S. austroiranica Rech.f., Aell. & Esfand., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 75: 349. 1951.

Eggens, Frida, Jafari, Farzaneh, Thollesson, Mikael, Crameri, Simon, Zarre, Shahin & Oxelman, Bengt, 2020, Phylogeny and species delimitation in Silene sect. Arenosae (Caryophyllaceae): a new section, PhytoKeys 159, pp. 1-34 : 1

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S. austroiranica Rech.f., Aell. & Esfand., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 75: 349. 1951.


4. S. austroiranica Rech.f., Aell. & Esfand., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 75: 349. 1951.


[Iran], Lar. [Hormozgan] Hadjiabad prope Tarum, ca. 900 m, 29 April 1948, K.H. Rechinger, P. Aellen & E. Esfandiari 3386 (holotype: W! [W19800014919]; isotypes: G! [G00006016, G00006017], S! [S-G-8718]).


15.0-50.0 cm tall, erect. Stem pubescent in lower part, pubescent in upper part; with 3-5 distinct internodes, the uppermost internode 1.0-10.0 cm long and obviously longer than the next upper internode. Basal leaves oblanceolate 10.0-30.0 × 1.0-6.0 mm, pubescent. Cauline leaves oblanceolate 5.0-40.0 × 2.0-6.0 mm, pubescent. Calyx 12.0-16.0 mm long, campanulate at anthesis and clavate in fruit, glabrous or pubescent; teeth unequal; shorter ones 2.0-3.0 mm, ovate, acuminate; longer ones 2.0-4.0 mm, lanceolate, acuminate; marginal hairs long (longer than 0.5 mm). Inflorescence non-divaricate, branch axile (much) less than 90°. Petal claws 7.0-10.0 mm long, glabrous; limbs 5.0-6.0 mm long, divided, upper-surface white or pink, lobes linear, divergent, petal limbs cleft to middle or more; coronal scales 1.3-2.0 mm long, elliptic or obovate, apex slightly dentate. Anthophore 6.5-9.0 mm long, densely tomentose. Anthers exserted; filaments 8.0-12.0 mm long, glabrous. Styles exserted. First pedicel 1.0-3.0 cm in flower, 2.0-5.0 cm in fruit, erect, glabrous, apex antrorse. Capsule 5.5-8.0 mm long, oblong or ellipsoid, fragile, translucent. Seeds 0.5-0.8 mm wide, 0.5-0.7 mm high, testa smooth.


Arabian Peninsula, Kuwait, Iraq and Iran (Fig. 7 View Figure 7 ).


This species has rather long internodes, two to ten times the length of the subtending leaves (rarely of the same length). In particular, the uppermost internode is long, sometimes as long as 10 cm. Plants from the Riyadh area tend to have shorter upper internodes. The internodes are often viscid. The long internodes together with the relatively long coronal scales are the best characters for recognizing this species.

The specimens from Iran tend to have broader leaves than the other specimens, in particular the ones from the Arabian Peninsula.

The clade with the two S. austroiranica accessions is strongly supported in the species (PP = 1.00, Fig. 1 View Figure 1 ), ITS (PP = 1.00 MPB = 85% MLB = 98%, Fig. 3 View Figure 3 ) and rps16 trees (PP = 1.00 MPB = 94% MLB = 99%, Fig. 4 View Figure 4 ). The two accessions of S. austroiranica do not form a clade in RPB2 tree, probably due to difference in sequence length (one accession was 490 bp and another 140 bp: due to incomplete sequence read). In the RPB2 tree the S. austroiranica clade is nested within a clade including S. microsperma , S. exsudans , S. chaetodonta , S. striata Ehrenb. ex Rohrb. and S. georgievskyi (PP = 1.00 MPB = 93% MLB = 97%, Fig. 5 View Figure 5 ), but in the ITS phylogeny S. austroiranica and S. linearis are successive sisters to this clade (PP = 0.99 MPB = 75% MLB = 78% and PP = 0.95 MPB = 85% MLB = 88%, Fig. 3 View Figure 3 ).