Cryphalus dilutus Eichhoff, 1878a,

Johnson, Andrew J., Li, You, Mandelshtam, Michail Yu., Park, Sangwook, Lin, Ching-Shan, Gao, Lei & Hulcr, Jiri, 2020, East Asian Cryphalus Erichson (Curculionidae, Scolytinae): new species, new synonymy and redescriptions of species, ZooKeys 995, pp. 15-66: 15

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Cryphalus dilutus Eichhoff, 1878a


Cryphalus dilutus Eichhoff, 1878a  Figures 2BView Figure 2, 3BView Figure 3, 5A-IView Figure 5

Cryphalus dilutus  Eichhoff, 1878a: 384 (Myanmar); Eichhoff, 1878b: 490 (Myanmar).

Type material examined.

Myanmar • 1 ♂ Holotype; “Hindostan”; UFFE:14961; (NHMW).

Other material examined.

China • 1 ♀; Guangdong, Shenzhen, Yantian; 22.5889°N, 114.2842°E; 08 Apr. 2017; Wei Lin leg.; dissected; moved from vial 17740; DNA: 28S:MT431545, COI:MT431649; UFFE:33200 • 1 ♀; Guangdong, Shenzhen, Yantian; 22.5889°N, 114.2842°E; 08 Apr. 2017; Wei Lin leg.; UFFE:33240; ( UFFE) • 1 ♂; 深圳水库 [Shenzhen Reservoir]; 22.5945°N, 114.1797°E; 11 Jul. 2018; 阮用颖 [Yongying Ruan leg.]; light trap; UFFE:34064; ( UFFE) • 1 ♀, 1 ♂; Guangdong, Zhuhai, Shixi Park; 22.2847°N, 113.5539°E; 01 Aug. 2018; Wei Lin, and You Li leg.; UFFE:34963 ( IOZ, 1♀ IOZ(E)2057934, 1♂ IOZ(E)2057935) • 1 ♂; same collection data; dissected; UFFE:34684 ( UFFE) • 1 ♂; specific origin unknown; 17 Dec. 2013; ex. Ficus  ; Interception at USA, Oberlin, from shipment of Ficus  sp.; DNA: 28S:MG051102, COI:MG051150; UFFE:11994; ( UFFE) • 1 ♀; Yunnan, Jinghong, Yunnan Institute of Tropical Crops; 22°N, 100.78°E; 13 Mar. 2019; Quan Zhou, and Shengchang Lai leg.; 20190313008 trap; UFFE:34041; ( UFFE).

Mexico • 1 ♀; Tabasco, La Frontera; 18.6138°N, - 92.5749°E; 19 Aug. 2014; Thomas H. Atkinson, and S. Burgos leg.; ex. Mangifera indica  ; shaded-out branches, 3-5 cm. diameter; UFFE:14892; ( UFFE) • 1 ♂; same collection data; UFFE:14893; ( UFFE).

Oman • 1 ♀; Mar. 2005; Randy Ploetz leg.; ex. Mangifera indica  ; labelled: "Oman: III 2005; Randy Ploetz; Ex. Mangifera indica  "; UFFE:12479; ( FSCA).


This species can be diagnosed by the combination of the transverse carina on the male frons, by the pronotal margin which projects slightly, by the scale-like setae on the pronotal disc, by the barely apparent striae, and by the long spatula-shaped setae on the protibia and the spur on the mesofemur of males. The spine on the mesofemur is known exclusively in this species among all Scolytinae  .

Female. Length 1.50-2.20 mm. Proportions 2.05 × as long as wide. Frons simple, convex, with sparse but evenly distributed setae pointing towards its centre. Antennal club with three sutures on the basal half marked by coarse and long setae, the first weakly procurved, second and third more strongly procurved, and a weakly visible procurved line of coarse setae in the upper (distal) half. Antennal funiculus with four or five segments, the pedicel is slightly shorter than the other segments combined. Gular surface with evenly spaced hair-like setae. Pronotal colour brown, typically similar to head and elytra. Pronotal profile slightly triangular, widest in line with centre of pronotal disc. Pronotal margin rounded but protruding downward slightly, armed with four to eight serrations, the median pair distinctly larger, contiguous or separated by approximately half of their width, the outer pairs smaller separated by more than their width. Pronotal declivity with approximately 60 asperities. Pronotal disc approximately one third the length of the pronotum, gently sloped, with surface texture rugose/closely punctured, partially obscured by scale-like setae. Pronotal vestiture hair-like and dark coloured on anterior and lateral slope, and a mixture of blonde scale-like and bristle-like, on disc and postero-lateral regions, with the scale-like setae 1-2 × long as wide with a tridentate tip. Suture between pronotum and elytra weakly sinuate. Scutellum very small, barely visible when elytra closed. Elytra 1.6 × as long as pronotum, brown to translucent yellow-brown, broadly rounded with no clear elytral disc or a transition to the declivity. Striae barely visible as rows of punctures and hair-like setae. Interstrial bristles erect, coarse bristles, shorter towards the elytral suture, evenly distributed across elytra. Interstrial ground vestiture tridentate, approximately 1-2 × as long as wide, translucent brown with a weak iridescence, except the basal/anterior third of elytra which is blonde. Antero-lateral margin of elytra with some blonde hair-like setae, more dense than the interstrial bristles over the rest of the elytra. Protibiae and protarsi with only straight, hair-like setae. Mesocoxae moderately separated, more than distance between metacoxae. Mesofemur with a slightly raised patch in the centre of the ventral face. Proventriculus sutural teeth of irregular size, confused, in two or more longitudinal rows. Apical teeth extend laterally over the entire segment. Closing teeth weakly branched, tapered, extending beyond masticatory brush. Masticatory brush with fine teeth, short, less than half the proventricular length.

Male. Similar to female except: Length 1.50-2.20 mm (type is 1.67 mm). Frons with straight transverse carina and sulcus above the level of eyes. Pronotal profile triangular, protruding apically. Pronotal declivity almost flat (not broadly rounded). Protibiae and protarsi with large spatula-shaped setae. Mesofemur with a distinct spine in the centre of the ventral surface. Last abdominal ventrite clearly emarginated. Proventriculus same as female. Aedeagus long. Penis apodemes shorter than penis body. Tegmen with paired apodemes about as long as distance between them. End plates sclerotised.


China (Guangdong, Yunnan); Myanmar; also recorded from Malta; Italy; Tunisia; UAE; Oman; India; Pakistan; Bangladesh; Mexico (all Johnson et al. 2017).

Recorded plant hosts.

Anacardiaceae  : Mangifera indica  L.; Moraceae  : Ficus carica  L., F. retusa  L., F. microcarpa  L.f., Ficus bengalensis  L. (no new material from plant hosts, all cited in Johnson et al. 2017).

Suggested vernacular name.

Chinese: 刺足梢小蠹 [= spur-footed twig bark beetle]; English: Spurred bark beetle.


This species is associated with diseases of mango and die-off of edible fig. These new records confirm that it is widespread in Southern China; previously it was only known from an interception.














Cryphalus dilutus Eichhoff, 1878a

Johnson, Andrew J., Li, You, Mandelshtam, Michail Yu., Park, Sangwook, Lin, Ching-Shan, Gao, Lei & Hulcr, Jiri 2020

Cryphalus dilutus

Eichhoff 1878