Manampoka, Griswold & Wood & Carmichael, 2012, Griswold & Wood & Carmichael, 2012

Griswold, Charles E., Wood, Hannah Marie & Carmichael, Anthea D., 2012, The lace web spiders (Araneae, Phyxelididae) of Madagascar: phylogeny, biogeography and taxonomy, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 164 (4), pp. 728-810: 796-797

publication ID 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2011.00779.x

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Type species: Manampoka atsimo   sp. nov., here designated.

Etymology: The generic name is from the Malagasy verb meaning to surprise, and is feminine in gender.

Note: These large phyxelidids resemble Ambohima   but possess a mosaic of derived characters. Like other Malagasy phyxelidids the male metatarsal claspers are prolateral ( Fig. 44A–C View Figure 44 ), not retrolateral, as in African and Asian phyxelidids. The presence of a clasper on male metatarsus II is a potential synapomorphy shared with Ambohima   and the female vulva ( Fig. 26H View Figure 26 ) with an anterodorsally projecting capsule containing an internal spiral chamber is a potential synapomorphy with Rahavavy   . In some molecular phylogenetic analyses this species grouped with Rahavavy   , but never with high support values, and it never grouped with Ambohima   . As morphological data are equivocal, we propose a separate, new genus for this surprising species.

Diagnosis: Males have a unique combination of characters: the palpal bulb ( Figs 17A–C View Figure 17 , 26A–F View Figure 26 ) has a small median apophysis (like Rahavavy   but unlike Ambohima   ) and male metatarsi II ( Fig. 44A–C View Figure 44 ) and probably I (legs I are missing from the unique male) have a prolateral, spinule-lined concavity at midsegment, with a short, prolateral process surmounted by a stout clasping spine at the base of this concavity (like Ambohima   but unlike Rahavavy   ). The female vulva ( Fig. 26H View Figure 26 ) is like that of most Rahavavy   in having an anterodorsally projecting capsule containing an internal spiralled chamber. The epigynum ( Fig. 26G View Figure 26 ) differs from Ambohima   in that the anterior margins of the median lobe are transverse rather than oblique, and from Rahavavy   in that the external copulatory openings are large and the median lobe is prolonged posteriorly.

Synapomorphies: The cuspule-like median apophysis on the male palpal bulb ( Figs 17A, C View Figure 17 , 26B View Figure 26 ) and male palpal tibia with a retrolateral lobe of the apex ( RL)

that is longer than the dorsal tibial apophysis ( DTA) ( Fig. 26D View Figure 26 ) are synapomorphies for Manampoka   .

Description: Total length 5.40–7.00. Carapace length 1.30–1.38 times width, height 0.30–0.49 width, thoracic fovea length twice width, length 0.06–0.20 carapace length; PER straight to slightly recurved, AER straight, ocular area width 2.50–3.10 times length; clypeal height 1.40–2.20 times AM diameter; chelicerae smooth, length 4.60–5.50 times clypeal height, with small basal boss, pro- and retromargins of fang furrow with 5–7 heterogeneous teeth; sternum length 1.02–1.36 times width, posterior apex a blunt point; labium rectangular. Legs elongate, female femur I length 1.70–2.00 times carapace length, male femur II 2.40 times carapace length; leg formula 1423; male metatarsi II ( Fig. 44A–C View Figure 44 ) (and probably I) having prolateral, spinule-lined concavity at midsegment, at base of concavity a short, prolateral process surmounted by stout clasping spine, legs otherwise unmodified; metatarsi lacking apical combs; calamistrum subapical, origin at 0.45 from metatarsus base, length 0.55 that of segment. Male spination: palp: femur d0-0-0-1; leg I: (unknown); leg II: femur d1-1- 0-0, p0-1-1-1, r0-1-1–1, tibia p0-1-1-0, r0-1-1-1, metatarsus d1-0-0-0, p0-1(clasper)-0–1, v2-0-0-1, r0-0-0-1; leg III: femur d1-1-0-0, p0-0-1–1, r0-1-1–1, patella d0-1, tibia d1-0-0-0, p0-1-1-0, r0-0-0-1, metatarsus d1-0-0-0, p0-1-0-1, v1-2-0-2; leg IV: femur d1-1-0-0, r0-0-0-1, tibia d1-1-1-0, p0-0-1-0, v0-0-0-1, metatarsus d1-1-0-0, p0-0-0-1, r0-0-0-1, v1-0-1–1. Female spination: palp: femur d0-0-1–1, patella d0-0-1, tibia d0-0- 0-1, p0-1-1-0, tarsus p1-0-2–2-3, v0-0-0-1-1-1-1-1-1, r1-0-0-1-0; leg I: femur d1-0-0-0, p0-1-1-1, r0-0-1–1, tibia p0-1-1-0, v0-0-2-0, r0-1-1-0, metatarsus p1-0-0-1, v1-0-2-2, r1-0-0-0; leg II: femur d1-1-1-0, p0-1-1–1, r0-1-1–1-1, tibia d1-0-0-0, p0-1-1-0, v0-1-0-2, r0-1-1-0, metatarsus p1-0-0-1, v0-0-2–2, r0-1-0-0; leg III: femur d1-1-0-0, p0-0-0-1, r0-0-0-1, tibia d1-0-0-0, p0-1-1-0, v0-1-0-2, r0-1-1-0, metatarsus p0-1-1–1, v2-0-2–2, r0-1-1-0; leg IV: femur d1-1-1-0, r0-0-0-1, tibia p0-1- 1-0, v0-0-0-2, r0-1-1-0, metatarsus p0-1-0-0, v1-2-1–2. Tracheae not examined. Spinnerets not examined with SEM but light microscopic examination suggests that these are typical of Phyxelidini   , e.g. divided cribellum, an encircling row of paracribellar spigots on the PMS, and a black, stout seta retroapically on the PLS. Palpal femur with anterobasal group of slender setae set in enlarged bases ( Fig. 26F View Figure 26 ); male palpal tibia ( Fig. 26D, E View Figure 26 ) with dorsoapical blade ( DTA) and retroapical lobe ( RL); palpal bulb ( Figs 17A–C View Figure 17 , 26A–C View Figure 26 ) length twice width, embolus base retromedian, reservoir course in embolus base straight except initial loop, embolus a slender threadlike spine, lamellar pars pendula slender, conductor greatly hypertrophied, with embolic groove completely encircling bulb, apex pointing retrolaterally; median apophysis a small, pointed cuspule, arising retromedially near embolus base. Epigynum ( Fig. 26G View Figure 26 ) with broad, semicircular median lobe ( ML), anterior margins transverse, copulatory openings large; vulva ( Fig. 26H, I View Figure 26 ) with copulatory ducts arising mesally, extending laterally to enter vulval capsule posteriorly, large poreplate posteriorly on vulval capsule, anterodorsally projecting capsule containing internal spiral chamber, fertilization duct posterior.

Composition: One species.

Distribution: Known only from the type locality in Parc National Andohahela, southern Madagascar ( Fig. 59 View Figure 59 ).


Australian Museum


Peabody Essex Museum


Musee de Lectoure