Phragmatopoma carlosi, Chávez-López, 2020
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Phragmatopoma carlosi n. sp.
Figures 9 View FIGURE 9 A–J, 12C
Sabellaria californica not Fewkes, 1889.— Rioja 1942: 160–161, figs. 18–25 (Mazatlán, Sinaloa and Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico).
Phragmatopoma californica (not Fewkes, 1889).— Villalobos-Guerrero & Molina-Acevedo 2014: 106 (checklist of polychaetes from Sinaloa, Mexico).
Type material. Holotype: ECOSUR0231 View Materials , Mazatlán , 23°14’15”N, 106°26’43”W, Sinaloa, Mexico, northern Mexican Pacific, September 25, 1980, coll. J.A. de León-González GoogleMaps ; Paratypes: ECOSUR0232 View Materials , eight spec. from Mazatlán , Sinaloa, same as holotype .
Additional material: four specimens. Nayarit: ECOSUR-P3098, one spec. ( Punta Borrego , 21°31’27”N, 105°16’44”W, November 24, 2004); GoogleMaps ECOSUR-P3099, three spec. (La Manzanilla, 20°44’36”N, 105°23’13”W, November 29, 2004) GoogleMaps .
Description. Color pattern of preserved specimens. Body pale yellow ( Fig. 9A View FIGURE 9 ). Outer paleae with amber blade and dark amber handle dark; median plume translucent ( Fig 9D View FIGURE 9 ). Middle paleae cherry with handle amber ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 E–F); paleae of the mid-ventral section with amber tip ( Fig. 9F View FIGURE 9 ). Inner paleae amber ( Fig. 9G View FIGURE 9 ). Opercular papillae pale yellow with light brown spots in the center. Median ridge with brown eyespots ( Fig. 9C View FIGURE 9 ). Tentacles light brown ( Fig. 9C View FIGURE 9 ). Building organ and branchiae pale yellow. Third parathoracic segment with brown spots, in ventral region. Parathoracic chaetae yellowish ( Fig. 9H View FIGURE 9 ). Abdominal neuropodia with a series of brown spots. Abdominal neurochaetae and uncini translucent ( Fig. 9I View FIGURE 9 ). Caudal peduncle pale yellow with brown lateral spots.
Body. Complete specimen of 27 mm total length; parathoracic region 1.2 mm wide; 37 abdominal segments; peduncle caudal incomplete ( Fig. 9A View FIGURE 9 ).
Operculum. Opercular crown and opercular stalk completely fused. Opercular crown conical and sub-circular, protruding in lateral view ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 A–B). Three rows of paleae, only two visible: ~56 outer paleae, 31 middle and inner paleae. Outer paleae geniculate with a pair of heterodont teeth, one straight and another curved; flat blade twice longer than wide, serrated margin, without transversal thecae visible; median plume short, almost ½ as long as blade, rounded, longer than wide, filamentous with thin filaments, ½ as long as plume ( Fig. 9D View FIGURE 9 ). Middle paleae strongly geniculate of two different shapes, depending on its position in the opercular crown; straight peak slightly concave with transversal thecae; sub-quadrangular nape, decurrent in dorsal paleae ( Fig. 9E View FIGURE 9 ) and straight in the ventral ( Fig. 9F View FIGURE 9 ), with serrated surface; nape slightly wider than the peak, and short, ¼ as long as peak; small chin, as long as wide, margin serrated; sharp tip falcate in dorsal paleae ( Fig. 9E View FIGURE 9 ), blunted tip, almost straight in the ventral ( Fig. 9F View FIGURE 9 ). Inner paleae strongly geniculate, serrated, slightly elevated peak, eight times longer than wide, and transversal thecae present; nape smooth; tip with filaments ( Fig. 9G View FIGURE 9 ). Dorsal inner paleae longer than ventral paleae. Papillae long and oval ( Fig. 9C View FIGURE 9 ). Oral tentacles unbranched. Median ridge short, 1/3 as long as opercular stalk, with eyespots ( Fig. 9C View FIGURE 9 ). Median organ absent. Building organ ‘U’- shaped.
Thorax. Chaetiger 1 with a pair of neuropodial capillary chaetae. Chaetiger 2 with a pair of conical cirrus, neuropodia with capillary chaetae and a pair of branchiae.
Parathorax. Three parathoracic segments. Chaetiger with a pair of branchiae. Notopodia with lanceolate chaetae interspersed with longer capillary chaetae. Neuropodia with lanceolate chaetae interspersed with small lanceolate chaetae ( Fig. 9H View FIGURE 9 ); neurochaetae thinner than notochaetae.
Abdomen. Segments with a pair of branchiae decreasing in size towards posterior segments. Neurochaetae verticillate of different length. Notopodia with a series of uncini with seven pairs of teeth ( Fig. 9I View FIGURE 9 ).
Caudal region. Caudal peduncle elastic and smooth, broken ( Fig. 9A View FIGURE 9 ).
Tubes. Tubes with coarse-grained sand, principally fragments of shells ( Fig. 12C View FIGURE 12 ).
Variation. Body measurements varied from 16–30 mm total length, parathoracic region 2–3 mm wide and caudal peduncle 2–3 mm long (n= 3 spec.). The number of paleae varied between 40–71 in outer paleae and 20–31 in middle paleae. The number of abdominal segments varied from 34–36. One specimen with three longer papillae in the lateral region, almost twice longer than others, covering the outer paleae ( Fig. 9J View FIGURE 9 ).
Distribution. Northeastern Mexican Pacific, from Mazatlán Sinaloa to La Manzanilla, Nayarit ( Fig. 13 View FIGURE 13 ).
Etymology. This new species is named after the author’s father, Carlos Chávez González.
Remarks. Of all species of the genus Phragmatopoma , P. carlosi n. sp. is more similar to P. digitata and P. balbinae n. sp. The three species have outer paleae with filamentous plume; however, the blade in P. carlosi n. sp. is twice as long than wide ( Fig. 9D View FIGURE 9 ) and not three times as long than wide as in P. digitata ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 E–F) or 1/3 longer than wide as in P. balbinae n. sp. ( Fig. 8D View FIGURE 8 ).
The morphology of sub-quadrangular decurrent nape in the middle paleae of P. carlosi n. sp. is shared only with P. balbinae n. sp., but in P. carlosi n. sp. the morphology of middle paleae vary depending on its position in the opercular crown ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 E–F), while in P. balbinae morphology is the same ( Fig. 8E View FIGURE 8 ) and only the size vary. Another difference is that P. carlosi n. sp. has inner paleae with straight peak longer (8 times longer than wide, Fig. 9G View FIGURE 9 ) than the elevated peak of P. balbinae n. sp. (5 times longer than wide, Fig. 8F View FIGURE 8 ).
Rioja (1942) recorded Sabellaria californica from Mazatlán, Sinaloa and Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico. He described and illustrated the morphology of opercular paleae, including middle paleae with decurrent nape, similar to that in Hartman (1944) description of P. californica , but with peak very curved in the distal end ( Fig. 6S View FIGURE 6 ), and inner paleae with straight peak ( Fig. 6T View FIGURE 6 ) and not decurrent as Hartman’s specimens ( Fig. 6B View FIGURE 6 ). However, the major difference is in median plume of outer paleae, “decorated with 12–18 digitate prolongation” in Rioja’s (1942, Fig. 6V View FIGURE 6 ) specimens, and not plumose as Hartman’s description ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 E–F) or covering of slender filaments as in my specimens ( Fig. 3E View FIGURE 3 ) of P. californica . The morphology of the outer and inner paleae of Rioja’s (1942, Fig. 6T, V View FIGURE 6 ) specimens is similar to that of P. carlosi n. sp. with filamentous median plume ( Fig. 9D View FIGURE 9 ) and straight peak ( Fig. 9G View FIGURE 9 ) respectively, and it is possible that the specimens recorded by Rioja (1942) as S. californica belong to P. carlosi n. sp.
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