  

Diagnosis: Male with palp as in Figures 18A–C View Figure 18 and 27A–D View Figure 27 , bulb short, length less than 1.5 times width, cymbium projects retrolaterally beyond bulb, conductor apex pointed, reflexed back toward centre of bulb, median apophysis slender, cylindrical, length greater than five times width. Epigynum as in Figures 35A View Figure 35 and 41C View Figure 41 , ML oval, width about twice length, copulatory openings exposed, large, round, LTR recurved; spermathecae as in Figures 35B, C View Figure 35 and 41D View Figure 41 , each trilobed, copulatory ducts median.

Male (Vohiparara, CASENT9016960): Note: the male is described here for the first time. Total length 4.90. Markings similar to Figure 9D–F View Figure 9 , carapace orangebrown, margin of pars thoracica dusky, with broad, dusky, V-shaped mark anteriad of thoracic fovea and dusky longitudinal band on each side extending anteriorly along pars cephalica; black pigment surrounding each eye and extending between AM and between lateral eyes; chelicerae, sternum, labium, coxae, legs,

and palpi yellow-brown, legs unmarked; abdomen (femur + patella + tibia + metatarsus + tarsus = [total]): grey-brown, dorsum with paired dark markings pos- I: 2.81 + 0.93 + 2.43 + 2.31 + 1.06 = [9.54]; II: 2.19 + teriorly, venter with pair of bold, entire, longitudinal 0.81 + 1.69 + 1.69 + 1.00 = [7.38]; III: 1.81 + 0.69 + light bands. Carapace 2.20 long, 1.60 wide; thoracic 1.31 + 1.38 + 0.88 = [6.07]; IV: 2.43 + 0.81 + 1.94 + fovea 0.22 long, length 0.14 times that of carapace; 1.94 + 1.06 = [8.18]; palp: 0.88 + 0.44 + 0.50 + (absent) clypeus 0.14 high; ocular area 0.32 long, 0.62 wide; + 1.06 = [2.88]. Epigynum as in Figures 35A View Figure 35 and 41C View Figure 41 , ratio of eyes AM/AL/PM/PL, 1.09:2.54:1.00:1.27, ML oval, narrow, width 2.07 times length, posterior diameter of PM 0.11. Chelicerae 0.76 long, slender, margin procurved, rebordered posteriorly, copulatory smooth, promargin of fang furrow with two small and opening exposed; spermathecae as in Figures 35B, C View Figure 35 three large, retromargin with seven small teeth. and 41D, anterior margin of each with two lobes, with Sternum 1.14 long, 1.00 wide; labium 0.34 long and median copulatory duct leading to slender, median wide; palpal coxa 0.60 long, 0.34 wide. Legs elongate, chamber with large poreplate at base, laterally a femur I length 1.30 times carapace length; metatar- bilobed chamber. sus I prolateral concavity and clasping spine as in Figures 44D, E View Figure 44 and 51H, I View Figure 51 . Leg measurements Variation (N = 5): Total length 4.60–5.94; carapace (femur + patella + tibia + metatarsus + tarsus = [total]): length 1.32–1.46 times width, height 0.34–0.48 times I: 2.85 + 0.95 + 3.00 + 2.75 + 1.15 = [10.70]; II: 2.35 + width; PER width 2.57–3.71 times OAL; OQP 1.23– 0.85 + 1.95 + 2.00 + 0.95 = [8.10]; III: 1.90 + 0.70 + 1.35 times OQA; clypeal height 1.50–2.20 times AM 1.55 + 1.70 + 0.85 = [6.70]; IV: 2.50 + 0.80 + 2.25 + diameter; cheliceral length 4.09–5.67 times clypeal 2.35 + 1.00 = [8.90]; palp: 1.05 + 0.40 + 0.45 + (absent) height, pro- and retromargins of fang furrow with 6–7 + 0.80 = [2.70]. Palpal femur with six probasal thorn- teeth; sternum length 1.10–1.33 times width; femur I like setae ( Fig. 9F View Figure 9 ); palp as in Figures 18A–C View Figure 18 and length 1.03–1.42 times carapace length; metatarsus I 27A–D, tibial DTA inrolled, projecting retrodorsally length 0.88–1.21 times carapace length. ( Figs 18C View Figure 18 , 27B View Figure 27 ); bulb short, length less than 1.5 times width, cymbium projects retrolaterally beyond bulb, Natural history: Specimens have been collected in the conductor apex pointed, reflexed back toward centre leaf axils of large Pandanus   trees in swamp forest, of bulb, median apophysis slender, cylindrical, length where they made small, irregular cribellate sheet greater than five times width. webs between appressed leaf bases.

Variation (N = 5): Total length 4.00–5.60; carapace length 1.21–1.38 times width, height 0.30–0.41 times width; thoracic fovea length 0.22–0.24 times that of carapace; PER width 1.94–2.88 times OAL; OQP 1.21–1.30 times OQA; clypeal height 1.27–1.56 times AM diameter; cheliceral length 5.14–5.56 times clypeal height, promargin of fang furrow with 5–6 teeth, retromargin of fang furrow with 6–7 teeth; sternum length 1.14–1.23 times width; femur I length 1.29–1.49 times carapace length; metatarsus I length 1.23–1.37 times carapace length.

Female (paratype): Total length 5.94. Markings similar to male. Carapace 2.34 long, 1.66 wide, margin entire; thoracic fovea deep, narrowed posteriorly, length 0.12 times that of carapace; clypeus 0.18 high; ocular area 0.29 long, 0.82 wide; ratio of eyes AM/AL/PM/PL, 1.00:1.50:1.17:1.50, diameter of PM 0.11. Chelicerae 1.06 long, robust, smooth, promargin of fang furrow with six teeth, retromargin with four large and two minute teeth. Sternum 1.25 long, 1.00 wide, apex a right angle; labium 0.47 long, 0.44 wide; palpal coxa 0.78 long, 0.41 wide. Femur I length 1.20 times carapace length. Palpal femur with row of eight stout anterobasal setae set in enlarged bases ( Fig. 51D View Figure 51 ). Calamistrum origin at 0.42 from metatarsus base, length 0.31 that of segment. Leg measurements Distribution: Known only from Fianarantsoa Province in the eastern rainforests of south central Madagascar ( Fig. 58).

Material examined: MADAGASCAR: Fianarantsoa Prov., Fanivelona (Ambinanysakaleona)   , 20°32′S; 48°33′E (September; no collector data), 1 ♂, holotype, 2 ♀, paratypes ( AMNH); Ranomafana National Park, Vohiparara, Piste Touristique , 21°13.6′S, 47°24.0′E, elev. c. 1000 m, on Pandanus   , 19 April 1998, C. Griswold, D. Kavanaugh, N. Penny, D. Ubick, M. Raherilalao, J. Schweikert & S. Ranorainarisoa, 8 ♂, 7 ♀, CASC ( CASENT9016975, 9016960, 9016974, 9016971, 9016239, 9016967, 9016968, 9016973, 9016980, 9016966, 9016970, 9016969, 9016961, 9016972), on tree fern, 26–27 April 1998, C. Griswold, D. Kavanaugh, N. Penny, D. Ubick, M. Raherilalao, J. Schweikert & S. Ranorainarisoa, 1 ♂, CASC ( CASENT9032835); Vohiparara village , 21°12.8′S, 47°23.0′E, elev. c. 1100 m, 24–25 April 1998, C. Griswold, D. Kavanaugh, N. Penny, D. Ubick, M. Raherilalao, J. Schweikert & S. Ranorainarisoa, 1 ♀, CASC ( CASENT9016976); c. 2 km N Vohiparara village, at road cut, 21°14.8′S, 47°235.7′E, elev. c. 1100 m, 24–25 April 1998, C. Griswold, D. Kavanaugh, N. Penny, D. Ubick, M. Raherilalao, J. Schweikert & S. Ranorainarisoa, 9 ♀, CASC ( CASENT9016962, 9016963, 9016236, 9016979, 9016965, 9016978, 9016964); Ranomafana National Park , Talatakely, 21°15′S, 47°26′E, elev. 915–1000 m, 30 October–20 November 1998, V GoogleMaps   . Lee & K. Ribardo, 1 ♀, CASC ( CASENT9016237), Talatakely, 21°14.9′S, 47°25.6′E, 19–30 April 1998, C. Griswold, D. Kavanaugh, N. Penny, D. Ubick, M. Raherilalao, J. Schweikert & S. Ranorainarisoa, 1 ♀, CASC ( CASENT9016977); Ranomafana National Park , Vatoharanana , 21°16.7′S, 47°26.1′E, elev. c. 1200 m, primary forest, 15 April 1998, C. Griswold, D. Kavanaugh, N. Penny, D. Ubick, M. Raherilalao, J. Schweikert & S. Ranorainarisoa, 1 ♀, CASC ( CASENT9016238) GoogleMaps   .

AM

Australian Museum

PI

Paleontological Institute

PMS

Peabody Essex Museum

AC

Amherst College, Beneski Museum of Natural History

CY

Centre des Yersinia

CA

Chicago Academy of Sciences

ML

Musee de Lectoure

LTR

University of Leicester

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Phyxelididae

Loc

Rahavavy

Griswold, Charles E., Wood, Hannah Marie & Carmichael, Anthea D. 2012
2012
Loc

Phyxelida fanivelona

Griswold CE 1990: 182
1990