Siro crassus, Novak, Tone & Giribet, Gonzalo, 2006

Novak, Tone & Giribet, Gonzalo, 2006, A new species of Cyphophthalmi (Arachnida, Opiliones, Sironidae) from Eastern Slovenia, Zootaxa 1330, pp. 27-42 : 29-36

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.174196

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:2D4E93BB-A54E-43CF-B77F-EF4D690E2FE2

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5664996

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/1F359E1A-C2C0-4310-BA98-9D0920F55421

taxon LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:act:1F359E1A-C2C0-4310-BA98-9D0920F55421

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Siro crassus
status

sp. n.

Siro crassus   sp. n.

Figs 1–32 View FIGURE 1 View FIGURE 2 View FIGURE 3 View FIGURES 4 – 5 View FIGURES 6 – 13 View FIGURES 14 – 17 View FIGURES 18 – 27 View FIGURES 28 – 30 View FIGURES 31 – 32

Holotype: ♂ from Velika Slavšina (46.533263 °N, 15.960520 °E; 290 m altitude), Slovenia, UTM code WM 75 ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ), 09.VI. 1984, wet deep beech litter sieving, L. Slana, M. Ferenc & T. Novak leg. (TN 310 / 2002). Paratypes: ibid., 2 ♂, 1 Ψ (TN 310 / 2002); ibid., 13.X. 2005, deep solid humic soil near beech roots, L. Slana Novak & T. Novak leg.: 2 Ψ (TN 139 / 2005); ibid., 15.X. 2005: 1 ♂, 1 Ψ (TN 140 / 2005); Šega near Makole (46.300144 °N, 15.659478 °E; 350 m altitude), UTM: WM53, 09.IV. 1983, forest floor, L. Slana, M. Štangelj & T. Novak leg.: 1 ♂ (LS 362 / 1985, rev. TN 2006). Holotype, 2 ♂ paratypes and 2 Ψ paratypes deposited in the Prirodoslovni muzej Slovenije, Ljubljana, Slovenia; ex collection T. Novak & L. Slana Novak (TN 310 / 2002; TN 139 / 2005). 1 ♂ ( MCZ 68552 View Materials , ex TN 140 / 2005) and 1 Ψ ( MCZ 68553 View Materials , ex TN 140 / 2005) paratypes mounted for SEM and used for DNA analysis ( MCZ DNA 101802, ex TN 140 / 2005) deposited in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University (Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA); 1 ♂ (LS 362 / 1985) and 1 Ψ (TN 139 / 2005) in the Naturhistorisches Museum Wien ( Austria).

Etymology: From Latin adjective crassus   , meaning solid or thick. The species epithet refers to the body shape of the new species, which is relatively large and robust for a member of the genus Siro   .

Diagnosis: Relatively large, 2.2–2.6 mm in length ( Figs 2–5 View FIGURE 2 View FIGURE 3 View FIGURES 4 – 5 ), long-legged and robust Siro   species with elongated leg IV so that patella IV surpasses the posterior end of the opisthosoma ( Figs 2 View FIGURE 2 , 3 View FIGURE 3 ). Corona analis of male broad ( Figs 2 View FIGURE 2 b, 4, 8); corona analis of female protruding, with a concentration of lateral setae on the sides ( Figs 3 View FIGURE 3 b, 5, 9, 11). Anal plate of male and female with a longitudinal median keel ( Figs 8–9 View FIGURES 6 – 13 ); tergite VIII of male with three anal gland pores ( Fig. 10 View FIGURES 6 – 13 ). Metatarsi of legs I–IV completely ornamented with a tuberculate surface (sensu Murphree 1988) ( Figs 18, 20, 22, 24, 27 View FIGURES 18 – 27 ).

Description: Total length of male holotype (in mm) (female paratype TN 310 / 2002 in parentheses) 2.29 (2.48); largest body width in prosoma behind ozophores: 1.32 (1.39); width across ozophores 1.05 (1.15); body length/width ratio 1.73 (1.78). Body orangebrown (dark to strong brown according to the Munsell’s Color Charts (2000): 7.5 YR 3 / 3–7.5 YR 4 / 6) in life and in ethanol ( Figs 2 View FIGURE 2 , 3 View FIGURE 3 ). Anterior margin of dorsal scutum slightly concave; prosomal region almost semicircular. Eyes absent. Ozophores conical, of type II (sensu Juberthie 1970), with subterminal ozopore 1 and with spiral ornamentation of ozophore (sensu de Bivort & Giribet 2004). Transverse prosomal sulcus V-like; transverse opisthosomal sulci inconspicuous ( Figs 2 View FIGURE 2 a, 3 a). Dorsal scutum convex; maximum width in prosomal area behind ozophores. Opisthosomal part of dorsal shield slightly wider than ventral side.

Ventral prosomal complex of males ( Figs 2 View FIGURE 2 b, 4, 6) with coxae I, II and IV meeting in the midline, the later for a distance longer than the gonostome length; coxae II and IV with broad endites; coxae III not meeting in the midline; coxal pores clearly visible between coxae III and IV. Projections of coxae IV endite present in the anterior portion of the gonostome wall. Coxae II free, not fused to coxae III–IV. Ventral prosomal complex of female ( Figs 3 View FIGURE 3 b, 5, 7) only with coxae I and II meeting along the midline; coxae II with large endites; coxal pores not observed. Male gonostome sub-semicircular, with slightly concave posterior margin, wider than long (0.152 x 0.109 mm), and delimited laterally and antero-laterally by the elevated endites of coxae IV ( Fig. 6 View FIGURES 6 – 13 ). Female gonostome semicircular anteriorly, wider than long (0.183 x 0.116 mm) ( Fig. 7 View FIGURES 6 – 13 ). Gonostome of female forming a tube angled at about 45 ° from the body surface, as in Stylocellus globosus Schwendinger & Giribet, 2004   (see Schwendinger et al. 2004). Spiracles ( Fig. 12 View FIGURES 6 – 13 ) of circular type (sensu Giribet & Boyer 2002), circular to oval in shape in male, oval in female, with a maximum diameter of 0.048 and 0.069 mm, respectively.

Ventral opisthosomal region of male without conspicuous modifications or gland openings. Opisthosomal tergite IX and sternites 8 and 9 fused into a broad, low corona analis in males ( Figs 8 View FIGURES 6 – 13 ), and into a protruding corona analis with a concentration of long lateral setae in females ( Figs 9, 11 View FIGURES 6 – 13 ). Anal plate oval, 0.299 mm (in males) and 0.309 (in females) mm wide; in males with a high, thin medial ridge, in female individuals with a less conspicuous one; ridge with setae ( Figs 8, 9 View FIGURES 6 – 13 ). Three anal gland pores on tergite VIII of males ( Fig. 10 View FIGURES 6 – 13 ). Cuticle with tuberculate-microgranular surface (sensu Murphree 1988; this is referred to as “ornamented” hereafter), nearly uniform in dorsal areas and in ventral areas including coxae; tuberculate elements typically elongated behind gonostome and around spiracles. An additional microtuberculate pattern present in the ventral opisthosomal region where different segments merge ( Fig. 13 View FIGURES 6 – 13 ), possibly indicating the location of arthrodial membranes during postembryonic development.

Chelicerae ( Fig. 14 View FIGURES 14 – 17 ) relatively short and robust; basal article in males 1.13 mm long, 0.28 mm wide, with a ventral process, but without a conspicuous dorsal crest; second article 1.04 mm long, 0.19 mm wide; movable finger 0.38 mm long; all articles with few setae, the proximal one almost entirely granulated; 9 uniform denticles on the cutting edge of each cheliceral finger ( Fig. 15 View FIGURES 14 – 17 ). Second cheliceral segment not ornamented.

Palp ( Fig. 16 View FIGURES 14 – 17 ) 1.93 mm long, smooth, slightly ornamented on coxa and trochanter. Measurements of palpal articles in male holotype, length/width (L/W ratio) in mm: Trochanter 0.249 / 0.108 (2.31), femur 0.521 / 0.106 (4.92), patella 0.355 / 0.093 (3.82), tibia 0.403 / 0.087 (4.63), tarsus 0.347 / 0.089 (3.90); claw 0.05 mm long ( Fig. 17 View FIGURES 14 – 17 ).

Legs ( Figs 18–27 View FIGURES 18 – 27 ; Table 1 View TABLE 1 ) relatively long and robust. Leg I of holotype longer than leg II; leg I of female paratype TN 310 / 2002 slightly shorter than leg II. Except for the tarsi, all articles ornamented on legs I–IV. Tarsus IV of male entire, with a broad adenostyle ( Figs 24, 26 View FIGURES 18 – 27 ) (0.067 / 0.050 mm), subcylindrical at the base, with lateral pore; distal margin at 41 % of tarsal length. Claws hooked, smooth, without dentition or lateral pegs ( Figs 19, 21, 23, 25 View FIGURES 18 – 27 ).

Spermatopositor ( Figs 28–30 View FIGURES 28 – 30 ) short, typical of sironids, smooth, measuring 0.272 / 0.144 mm; movable fingers 0.015 mm long, slightly curved outwards, ending as hooks ( Fig. 28 View FIGURES 28 – 30 , see arrow; nearly straight and one behind the other), shorter than the membranous median lobe; microtrichial formula: 3, 14, 6 + 6 (n = 1). Gonopore complex not observed.

Ovipositor ( Figs 31–32 View FIGURES 31 – 32 ) 1.37 mm long, typical of Siro   (see Juberthie 1967 a), composed of two apical lobes and 31 circular articles (n = 1), each with 8 short setae equal in length; these setae slightly longer on the 2 nd and 3 rd subterminal articles, and about three times longer on the terminal circular article; most-basal article without setae. Apical lobes each with a long terminal seta and 12–13 setae slightly increasing in length towards the tip; sensitive processes with 2–3 branches carrying 5–6 simple and 2–3 bifurcate setae. Receptaculum seminis in proximal half of apical lobe, elongated, consisting of two sacs. The largest of several eggs: 0.58 mm long, 0.45 mm wide.

Variation: Range of body length: Males (n = 5), and females (n = 4) in parentheses: 2.20–2.29 (2.40–2.61).

Distribution and ecology: So far this species has been found in two localities in northeastern Slovenia ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ). In 1984, four S. crassus   sp. n. and four C. duricorius   (TN 311 / 2002) specimens were collected, found syntopically within 20–30 cm deep, wet, undecomposed leaf litter of European beech ( Fagus sylvatica Linnaeus, 1753   ) covering a shallow natural ditch with trickling water. In 2005, a dozen of microhabitat types were systematically investigated at the type locality, and four further specimens of S. crassus   sp. n. were found, but only in deep solid humic soil (color according to Munsell’s Color Charts (2000): 10 YR 1 / 1) near beech roots.

Sex ratio: So far 5 males and 4 females were found, nearing a 1: 1 sex ratio.

TABLE 1. Leg measurements (in mm) in Siro crassus sp. n. Measurements refer to male holotype (female paratype in parentheses).

Leg Trochanter Femur Patella Tibia Metatarsus Tarsus Total
I 0.27 (0.20) 0.76 (0.70) 0.38 (0.38) 0.46 (0.46) 0.34 (0.28) 0.66 (0.52) 2.87 (2.54)
II 0.23 (0.25) 0.71 (0.66) 0.36 (0.35) 0.42 (0.45) 0.34 (0.30) 0.61 (0.61) 2.67 (2.62)
III 0.30 (0.24) 0.54 (0.55) 0.32 (0.30) 0.38 (0.39) 0.30 (0.26) 0.58 (0.53) 2.42 (2.27)
IV 0.37 (0.33) 0.68 (0.71) 0.39 (0.39) 0.42 (0.43) 0.32 (0.46) 0.63 (0.64) 2.81 (2.96)
MCZ

Museum of Comparative Zoology

DNA

Department of Natural Resources, Environment, The Arts and Sport

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Opiliones

Family

Sironidae

Genus

Siro