Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. validum L. H. Bailey

McQuate, Grant T., Liquido, Nicanor J. & Nakamichi, Kelly A. A., 2017, Annotated World Bibliography of Host Plants of the Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), Insecta Mundi 2017 (527), pp. 1-339: 161-198

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5353580

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:AA9AB625-4CAB-49D9-A2AA-0C05F41E2076

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/9D17878B-6ED9-538A-EF80-FD3B3011F997

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. validum L. H. Bailey
status

 

Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. validum L. H. Bailey   , see Solanum lycopersicum L.   var. lycopersicum  

Lycopersicon lycopersicum   (L.) H. Karst., see Solanum lycopersicum L.   var. lycopersicum  

Lycopersicon lycopersicum   (L.) H. Karst. var. cerasiforme (Alef.) M. R. Almeida   , see Solanum lycopersicum L.   var. cerasiforme (Alef.) Fosberg  

Lycopersicon lycopersicum   (L.) H. Karst. var. pyriforme   auct., see Solanum lycopersicum L.   var. lycopersicum  

Lycopersicon lycopersicum   (L.) Kaarst. ex. Farw. see Solanum lycopersicum L.  

Lysopersicon esculentum   see Solanum lycopersicum L.  

Lycopersicon pyriforme Dunal   , see Solanum lycopersicum L.   var. lycopersicum  

Lycopersicon spp.   see Solanum   subsect. lycopersicon sp.

Lycopersicum esculeatissium Miller   see Solanum lycopersicum L.  

Maerua siamensis (Kurz) Pax   Family: Capparaceae Grin Nomen Number   : No listing in GRIN for this species; naming authority taken from The Plant List. This scientific name, however, is listed as an “unresolved name” by The Plant List. Field Infestation:

Allwood et al. 1999:

Thailand, Malaysia, Southern India

From fruit collections in 1992, B. cucurbitae   was recovered from 1 sample of M. siamensis   .

Infestation rate data were not given. Bactrocera cucurbitae   individuals were identified by R.A.I. Drew and D.L. Hancock.

Chinajariyawong et al. 2000:

Thailand

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was reared from 2 samples of M. siamensis   collected in Thailand.

No infestation rate data were given. Listing Only: CABI 2016 (listed as a wild host); Cantrell et al. 1999; De Meyer et al. 2014; Plantwise Knowledge Bank 2015.

Malpighia biflora Poir.   , see Malpighia glabra   L. Malpighia glabra   L.

Family: Malpighiaceae  

Grin Nomen Number   : 23206

Common Names: acerola (Spanish), escobillo (Spanish).

Native: NORTHERN AMERICA – South-Central U.S.A.: United States – Texas; Northern Mexico: Mexico – Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas; Southern Mexico: Mexico – Campeche, Chiapas, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Veracruz, Yucatan; SOUTHERN AMERICA – Caribbean: Cuba, Haiti, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Netherlands Antilles; Central America: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama; Northern South America: French Guiana, Venezuela; Brazil: Brazil – Bahia; Western South America: Colombia, Peru.

Cultivated: also cultivated.

Lab Infestation:

Iwaizumi et al. 1994:

Intact, mature M. glabra   fruits (listed as Malpighia grabra   ) were exposed to 10 gravid female B. cucurbitae   for 24 hours in a screen-net cage. An average (over three replications) of 97.0±38.9 adults was recovered. Fruits punctured several times with insect pins were similarly exposed to 10 gravid females, with an average recovery of 136.0±25.8 adult flies.

Synonyms: Malpighia biflora Poir.   , Malpighia punicifolia   L.

Malpighia punicifolia   L., see Malpighia glabra   L.

Malus dasyphylla Borkh.   , see Malus pumila Mill.  

Malus domestica Borkh.  

Family: Rosaceae  

Grin Nomen Number   : 104681

Common Names: Apfel (German), Apfelbaum (German), apple (English), äpple (Swedish), jabloko (transliterated Russian), jablonja (transliterated Russian), Kultur-Apfel (German), macieira (Portuguese), manzana (Spanish), manzano (Spanish), ping guo (transcribed Chinese), pommier commun (French), ringo (Japanese Rōmaji)   , sagwanamu (transcribed Korean).

Naturalized: Sometimes naturalized.

Cultivated: Cultivated.

Lab Infestation:

+ Back and Pemberton 1917:

Hawaii, U.S.A.

The authors stated that “Larvae hatching from eggs deposited by females in confinement in apples succeeded in the fruits of softer texture in reaching maturity.” Bactrocera cucurbitae   larvae emerging in M. domestica   fruits (listed as apples) of firmer texture failed to penetrate the pulp and died.

+ Back and Pemberton 1918:

Hawaii, U.S.A.

The authors stated that adult B. cucurbitae   have been reared from M. domestica   (listed as apple), but that apple does not serve regularly as a host; that it is attacked by melon fly only in rare instances, and then only slightly.

Listing Only: Chawla 1966 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Pyrus malus   L.); Dhillon et al. 2005a (listed as Pyrus malus   ); Kandybina 1987 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Kapoor 1970 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Pyrus malus   ); + Margosian et al. 2009 (listed as apple); McBride and Tanada 1949 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Pyrus malus   ); Narayanan and Batra 1960 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Pyrus malus   ); Oakley 1950 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Malus sylvestris   ); Phillips 1946 (listed as Pyrus malus   ); + Rajamannar 1962 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as soft apple); Syed 1971 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Pyrus malus   ); USDA 1986 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Pyrus sylvestris   , but also indicated that is the same species as Pyrus malus   , which is a synonym of Malus domestica   ); White and Elson-Harris 1992 (authors state “requires confirmation”).

Synonyms: Malus communis   , Malus malus   (L.) Britton, nom. inval., Malus pumila   auct., Malus pumila var. domestica (Borkh.) C. K. Schneid.   , Malus sylvestris   auct., Malus sylvestris var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.   , Pyrus malus   L.

Malus frutescens Medik.   , see Malus spp.  

Malus malus   (L.) Britton, nom. inval., see Malus domestica Borkh.  

Malus niedzwetzkyana Dieck   , see Malus pumila Mill.  

Malus paradisiaca   (L.) Medik., see Malus pumila Mill.  

Malus praecox Borkh.   , see Malus pumila Mill.  

Malus pumila   auct., see Malus domestica Borkh.  

Malus pumila var. domestica (Borkh.) C. K. Schneid.   , see Malus domestica Borkh.  

Malus pumila var. niedzwetzkyana (Dieck) C. K. Schneid.   , see Malus pumila Mill.  

Malus pumila var. paradisiaca   (L.) C. K. Schneid., see Malus pumila Mill.  

Malus pumila Mill.  

Family: Rosaceae  

Grin Nomen Number   : 23261

Common Names: Paradies-Apfel (German), paradise apple (English), pommier paradis (French).

Native: EUROPE – Middle Europe: Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia; East Europe: Russian Federation – European part; Southeastern Europe: Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia.

Cultivated: also cultivated.

Listing Only: USDA 1986 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; indicated as being the same species as Malus sylvestris   and Pyrus malus   ); USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CSDA 1984 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as both Malus sylvestris var. paradisiaca   and as Paradise apple; insufficient data to justify regulation).

Synonyms: Malus dasyphylla Borkh.   , Malus niedzwetzkyana Dieck   , Malus paradisiaca   (L.) Medik., Malus praecox Borkh.   , Malus pumila var. niedzwetzkyana (Dieck) C. K. Schneid.   , Malus pumila var. paradisiaca   (L.) C. K. Schneid., Malus sylvestris var. dasyphylla (Borkh.) Ponomar.   , Malus sylvestris var. niedzwetskyana (Dieck) L. H. Bailey   , Malus sylvestris var. praecox Ponomar.   , Pyrus malus subsp. paradisiaca   (L.) Schübl. and G. Martens, Pyrus malus var. paradisiaca   L., Pyrus niedzwetzkyana (Dieck) Hemsl.   , Pyrus praecox Pall.  

Malus spp.  

Family: Rosaceae  

Grin Nomen Number   : 300350

Listing Only: Kandybina 1987 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ).

Synonyms: Malus frutescens Medik.  

Malus sylvestris   (L.) Mill.

Family: Rosaceae  

Grin Nomen Number   : 23279

Common Names: crab apple (English), European crab apple (English), Holz-Apfel (German), jablonja lesnaja (transliterated Russian), pommier sauvage (French), Wild-Apfel (German).

Native: EUROPE – Northern Europe: Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom; Middle Europe: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Switzerland; East Europe: Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation – European part; Ukraine, Krym; Southeastern Europe: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Italy, Sicily, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia; Southwestern Europe: France, Corsica, Portugal, Spain.

Cultivated: also cultivated.

Listing Only: California Department of Food and Agriculture 2001; Cantrell et al. 1999; Holbrook 1967; USDA 1986 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; indicated as being the same species as Malus pumila   and Pyrus malus   ); USDA-APHIS 2000; USDA-APHIS 2008; USDA-APHIS-PPQ 1983 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ).

Malus sylvestris   auct., see Malus domestica Borkh.  

Malus sylvestris var. dasyphylla (Borkh.) Ponomar.   , see Malus pumila Mill.  

Malus sylvestris var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.   , see Malus domestica Borkh.  

Malus sylvestris var. niedzwetskyana (Dieck) L. H. Bailey   , see Malus pumila Mill.  

Malus sylvestris var. praecox Ponomar.   , see Malus pumila Mill.  

Mammea africana Sabine  

Family: Calophyllaceae  

Grin Nomen Number   : 311301

Common Names: abricotier d’Afrique (French), African mammee-apple (English), African-apple (English), African-apricot (English), bastard-mahogany (English), obota (French).

Native: AFRICA – East Tropical Africa: Uganda; West-Central Tropical Africa: Cameroon, Gabon, Zaire; West Tropical Africa: Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone; South Tropical Africa: Angola.

Interception Data:

PestID 2016:

Nigeria

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered by USDA-APHIS-PPQ (“interceptions”) from Mammea africana   , originating in Nigeria, at an airport in Colorado (Denver) on one occasion in 2008. Recovery was seven live larvae.

Synonyms: Ochrocarpos africanus (Sabine) Oliv.  

Mangifera indica L.  

Family: Anacardiaceae  

Grin Nomen Number   : 23351

Common Names: amba (transliterated Arabic), common mango (English), Indian mango (English), manga (Portuguese), manga (Spanish), mango (English), Mango (German), mango (Swedish), Mangobaum (German), Mangopalme (German), mangue (French), mangueira (Portuguese), manguier (French).

Native: ASIA-TROPICAL – Indian Subcontinent: India – Assam; Indo-China: Myanmar.

Cultivated: Widely cultivated in tropics.

Field Infestation:

Ali et al. 2014a:

Abugubeiha Province, South Kordofan State, Sudan field assessment was conducted during the 2005 to 2006 and 2006 to 2007 growing seasons in Abugubeiha Province, South Kordofan State, Sudan, of tephritid fruit fly infestation in M. indica   , Citrus paradisi   (listed as grapefruit) and Psidium guajava   (listed as guava). One hundred (100) fruits of each fruit species were randomly collected in each of two fruiting seasons and held over sand in fine mesh-covered plastic containers. Pupae were recovered from the sand and held in small cages until adult emergence. Bactrocera cucurbitae   and Ceratitis cosyra   were recovered from M. indica   fruits (cv. Abusamaka) during the first season. Both species, along with B. dorsalis   (listed as B. invadens   ),

were recovered from M. indica   fruits in the second season, where C. cosyra   was more common than the other two species.

Ali et al. 2014b:

Abugubeiha Province, South Kordofan State, Sudan

Mangifera indica   fruits were collected during the 2005 through 2006 growing season in

Abugubeiha Province, South Kordofan State, Sudan, and held for recovery of infesting tephritid fruit flies. Out of 6.0 kg of M. indica   fruits, 45 B. cucurbitae   adults were recovered for an infestation rate of 7.5 B. cucurbitae   per kg fruit. Bactrocera dorsalis   (listed as B. invadens   ) and C. cosyra   were also recovered.

+ Back and Pemberton 1917:

Hawaii, U.S.A.

Mangifera indica   (listed as mango) is listed as “occasionally infested” by B. cucurbitae   .

The authors reported that F.W. Terry reared adult melon flies from ripe mangoes in August 1907. The authors, though, further noted that this is one of several fruits that has “never been known to serve regularly” as a melon fly host and that this record of infestation “must be considered as exceptional.”

+ Back and Pemberton 1918:

Hawaii, U.S.A.

Mangifera indica   (listed as mango) is listed as “occasionally infested” by B. cucurbitae   .

The authors stated that adult melon flies have been reared from mango, but that mango does not serve regularly as a host; that it is attacked by melon fly only in rare instances, and then only slightly.

Clausen et al. 1965:

Malaysia (Sabah) (referred to as North Borneo; place names listed are in present day

Sabah, Malaysia)

From collections of M. indica   from April to July 1951 in Sabah, Malaysia (referred to as North Borneo), 23,570 puparia were recovered, a mix of two predominant species: B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae Coq.   ) and B. dorsalis   (listed as Dacus dorsalis Hendel   ) (ratio not stated). Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered in smaller numbers than it had been in cucurbitaceous hosts.

+ Hala et al. 2008:

Korhogo, Côte d’Ivoire

Three varieties of M. indica   (‘Amelie,’ ‘Kent’, and ‘Keitt’; listed as mango) were collected in June in 2005 and 2006 at the Korhogo research station in Korhogo, Côte d’Ivoire. Similar collections were made in May to June in Yamoussoukro and in May in Abidjan. Fruits were held in “rearing devices” in a laboratory for recovery of infesting tephritid fruit flies. Recovered flies were sent to the Royal Museum of Central Africa for identification. Overall, ten species of tephritid fruit flies were recovered. Bactrocera cucubitae   accounted for 1.0% of the tephritid fruit flies recovered from Korhogo in 2005, but was not recovered in 2006 and was not recovered in either Yamoussoukro or in Abidjan in either 2005 or 2006.

McBride and Tanada 1949:

Hawaii, U.S.A.

Bactrocera cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) was reared from M. indica   fruits (by

O.C. McBride). Fruits of the mango varieties, ‘Common’ or ‘Manini’, ‘French,’ ‘Fairchild,’ and ‘Pirie’ were found infested. From 31 fruits of the ‘Common’ variety, 10 B. cucurbitae   flies emerged; from 20 fruits of the ‘French’ variety, 2 flies emerged; from 20 fruits of the ‘Fairchild’ variety, 10 flies emerged; and from 22 fruits of the ‘Pirie’ variety, 1 fly emerged. The authors listed M. indica   as a rarely injured plant.

Mwatawala et al. 2009a:

Morogoro Region, Central Tanzania

Mature M. indica   fruits were randomly collected at regular intervals between October

2004 and October 2006 from areas within the Sokoine University of Agriculture campus in Morogoro and from Nyandira, Mikese, Mkindo in the Morogoro region of Tanzania. Fruits were held in individual rearing boxes provided with appropriate medium for pupation of infesting tephritid fruit flies. Emerged adults were removed and identified. Four (4) of 122 (3.28%) M. indica   samples (101.33 kg) were infested by B. cucurbitae   .

Mwatawala et al. 2010:

Morogoro Region, Central Tanzania

One thousand three hundred forty-eight (1,348) mature M. indica   fruits (313.84 kg)

were collected at irregular intervals between October 2004 and April 2008, from the Morogoro Region of Tanzania. Fruits were held in individual rearing boxes provided with appropriate medium for pupariation of infesting tephritid fruit flies. Emerged adults were removed and identified. Bactrocera cucurbitae   flies were recovered from 5 of 221 collections (2.26%), with an overall infestation rate of 0.015 flies/kg fruit and 1.16 flies/kg infested fruit.

Vayssières et al. 2007:

Benin and Mali, West Africa

Tephritid fruit fly-infested Mangifera indica   fruits were collected from untreated orchards in Benin and Mali. Fruits were placed on mesh supports over sand. Tephritid fruit fly pupae, recovered through weekly sieving of the sand, were transferred to small hatching boxes lined with wet blotting paper and held for adult emergence. In Benin, in 2006 and 2007, B. cucurbitae   was recovered from M. indica   fruits (cultivars ‘Gouverneur,’ ‘Eldon,’ ‘Alphonse de Goa,’ and ‘Keitt’). Infestation levels were low (2 pupae /kg fruit) and localized. The authors suggest that average M. indica   infestation levels in West Africa fall within the range of 1 to 25 pupae /kg fruit. Interception Data:

PestID 2016:

Hawaii, U.S.A.

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered by USDA-APHIS-PPQ (“interceptions”) from

Mangifera indica   fruits, originating in Hawaii, at airports in Hawaii on 20 occasions (Honolulu–18; Kahului–1; Kailua-Kona–1) between 2003 and 2005. Live larvae were recovered in 18 of these interceptions, with an average of 3.9 live larvae (range: 2–8) per interception. In an interception in February 2004 (Kailua-Kona), eight live adults were recovered; and in an interception in August 2005 (Honolulu), four (4) live pupae and one (1) live adult were recovered.

Nigeria

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered by USDA-APHIS-PPQ (“interceptions”) from Mangifera indica   fruit(s), originating in Nigeria, at an airport in Texas (Houston) on one occasion in 2012. Recovery was two live larvae. Listing Only: Botha et al. 2004 (listed as a secondary host); CABI 2016; California Department of Food and Agriculture 2001; Cantrell et al. 1999; Chawla 1966 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); + Commonwealth Institute of Entomology 1978 (listed as mango); De Meyer et al. 2014; De Meyer et al. 2015 (listed as Zeugodacus cucurbitae   ); Dhillon et al. 2005a; European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization 2015 (listed as a minor host); Government of Western Australia Department of Agriculture and Food 2015; + Hawaii Department of Agriculture 2009 (listed as mango); + Heppner 1989 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as mango); Holbrook 1967 (listed as “occasionally infested”); Hollingsworth et al. 1996; + Kakinohana et al. 1997 (listed as mango); Kandybina 1987 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Kapoor 1970 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); + Keck 1951 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as mango); + Lall 1975 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as mango); + Liu 1993 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as mango); Mamet and Williams 1993 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); + Margosian et al. 2009 (listed as mango); +NAPPO, PAS 2015 (listed as mango); Narayanan and Batra 1960 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Oakley 1950 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); +Okinawa Prefectural Fruit Fly Eradication Project 1987 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as mango); Orian and Moutia 1960 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Phillips 1946; Plantwise Knowledge Bank 2015; Ponce 1937 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Quilici and Jeuffrault 2001; + Rajamannar 1962 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as mango); + Severin et al. 1914 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as mango); Syed 1971 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); USDA 1986 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); USDA-APHIS 2000; USDA-APHIS 2008; USDA-APHIS-PPQ 1983 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CSDA 1984 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as a preferred host); +USDA-ARS 1959 (listed as mango); +Van Dine 1906 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as mango); +Weems 1964 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as mango; listed as an occasional host); +Weems 1967 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as mango; listed as an occasional host); +Weems et al. 2001 (listed as mango; listed as an occasional host); White and Elson-Harris 1992. Synonyms: Mangifera mekongensis   anon. Mangifera mekongensis   anon., see Mangifera indica L.  

Mangifera spp.  

Family: Anacardiaceae  

Grin Nomen Number   : 312406

Interception Data:

PestID 2016:

Hawaii, U.S.A.

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered by USDA-APHIS-PPQ (“interceptions”) from Mangifera sp.   fruit(s), originating in Hawaii, at an airport in Hawaii (Honolulu) in 2005. Recovery was nine live larvae.

Manilkara achras (Mill.) Fosberg   , see Manilkara zapota   (L.) P. Royen

Manilkara zapotilla (Jacq.) Gilly   , see Manilkara zapota   (L.) P. Royen

Manilkara spp.  

Family: Sapotaceae  

Grin Nomen Number   : 318439

Interception Data:

PestID 2016:

Nigeria

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered by USDA-APHIS-PPQ (“interceptions”) from Manilkara sp.   fruit(s), originating in Nigeria, at an airport in California (Los Angeles) on one occasion in 2003. Recovery was eight live larvae.

Synonyms: Achras spp.  

Manilkara zapota   (L.) P. Royen

Family: Sapotaceae  

Grin Nomen Number   : 102614

Common Names: Breiapfelbaum (German), chicle (English), chico sapote (Spanish), Kaugummibaum (German), naseberry (English), níspero (Spanish), sapodilla (English), Sapodillbaum (German), sapote (English), Sapote (German), sapotier (French), sapotillier (French), sapotillplommon (Swedish), zapote (Spanish), zapotillo (Spanish).

Native: NORTHERN AMERICA – Mexico; SOUTHERN AMERICA – Central America: Belize, Guatemala, Nicaragua.

Uncertain: SOUTHERN AMERICA – Central America: Belize, Guatemala, Nicaragua.

Cultivated: Widely cultivated in tropics.

Field Infestation:

Allwood et al. 1999:

Thailand, Malaysia, Southern India

From fruit collections in 1992, B. cucurbitae   was recovered from 1 sample of M. zapota   . Infestation rate data were not given. Bactrocera cucurbitae   individuals were identified by R.A.I. Drew and D.L. Hancock.

Interception Data:

PestID 2016:

Ghana

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered by USDA-APHIS-PPQ (“interceptions”) from Manilkara zapota   fruits, originating in Ghana, at airports in Illinois (Chicago; on one occasion in 2005) and New York (JFK; on one occasion in 2014). Recovery were two live larvae (Chicago) and one live larva (JFK).

Nigeria

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered by USDA-APHIS-PPQ (“interceptions”) from Manilkara zapota   fruits, originating in Nigeria, at airports in Illinois (Chicago–1), New York (JFK–4) and

Texas (Dallas/Ft. Worth–1) on six occasions from 2005 to 2014. Average recovery was 1.5 live larvae (range: 1–3).

Unknown

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered by USDA-APHIS-PPQ (“interceptions”) from

Manilkara zapota   fruit(s), originating from an unknown location (data insufficient), at an airport in Massachusetts (Boston) on one occasion in 2008. Recovery was six live larvae. Listing Only: CABI 2016 (listed as a secondary host); Cantrell et al. 1999; De Meyer et al. 2014; Plantwise Knowledge Bank 2015. Synonyms: Achradelpha mammosa   O. F. Cook, Achras mammosa   L., Achras zapota   L., Achras zapota var. zapotilla Jacq.   , Achras zapotilla (Jacq.) Nutt.   , Calocarpum mammosum Pierre   , Lucuma mammosa C. F. Gaertn.   , Manilkara achras (Mill.) Fosberg   , Manilkara zapotilla (Jacq.) Gilly   , Pouteria mammosa Cronquist, Sapota   zapotilla (Jacq.) Coville  

Melanolepis diadena Miq.   , see Endospermum diadenum (Miq.) Airy Shaw  

Melia koetjape Burm.   f., see Sandoricum koetjape   (Burm. f.) Merr.

Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn.   , see Solena heterophylla Lour.  

Melothria liukiuensis Nakai   , see Zehneria mucronata (Blume) Miq.  

Melothria maderaspatana   (L.) Cogn., see Cucumis maderaspatanus   L.

Melothria sphaerocarpa (Cogn.) H. Schaef. and S.S. Renner  

Family: Cucurbitaceae 

Grin Nomen Number: 463029

Common Names: dark egusi (English), égousi (French), egousi-itoo (French), egusi-itoo (English), gousi (French), lipupu (Portuguese), white-seed-melon (English).

Native: AFRICA – Northeast Tropial Africa: Sudan; West-Central Tropical Africa: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Zaire; West Tropical Africa: Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone; South Tropical Africa: Angola; SOUTHERN AMERICA – Caribbean: Dominican Republic, Trinidad and Tobago – Trinidad; Northern South America: Guyana, Venezuela – Amazonas, Barinas, Caraboro, Cojedes, Delta Amacuro, Lara, Merida, Portuguesa, Sucre, Yaracuy; Brazil: Brazil – Amazonas, Para; Western South America: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador.

Cultivated: AFRICA – West-Central Tropical Africa: Cameroon, Central African Republic; West Tropical Africa: Côte d’Ivoire, Nigeria.

Field Infestation:

Vayssières et al. 2007:

Benin, West Africa

Tephritid fruit fly-infested M. sphaerocarpa   fruits (listed as Cucumeropsis mannii Naud.   ) were collected from untreated orchards in West Africa. Fruits were placed on mesh supports over sand. Tephritid fruit fly pupae, recovered through weekly sieving of the sand, were transferred to small hatching boxes lined with wet blotting paper and held for adult emergence. The average B. cucurbitae   infestation level in M. sphaerocarpa   fruits in West Africa fell in the range of 26– 50 pupae / kg fruit.

Listing Only: De Meyer et al. 2014 (listed as Cucumeropsis mannii   ); De Meyer et al. 2015 (listed as Zeugodacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Cucumeropsis mannii Naud.   ).

Synonyms: Cladosicyos edulis Hook.   f., Cucumeropsis edulis   (Hook. f.) Cogn., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin   , Posadaea sphaerocarpa Cogn.  

Melothria wallichii C. B. Clarke   , see Zehneria wallichii (C.B. Clarke) C. Jeffrey  

Mespilus japonica Thunb.   , see Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.  

Mimosaceae R. Br.   , nom. cons., see Fabaceae Lindl.   , nom. cons.

Modecca bracteata Lam.   , see Trichosanthes tricuspidata Lour.  

Modecca palmata Lam.   , see Adenia hondala (Gaertn.) W. J. de Wilde  

Momordica balsamina   L.

Family: Cucurbitaceae 

Grin Nomen Number: 24519

Common Names: Balsamapfel (German), balsam-apple (English), balsamgurka (Swedish), balsamina (Spanish)   , balsâmina-de purga (Portuguese), jangli karela (Urdu-Pakistan), pomme de merveille (French).

Native: AFRICA – Northeast Tropical Africa: Yemen – Socotra; East Tropical Africa: Tanzania; West Tropical Africa: Mali, Nigeria, Senegal; South Tropical Africa: Angola, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe; Southern Africa: Botswana, Namibia, South Africa – Cape Province, Free State, KwaZulu – Natal, Transvaal; Swaziland; ASIA-TEMPERATE – Arabian Peninsula   : Yemen; ASIA-TROPICAL – Indian Subcontinent: India – Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh; Nepal, Pakistan; AUSTRALASIA – Australia: Australia – New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia.

Naturalized: NORTHERN AMERICA – Southeastern U.S.A.: United States – Florida, Louisiana; South-Central U.S.A.: United States – Texas; SOUTHERN AMERICA – Caribbean: Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica; Western South America: Peru.

Cultivated: SOUTHERN AMERICA – Caribbean: Guadeloupe; Martinique.

Field Infestation:

Allwood et al. 1999:

Thailand, Malaysia, Southern India

From fruit collections in 1992, B. cucurbitae   was recovered from samples of M. balsamina   . Number   of fruit samples and infestation rate data were not given. Bactrocera cucurbitae   individuals were identified by R.A.I. Drew and D.L. Hancock.

Marucci 1951:

Hawaii, U.S.A.

During November to December 1949, 51 M.   balsamina fruits were collected and held over sand to rear out any infesting tephritid fruit flies. One hundrerd and nine (109) adult B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) were recovered.

Marucci 1951:

Hawaii, U.S.A.

On 24 September 1950, 46 M.   balsamina fruits were harvested and placed in a rearing jar. Three hundred and two (302) B. cucurbitae   puparia (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) were recovered.

Ndiaye et al. 2012:

Niayes and Thiès plateau zones, Senegal

Momordica balsamina   fruits were collected from April-December 2008, and held over sieved coarse sand in cloth-covered pots. Recovered tephritid fruit fly pupae were transferred to Petri dishes for adult emergence and species identification. Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered from the 1.6 kg of M. balsamina   fruits sampled, with an infestation rate of ≤ 100 individuals per kg fruit.

Newell et al. 1952:

Island of Oahu, Hawaii, U.S.A.

Momordica balsamina   fruits were collected monthly from multiple stations at three localities on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii (Makaha Valley, Kahuku and Waimanalo) from February 1950 to January 1951. Where possible, mature orange or yellow fruits were gathered, but some green-yellow or even green-white fruits were included. In the laboratory, larvae were removed from the fruits and reared on diced pumpkin. Average B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) infestation rates were 3.1, 3.4, and 4.1 larvae per fruit out of 1,686, 1,803, and 2,517 M. balsamina   fruits held from Makaha Valley, Kahuku and Waimanalo, respectively.

Nishida 1955:

Island of Oahu, Hawaii, U.S.A.

Infested M. balsamina   fruits, with nearly full grown B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) larvae, were collected at cultivated areas in two locations on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii from 1950 to 1951: Waianae and Waimanalo. Larvae were extracted from fruits and placed in small wax paper cups containing pumpkin pulp. The cups were placed on sand in jars in which a high humidity was maintained. One hundred forty-eight (148) and 180 B. cucurbitae   larvae were recovered from the fruits at the two sites, respectively. Number   of fruits and infestation rate data were not given.

Syed 1971:

Karachi, Sindh Province, Pakistan

In Karachi (1962–1966), M. balsamina   , available almost throughout the year, was infested by both B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) and Dacus ciliatus   , with total infestation rates of 4% in January up to 100% in February, 35% in March, 6% in April, 20% in August, 5% in September, almost 100% in November and subsiding to 3% in December. Listing Only: Botha et al. 2004 (listed as a secondary host); CABI 2016 (listed as a secondary host); California Department of Food and Agriculture 2001; Cantrell et al. 1999; De Meyer et al. 2014; Government of Western Australia Department of Agriculture and Food 2015; Holbrook 1967; Kapoor 1970 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Leblanc et al. 2013b; McBride and Tanada 1949 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); +NAPPO, PAS 2015 (listed as balsam apple); Narayanan and Batra 1960 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Nishida 1953 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Oakley 1950 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as M. balsimina   ); Plantwise Knowledge Bank 2015; USDA 1986 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Momordica balsaminia   ); USDA-APHIS 2000 (listed as Momordica balsaminia   ); USDA-APHIS 2008 (listed as Momordica balsaminia   ); USDA-APHIS-PPQ 1983 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); USDA-APHIS- PPQ-CSDA 1984 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as a preferred host); White and Elson-Harris 1992; Williamson et al. 1985.

Momordica charantia L.  

Family: Cucurbitaceae 

Grin Nomen Number: 24520

Common Names: amerikanische Bittergurke (German), balsam-apple (English), balsam-pear (English), Balsambirne (German), balsamito (Spanish), bálsamo (Spanish), bitter-cucumber (English), bitter gourd (English), bitter-melon (English), bittergurka (Swedish), Bittergurke (German), carilla gourd (English), concombre africain (French), cundeamor (Spanish), karela ( India), ku gua (transcribed Chinese), margose (French), momordique (French), paria (Indonesian), paroka (French), peria (Malay), yeoju (transcribed Korean).

Native: AFRICA – East Tropical Africa: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda; West-Central Tropical Africa: Burundi, Cameroon, Gabon, Rwanda, Zaire; West Tropical Africa: Benin, Côte d’Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone; South Tropical Africa: Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe; Western Indian Ocean: Madagascar; ASIA-TROPICAL – Indian Subcontinent: India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka; Indo-China: Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam; Malesia: Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines; AUSTRALASIA – Australia: Australia – Queensland; PA- CIFIC – South-Central Pacific: French Polynesia; Southwestern Pacific: Fiji.

Naturalized: NORTHERN AMERICA – Southeastern U.S.A.: United States – Florida, Louisiana; South-Central U.S.A.: United States – Texas, Mexico; PACIFIC – North-Central Pacific: United States – Hawaii; SOUTHERN AMERICA – Caribbean: Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and Grenadines, Virgin Islands (British), Virgin Islands ( U.S.); Central America: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama; Northern South America: French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela; Brazil: Brazil; Western South America: Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru; Southern South America: Argentina, Paraguay.

Cultivated: Widely cultivated.

Field Infestation:

Allwood et al. 1999:

Thailand, Malaysia, Southern India

From fruit collections in 1992, B. cucurbitae   was recovered from 124 samples of M. 

charantia. Infestation rate data were not given. Bactrocera cucurbitae   individuals were identified by R.A.I. Drew and D.L. Hancock.

Amin et al. 2011:

Dinajpur, Bangladesh

From April through July 2009, M. charantia   was grown in a randomized complete design with four other cucurbit species (four replicates) at the Entomology Farm Laboratory, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh. Fruits were observed for infestation by B. cucurbitae   , and harvested at maturity stage. An average of about 66% of M. charantia   fruits was infested by B. cucurbitae   . Adult B. cucurbitae   were also recovered from field-infested M. charantia   fruits brought back to the laboratory.

Bains and Sidhu 1984:

State of Punjab, India

Field observations of infestation of M. charantia   fruits by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) were made at 10-day intervals in Punjab, India, between May and September. Infested fruits were found in 11 of 13 observations (84.6%) with an average infestation rate of 20.5 (±6.1 [standard error])%.

Banerji et al. 2005:

Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal, India

Momordica charantia   var. ‘Meghna’ was planted in Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal, India in November 2000 (‘rabi’ season), February 2001 (‘summer’ season), and June 2001 (‘kharif’ season). The percentage infestation by B. cucurbitae   among 30 tagged fruits was recorded weekly (based on visual observation) from initial fruiting stage until the end of the crop. After each week’s observation, 30 new fruits were tagged for subsequent observation. Infestation of M. charantia   by B. cucurbitae   averaged 18.0±5.4 [standard error] (range: 3.33–33.33%), 26.7±3.9 (range: 6.67–43.33%), and 34.2±4.4 (range: 3.3–63.33%) during the rabi, summer and kharif seasons, respectively.

Bhowmik et al. 2014:

Nadia District, State of West Bengal, India

Momordica charantia   plants were grown, without pesticide application, at three sites in the Nadia District of West Bengal, India. Percentage infestation of M. charantia   fruits by B. cucurbitae   was determined weekly, by observation, in 2012 (April–June) and in 2013 (March–May) (eight sampling times each year). Infestation averaged 28.8% (range: 12.7–40.1%) and 37.1% (range: 27.5–54.7%) in 2012 and 2013, respectively.

+ Birah et al. 2015:

Port Blair, South Andaman Island, India

To test the effectiveness of different management techniques to minimize infestation by B. cucurbitae   , M. charantia   (listed as bitter gourd), variety ‘Coimbatore Long,’ was planted out in a randomized block design with 4 replicates during the 2010 to 2011 and 2011 to 2012 growing seasons at Garacharma farm in Port Blair, South Andaman Island. Percentage infestation of M. charantia   fruits was determined at each of ten fruit harvests. In the control treatment, the average percentage infestation, averaged over both production years, was 39.3% (range over the ten fruit harvests: 20.3–75.4%).

Chinajariyawong et al. 2000:

Thailand

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was reared from 1 sample of M. charantia   collected in Thailand.

No infestation rate data were given.

Chinajariyawong et al. 2003:

Thailand

Out of 1,309 M. charantia   fruits sampled from a control field in a bait spray trial in

Thailand, 526 (40.2%) were infested by B. cucurbitae   and/or B. tau   ( B. cucurbitae   was the dominant species).

Clarke et al. 2001:

Thailand

Five thousand five hundred and two (5,502) (81.4 kg) infested M. charantia   fruits were collected in Thailand from 1986 to 1994. Five regions of Thailand (Chiang Rai, Chiang Mai, Bangkok, Surat Thani, Songhkla) recorded infestation rates of 0.65, 0.99, 1.8, 2.4 and 2.3 B. cucurbitae   per infested fruit and 91.5, 229.9, 73.0, 117.6 and 58.2 B. cucurbitae   per kg infested fruits, respectively. Bactrocera cucurbitae   was identified by either R.A.I. Drew or D. L. Hancock.

Clausen et al. 1965:

Island of Mindanao, Philippines

From M. charantia   collections from February to September 1950, on the island of Mindanao in the Philippines, 1,554 puparia were recovered, a mix of two predominant species: Dacus   n. sp. near Bactrocera tau   (listed as D. hageni Meij   ) and B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae Coq.   ) (ratio not stated, but it was stated that “[ B. cucurbitae   ] was the dominant species infesting ampalaya”).

South China

From M. charantia   collections from July to September 1950 in South China, 435 puparia were recovered, a mix of two predominant species: Bactrocera cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae Coq.   ) and Bactrocera tau   (listed as Dacus nubilus Hendel   ) (ratio not stated).

Thailand

From collections of M. charantia   in July 1950 in Thailand, 1,720 Bactrocera cucurbitae  

(listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) puparia were recovered.

Sabah, Malaysia (referred to as North Borneo; place names listed are in present day

Sabah, Malaysia)

From collections of M. charantia   from January to May 1951 in Sabah, Malaysia (referred to as North Borneo), 1,742 puparia were recovered, a mix of two predominant species: Bactrocera cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae Coq.   ) and Bactrocera tau   (listed as Dacus hageni Meij   ) ( B. cucurbitae   was the dominant species).

Sri Lanka (referred to as Ceylon)

Bactrocera cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) puparia recovered from M. charantia   collections in Sri Lanka were shipped to Hawaii during August and September 1951.

Cunningham and Steiner 1972:

Hawaii Island, Hawaii, U.S.A.

Ripe M. charantia   fruits (14,220) were collected from scattered patches in a young macadamia nut orchard on the western slopes of the Island of Hawaii throughout the course of a male annihilation trial against B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ). Fruits were held over sand until all infesting larvae had left the fruits and entered the sand for pupation. Fruit infestation averaged 2.7 B. cucurbitae   /fruit and did not show any meaningful decrease in infestation rate over the course of the male annihilation trial.

Dhillon et al. 2005b:

Hisar, State of Haryana, India

During July 2001 to June 2002, 6 varieties (“wild genotypes) of Momordica charantia var. muricata   (Note: this is not listed in GRIN; The Plant List reports this as a synonym of Momordica charantia   ) were naturally infested by melon fly over two growing seasons (rainy and summer) for an overall average of 4.5 larvae per fruit (ranging from 3.8–5.1 larvae per fruit) and an infestation rate of 10.6% (ranging from 8.3–12.6%). Total number of fruits collected was not given.

During July 2001 to March 2002, 11 varieties of Momordica charantia   (cultivated genotypes) were naturally infested by melon fly over two growing seasons (rainy and summer) for an overall average of 6.09 larvae per fruit (ranging from 4.1–8.0 larvae per fruit) and an infestation rate of 38.25% (ranging from 18.9–69.5%). Percentage infestation and larval density per fruit were positively and significantly correlated with rib depth, flesh thickness, fruit diameter and fruit length, but negatively correlated with fruit toughness. Percentage infestation was also negatively correlated with the number of ribs/cm 2. Total number of fruits collected was not given.

Fernando and Udurawana 1941:

Sri Lanka

Five (5) varieties of Momordica charantia   , four from the Central Division (CD) and one from the North-Western Division (NWD), were tested for resistance to B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) at the Vegetable Seed Station in Matale, Sri Lanka (referred to as Ceylon) over two maha and one yala seasons from 1938 to 1940.

Total number of fruits, total fruit weight (kg), number of damaged, and percentage damage by variety were   as follows:

‘CD green rough’: (8,411 fruits, 473.32 kg, 758 infested fruits, 9.01% infested);

‘CD green smooth’: (5,608 fruits, 336.11 kg, 715 infested fruits, 12.75% infested),

‘CD white rough’: (6,577 fruits, 355.16 kg, 811 infested fruits, 12.33% infested),

‘CD white smooth’: (3,381 fruits, 192.32 kg, 624 infested fruits, 18.46% infested),

‘NWD white smooth’: (1,860 fruits, 184.39 kg, 680 infested fruits, 36.56% infested).

+ Froggatt 1909:

Central or North-Western India

Bactrocera cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) was recovered from maggot-infested M. charantia   fruits (listed as bitter gourds) from gardens in Central or North-Western India. No infestation rate data were given.

Gogi et al. 2009:

Harappa and Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan

Thirteen (13) varieties of Momordica charantia   (‘Col-II,’ ‘FSD-long,’ ‘Col-Nankana sahib,’ ‘Col-I,’ ‘GS-51,’ ‘Col-III,’ ‘Col-Multan,’ ‘Col-Vehari,’ ‘Chaman,’ ‘Sunder-F1,’ ‘Janpuri,’ ‘F1-484’ and ‘F1-485’) were sown by seed in April 2005, in a randomized complete block design (3 replications per variety) in fields at Harappa and at Faisalabad in Punjab, Pakistan. Fruits were picked five times at each location, starting in June 2005. Ten (10) fruits from each variety from   each location at each picking were randomly selected and observed to determine which were infested by B. cucurbitae   and the number of larvae present in each infested fruit. Fruit infestation averaged 55.9% (range: 18.7–75.3%) and 54.6% (range: 16.7–73.3%) while mean larval density averaged 6.6 (range: 2.4–9.3) and 6.8 (range: 2.4–9.4) at Harappa and Faisalabad, respectively. ‘Col-II’ and ‘FSD-long’ were the most resistant genotypes to infestation by B. cucurbitae   while ‘Janpuri,’ ‘F1-484’ and ‘F1-485’ were the most susceptible.

Gogi et al. 2010a:

Harappa and Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan

Six varieties of Momordica charantia   , selected from the trial reported in Gogi et al. (2009; and reported again in this paper) (‘Col-II,’ ‘FSD-long,’ ‘Col-Nankana sahib,’ ‘Col-I,’ ‘Col-Vehari,’ and ‘Chaman’) were sown by seed in 2006, in a randomized complete block design (three replications per variety) in fields at Harappa and at Faisalabad in Punjab, Pakistan. Fruits were picked five times at each location. Ten (10) fruits from each variety from   each location at each picking were randomly selected and observed to determine which were infested by B. cucurbitae   and the number of larvae present in each infested fruit. Biophysical features that might confer resistance to infestation by B. cucurbitae   were also measured for each variety. Fruit infestation averaged 48.1% (range: 17.9–77.9%) and 48.4% (range: 17.5–78.5%) while mean larval density per fruit averaged 5.5 (range: 1.3–9.8) and 5.0 (range: 1.5–8.4) at Harappa and Faisalabad, respectively. Biophysical fruit traits associated with lower infestation rates and lower larval density per fruit were (in decreasing order of importance): fruit toughness, fruit diameter, and number of longitudinal ribs.

Gogi et al. 2010b:

Faisalabad and Harappa, State of Punjab, Pakistan

Biochemical fruit traits were also measured for the M. charantia   fruits in the study reported in Gogi 2010a. The authors reported that total chlorophyll and pH of fruits had a significant positive correlation, while tannin, flavanol, phenol, ash and silica contents had a significant negative correlation with % fruit infestation by B. cucurbitae   and larval B. cucurbitae   density per fruit.

Gogi et al. 2014:

Faisalabad and Harappa, State of Punjab, Pakistan

Momordica charantia   cultivar ‘green long’ was sown at the campus research area of the University of Agriculture at Faisalabad in 2005 and at Harappa in 2006 to test the effect of sowing time, plant-to-plant distance, sowing method and sanitation on infestation by B. cucurbitae   . Five pickings were done in each planting and fruits were observed to determine which were infested by B. cucurbitae   and the number of larvae present in each infested fruit. All four tested factors had significant effects on the percentage infestation by B. cucurbitae   . Across all treatments, the average percentage infestation ranged from about 10.0 to 72.0%.

Gopalan et al. 1977:

Coimbatore, State of Tamil Nadu, India

In a randomized complete block designed field trial, with four replicates, at the Agricultural College and Research Institute in Coimbatore, of the relative effectiveness of different insecticides in reducing infestation of M. charantia   (listed as Memordica charantia   ) variety ‘Green Long’ by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ), control fruit infestation averaged 24.9%. Total number of fruits examined was not presented.

+ Gupta and Verma   1977:

Hisar (listed as Hissar), State of Haryana, India

Adult B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) fruit flies, used in a study assessing the effectiveness of insecticidal dusts applied to soil in killing individuals before adult emergence, were initially obtained from a few infested M. charantia   fruits (listed as bitter gourd) collected from a local market. Number   of fruits collected and infestation rate data were not given.

+ Gupta and Verma   1978:

Hisar (listed as Hissar), State of Haryana, India

Momordica charantia   (listed as bitter gourd, var. ‘Hissar Selection’) was grown from seed planted both 28 February and 31 July 1975, in randomized complete block designs with ten other cucurbit crops in Hisar, Haryana State, India. Fallen and marketable sized fruits were collected/picked every 3 days and assessed for infestation by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ). Infestation results were summarized weekly. Bactrocera cucurbitae   infestation was found in 20 of 21 weekly summaries (95.2%). Overall, 370 fruits (8.7 kg) were collected, of which 146 were infested, for averages of 17.6 fruits collected per week with an average infestation rate of 38.4%.

+ Gupta and Verma   1979:

Hisar (listed as Hissar), State of Haryana, India

Adult B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) fruit flies, used in a study assessing the effectiveness of insecticides as contact poisons to kill adult B. cucurbitae   , were initially obtained from a few infested M. charantia   fruits (listed as bitter gourd) collected from a local market. Number   of fruits collected and infestation rate data were not given.

+ Gupta and Verma   1982:

Hisar (listed as Hissar), State of Haryana, India

In a field trial to assess the effectiveness of bait sprays against B. cucurbitae   (listed as

Dacus cucurbitae   ) in M. charantia   (listed as bitter gourd), treatments (including an unsprayed control) were set out in a randomized block design with three replications. Assessment of infestation was determined 9 days after each of two sprays made 10 days apart, and was based on the examination of 25 randomly selected fruits from each plot. Based on combined data taken following both of the sprays, bitter gourd fruits in the control treatment had a mean infestation percentage of 43.3%.

+ Gupta and Verma   1992:

State of Himachal Pradesh, India

The average total number of maggots within M. charantia   fruits (listed as bitter gourd)

in the field was determined from examination of 10 fruits randomly selected on a weekly basis from May to August 1986, and May to October 1987. Maggots included both B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) and B. tau   (listed as D. tau   ), with no indication given as to the relative proportion of the two species. Mean maggot population per fruit reached a maximum of 9.18 and 8.08 in 1986 and 1987, respectively.

Harris et al. 1986:

Island of Kauai, Hawaii, U.S.A.

Fifty-six (56) collections of M. charantia   fruits (7.725 kg) (incorrectly listed as M. balsamina   ) were made on the Island of Kauai, Hawaii, between July 1980 and September 1982, with fruits held over moist sand for assessment of infestation by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ). Two thousand eight hundred fifty-six (2,856) B. cucurbitae   flies were recovered (369.7 flies/kg fruit).

Harris and Lee 1989:

Island of Molokai, Hawaii, U.S.A.

Between August 1978 and January 1980, 7,045, 839, 471, and 90 M.   charantia fruits were collected from Maunaloa Village, the Airport area, Kaluakoi and Hoolehua, respectively, on the Island of Molokai, Hawaii and held over sand in fruit holding buckets or boxes. Bactrocera cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) pupal recovery totaled 2,042, 78, 151, and 161, from which 1,637, 73, 123, and 91 adults emerged, respectively. Overall infestation rates were 0.29, 0.093, 0.32, and 1.79 B. cucurbitae   pupae per fruit and 81.0, 4.0, 2.6, and 0.8 B. cucurbitae   per kg fruit, respectively.

Harris et al. 2003:

Kalaupapa Peninsula, Island of Molokai, Hawaii, U.S.A.

During 1991 to 1992, 65 M.   charantia fruits (1.79 kg) and in 1995, 2 M.   charantia fruits

(0.3 kg) were collected from the Kalaupapa peninsula and placed on sand in fruit holding boxes. The sand was screened weekly for recovery of tephritid fruit fly puparia. Recovered puparia were placed in glass jars and held until adult emergence. Forty-eight (48) adult B. cucurbitae   were recovered from the 1991 to 1992 collections and 1 adult was recovered from the 1995 collection, for infestation rates of 0.74 melon flies per fruit (26.8 melon flies/kg fruit) and 0.5 flies per fruit (3.33 flies/kg fruit), respectively.

Inayatullah et al. 1993:

Faisalabad, Pakistan

Based on observation, the average rate of infestation of M. charantia   fruits (listed as

Memordica charentia) by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) in the vicinity of the University of Agriculture in Faisalabad was about 97%.

Iwaizumi 1993:

Southern Okinawa Island, Japan

Momordica charantia   fruits were collected monthly in the southern part of Okinawa

Island from May to December 1987, and held on sand in plastic containers until adult fly emergence. Out of 3,332 fruits collected, 125 were infested by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ), with an average monthly infestation rate of 4.91% (range: 0.0–20.0%).

Jacquard et al. 2013:

Réunion Island, France

Bactrocera cucurbitae   -infested M. charantia   fruits were collected from 11 sites on

Réunion Island in 2009 and held over sand. Puparia, recovered by sifting the sand, were held for adult emergence. Eight hundred and forty-one (841) adult B. cucurbitae   were recovered.

+ Jakhar and Pareek 2005:

Jobner, State of Rajasthan, India

Seeds of nine cucurbit species were sown in a randomized block design with four replications at the Horticultural Farm of S.K.N. College of Agriculture in Jobner, India during the kharif season in 2000. The infestation rate of M. charantia   fruits (listed as bitter gourd) by B. cucurbitae   averaged 27.47% (range: 13.98–41.19%) over the course of nine collection dates, each 3 days apart, between August and September, 2000.

Joshi et al. 1995:

Rahuri, State of Maharashtra, India

Momordica charantia   seed was planted in February (for summer season), May (for kharif season) and September (for rabi season) in a randomized block design (with five replications) in Rahuri, India, to test the effect of four M.   charantia training systems (ground, bush, kniffin, and bower) on infestation rate by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ). In all three planting seasons, M. charantia   infestation decreased in the order of ground> bush> kniffin> bower. Percentage infestation ranged from 10.6 to 19.3% (summer season), 10.0–19.6% (kharif season) and 15.0–27.9% (rabi season).

Katiyar et al. 2014:

Kanpur, State of Uttar Pradesh, India

Thirty-three (33) genotypes of M. charantia   were planted out in 2006, and again in 2007,

in a randomized complete block design with three replications, in Kanpur, India. Beginning one week after fruit initiation stage, percentage of fruits infested by B. cucurbitae   was determined weekly. Fruit infestation, averaged over both years, averaged 36.3% (range: 8.09% [‘IC 68314’-‘highly resistant’]–81.3% [‘Pusa Do Mausami’-‘highly susceptible’]).

Khan et al. 1993:

Faisalabad, Pakistan

Adult B. cucurbitae   flies (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) used as the initial stock for a laboratory colony were obtained from infested M. charantia   fruits collected from the vegetable area of the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.

One hundred (100) M. charantia   fruits were randomly observed in the field monthly between 1985 to 1986 and percentage infestation by B. cucurbitae   calculated. High M. charantia   infestation (76–100%) was observed from April to November.

Kumar et al. 2008:

Bangalore, South India

Momordica charantia   fruits were harvested monthly at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore, South India from July 2002 to October 2003 (a total of 67 harvests). At each harvest, damaged and healthy fruits were sorted and weighed separately, with damaged fruits placed in separate cages on a thin layer of sand to facilitate pupation and adult emergence. Bactrocera cucurbitae   and Dacus ciliatus   adults that emerged were counted. Infestation of M. charantia   (by month of collection) by B. cucurbitae   (using data from July 2002 through April 2003 only, because the remaining collections in 2003 were co-infested by D. ciliatus   ) averaged 46.39% (range: 0.0–76.65%), with an average infestation rate of 139.6 (range: 0.0–494.64) individuals per kg fruit.

+ Lall and Singh 1969:

State of Bihar, East India

Seven (7) varieties of M. charantia   (listed as bitter gourd) were planted in a randomized block design (three replicates) and exposed to naturally occurring populations of Bactrocera cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ). Fruits were harvested weekly, with the number of healthy and infested fruits recorded. Infestation of fruits by B. cucurbitae   averaged 50.61%, 47.74%, 49.35%, 22.64%, 50.41%, 36.17%, and 55.02%, for varieties ‘Long green,’ ‘Small bittergoured,’ ‘Long green monsoon,’ ‘Short green,’ ‘Verma’s wonder,’ ‘Sutton’s Kerela,’ and ‘Local,’ respectively.

Leblanc et al. 2012:

Papua New Guinea ( PNG)

Momordica charantia   fruits were collected during 1997 to 2000 in PNG and held in plastic containers over finely sieved sawdust that had been sterilized in an oven or frozen overnight to kill mites. The sawdust was sieved to recover tephritid fruit fly puparia. Puparia were kept in moist sawdust until adult emergence. Adults were fed for 5 days, then killed by freezing to allow colors and markings, necessary for correct species identification, to fully develop. Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered in 29 of 49 (59.2%) samples in PNG.

Leblanc et al. 2013a:

Papua New Guinea ( PNG)

Momordica charantia   fruits (1,319 fruits; 10.56 kg) were collected during 1997 to 2000

in PNG and held in plastic containers over finely sieved sawdust that had been sterilized in an oven or frozen overnight to kill mites. The sawdust was sieved to recover tephritid fruit fly puparia. Puparia were kept in moist sawdust until adult emergence. Adults were fed for 5 days, then killed by freezing to allow colors and markings, necessary for correct species identification, to fully develop. Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered in 29 of 49 (59.2%) samples in PNG with an overall infestation rate of 189.58 flies/kg fruit and 249.0 flies/kg infested fruit.

+ Lee 1972:

Taiwan

Momordica charantia   plants (listed as bitter cucumber) were grown in the field year-

round from 2 June 1969 to 10 June 1970, and from March to August 1971. Fruits, picked 5, 10, and 15 days after flowering, were placed over sand in holding boxes. The sand was screened weekly to recover B. cucurbitae   pupae (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ). Pupal recovery per fruit was averaged quarterly for 1969 to 1970 harvests. Pupal recovery per kg fruit was averaged monthly for 1971 harvests. Bactrocera cucurbitae   pupal recovery averaged 4.5, 7.5 and 9.5 pupae/fruit (1969–1970) and 185.2, 277.3, and 300.8 pupae/kg fruit (1971) overall, for fruits picked 5, 10, and 15 days after flowering, repectively.

+ Lee et al. 1992:

Taiwan

From June 1989 to September 1991, rotten and ripening ground M. charantia   fruits

(listed as bitter melon) were collected every 2 weeks from two sites (Chun-Wai and Wu-Chieh agricultural plantations) in Taiwan. Fruits were transferred to the laboratory and held until adult emergence. Bactrocera cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) was recovered from infested ‘bitter melon’ fruits with infestation rates of 2.3% and 1.8% in Chun-Wai and Wu-Chieh, respectively.

Liquido et al. 1990:

Hawaii Island, Hawaii, U.S.A.

During 1949 to 1985, B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) was recovered from 7

of 7 collections (100%) of the cultivated form of M. charantia   , spread out over 7 different locations on the island of Hawaii, 1 collection per location. One hundred ninety (190) fruits were collected, ranging from 8 to 50 fruits per site. The mean infestation rate from each location ranged from 1.10 to 9.00 B. cucurbitae   per fruit, with 4.22 B. cucurbitae   per fruit as the overall average of the 7 site averages.

Hawaii Island, Hawaii, U.S.A.

During 1949 to 1985, B. cucurbitae   was recovered from 391 collections of the weedy form of M. charantia   , spread out over 13 different locations on the island of Hawaii. Thirty-four thousand and two (34,002) fruits were collected, ranging from 45 to 27,662 fruits per site. The mean infestation rate from each location ranged from 0.02 to 3.11 melon flies per fruit, with 1.83 melon flies per fruit as the overall average of the 13 site averages.

Island of Maui, Hawaii, U.S.A.

During 1951 to 1963, B. cucurbitae   was recovered from 19 collections of the weedy form of M. charantia   , spread out over 7 different locations on the Island of Maui. Four hundred sixteen (416) fruits were collected, ranging from 19 to 168 fruits per site. The mean infestation rate from each location ranged from 0.0 to 4.86 melon flies per fruit, with 1.83 B. cucurbitae   per fruit as the overall average of the 7 site averages.

Liquido et al. 1994:

Hawaii Island, Hawaii, U.S.A.

From July 1990 to October 1992, 93 ripe “on vine” or ground M. charantia   fruits (3.610

kg) were collected (through collections made once or twice a month) from several sites on Hawaii Island, Hawaii. Fruits were weighed, counted, split into groups of 5 or 10, and held over sand in plastic buckets at 19–24° C until pupation (2 weeks). Bactrocera cucurbitae   larvae and pupae were recovered from infested M. charantia   fruits with an overall infestation rate of 2.18 larvae and pupae per fruit (56.23 larvae and pupae/kg fruit). This infestation rate includes both “on vine” and “on ground” fruits.

Hawaii island, Hawaii, U.S.A.

From July 1990 to October 1992, 207 ripe “on vine” or ground M. charantia   fruits (0.853

kg) (listed as Momordica charantia L.   var. abbreviata Ser.   with intent to reference the “weedy” form) were collected once or twice a month from several sites on Hawaii Island, Hawaii. Fruits were weighed, counted, split into groups of 5 or 10, and held over sand in plastic buckets at 19–24° C until pupation (2 weeks). Bactrocera cucurbitae   larvae and pupae were recovered from infested M. charantia   fruits with an overall infestation rate of 1.70 larvae and pupae per fruit (411.49 larvae and pupae/kg fruit).

Island of Maui, Hawaii, U.S.A.

From July 1990 to October 1992, 11 ripe “on vine” or ground M. charantia abbreviata   fruits (0.034 kg) (listed as Momordica charantia L.   var. abbreviata Ser.   with intent to reference the “weedy” form) were collected once or twice a month from several sites on Maui Island, Hawaii. Fruits were weighed, counted, and held over sand in plastic buckets at 19–24° C until pupation (2 weeks). Bactrocera cucurbitae   larvae and pupae were recovered from infested M. charantia   fruits with an overall infestation rate of 2.00 larvae and pupae per fruit (647.06 larvae and pupae/kg fruit).

Mandal et al. 2006:

Pusa, State of Bihar, India

Momordica charantia   was sown in six random blocks in February 2000 in the experimental farm of Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa, Bihar. Twenty-five (25) randomly selected fruits were collected weekly from each block starting on 4 April and continuing to 28 June (13 collections) to determine the percentage of fruits infested by B. cucurbitae   . Overall, infestation of M. charantia   fruits by B. cucurbitae   averaged 35.0% (range: 24.6–46.3%).

+ Mathew et al. 1999:

Vellanikkara, State of Kerala, India

Wilted M. charantia   (listed as bittergourd) vines were observed in the vegetable fields of

Kerala Horticulture Development Programme, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara. Maggots were found in a rotten area of the vine. The maggots were reared and adult B. cucurbitae   emerged. No infestation rate was reported.

+ Mote 1975:

Rahuri, State of Maharashtra, India

Momordica charantia   plants (listed as bitter gourd) were set out in the kharif season,

and again in the summer season, in Rahuri, India, in a randomized block design with three replicates, to test the effectiveness of different insecticides in reducing infestation by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ). The percentage of fruits infested by B. cucurbitae   was calculated after making observations on infested and healthy fruits at each picking. Averages of 44.71% and 49.17% of M. charantia   fruits (in the untreated control) were infested by B. cucurbitae   in the kharif and summer seasons, respectively.

Mwatawala et al. 2010:

Morogoro Region, Central Tanzania

Fifty-eight (58) immature M. charantia   fruits (0.588 kg) were collected at irregular intervals between October 2004 and April 2008, from the Morogoro Region of Tanzania. Fruits were held in individual rearing boxes provided with appropriate medium for pupariation of infesting tephritid fruit flies. Emerged adults were removed and identified. Bactrocera cucurbitae   flies were recovered from 2 of 4 collections (50%), with an overall infestation rate of 86.73 flies/kg fruit and 277.17 flies/kg infested fruit.

Nakagawa et al. 1967:

Hawaii, U.S.A.

Wild M. charantia   fruits were heavily infested by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ). Out of 5,269 mature green to ripe fruits collected in Honomalino, South Kona, Hawaii Island, 7,667 pupae were recovered, most of which were (presumably) B. cucurbitae   , but some recovery of the parasitoid, Tetrastichus giffardianus Silvestri   , suggests that some B. dorsalis   infestation was also present.

Narayana et al. 1957:

Yenamalakuduru, State of Andhra Pradesh, India

Momordica charantia   var. ‘Nelakakara’ was cultivated from 1954 to 1955 and again from 1955 to 1956 in a randomized and replicated block layout in order to test the effectiveness of insecticidal treatments in reducing infestation by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ). The percentage of fruits infested by B. cucurbitae   was assessed in fruits collected after each of two spray treatments spaced 3 weeks apart. Average percentage infestation in the untreated control plot was 26.9% in the 1954 to 1955 trials (range: 21.6–34.2%) and 35.4% in the 1955–1956 trials (range: 34.5–36.2%).

Nath and Bhushan 2006:

Varanasi, State of Uttar Pradesh, India

Momordica charantia   was sown, with three replications, in Varanasi, India, the last week of March (summer season) and again the last week of June (rainy season) in both 2001 and 2002. Percentage infestation by B. cucurbitae   averaged 28.6% (range: 26.1–31.0%) in the summer season and 46.0% (range: 45.3–46.8%) in the rainy season.

Nishida 1955:

Island of Oahu, Hawaii, U.S.A.

Infested M. charantia   fruits, with nearly full grown B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) larvae, were collected at cultivated areas in the area of Waianae on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii between 1950 and 1951. Larvae were extracted from fruits and placed in small wax paper cups containing pumpkin pulp. The cups were placed on sand in jars in which a high humidity was maintained. Seventy-three (73) B. cucurbitae   larvae were recovered from the fruits. Number   of fruits and infestation rate data were not given.

Pal et al. 1984:

Bangalore, State of Karnataka, India

Multiple cultivars of M. charantia   were grown from seed collected from six states in

India (with one cultivar from the U.S.A.). Three replicates of 10 plants each were grown of each cultivar in Bangalore, India. Fruits from all replicates were combined for the determination of the percentage of fruits infested by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ). Field trials were conducted in four separate seasons (summer, rains and winter 1976, and summer 1977). Cultivars that showed promise in resistance to infestation were tested further in cage studies (see results of these trials under laboratory infestation results below). Average percentage infestation among 17 cultivars tested in summer 1976 was 42.2% (range: 0.0–70.0%). Average percentage infestation among 41 cultivars tested in rains 1976 was 32.6% (range: 0.0–75.0%). Average percentage infestation among 44 cultivars tested in winter 1976 was 31.5% (range: 0.0–72.0%). Average percentage infestation among 45 cultivars tested in summer 1977 was 38.1% (range: 0.0–73.0%).

+ Pali 1963:

New Delhi, India (authors state that the trial was conducted in California, U.S.A., but this does not seem possible)

In a test in 1957 of the relative effectiveness of the application of four insecticides (mixed with sugar and protein hydrolysate) to corn borders on reduction of infestation of M. charantia   fruits (listed as bitter gourd) by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ), 500 fruits, at five places in each plot, were assessed for infestation and percentage infestation calculated after each of four sprays. Following each count, the infested fruits from all plots were removed. Recorded percentage infestations in the untreated control plot were 37.5% (15 June), 37.9% (30 June), 59.6% (15 July), and 62.3% (30 July), for an overall average of 49.3%.

+ Pareek and Kavadia 1994:

Jobner and Udaipur, State of Rajasthan, India

Momordica charantia   fruits (listed as bitter gourd, variety ‘Pusa domousmi’) were grown in a randomized block design with nine other cucurbit crops (each with three replicated plots) for assessment of preference of B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ). The trials were conducted from February to June in 1979, and again in 1981, in Udaipur (semi-humid agroclimatic conditions) and in 1980 and 1981 in Jobner (semi-arid agroclimatic condition). Fruits were harvested twice a week, examined for fruit fly damage, and then percentage of fruits infested by B. cucurbitae   calculated. Percentage infestation averaged 78.4% (range: 78.0–78.8%) in Udaipur and 75.1% (range: 73.5–76.7%) in Jobner.

Prabhakar et al. 2012:

State of Himachal Pradesh, India

Infested M. charantia   fruits were collected from three districts of the State of Himalchal

Pradesh in India from 25 May to 3 September 2009. Fruits from each location were held in separate rearing cages under laboratory conditions in Palampur. Emerging tephritid fruit flies were identified following adult emergence. Adult B. cucurbitae   were recovered from M. charantia   fruits collected in Hamirpur, Kangra and Mandi Districts.

Pradhan 1977:

Nepal

Momordica charantia   (listed as Mimordica charantia   ) was planted by seed in Nepal in four separate plots (four replicates) during the first week of April in 1974 and again in 1975. Daily counts were made of infestation of flowers and then of fruits by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ). Infested flowers and fruits were detached and thrown to the ground after observations were completed. Infestation rate of fruits averaged 34.20% (range: 27.3–49.3%) in 1974 and 24.10% (range: 21.6–28.1%) in 1975.

Quilici et al. 2004:

Réunion Island, France

From 1996 to 2001, 1,068 M. charantia   fruits were collected on Réunion Island, France,

mostly from non-cultivated areas so that fruits could be obtained from pesticide-free areas. Fruits were weighed, counted and held in a laboratory at 25±1° C, 80±10% RH and 12:12 ( L:D) h until pupation. Pupae were transferred to small plastic boxes until adult emergence. Two thousand one hundred and nineteen (2,119) tephritid fruit flies were recovered, which included a mixture of B. cucurbitae   and Dacus ciliatus   (numbers of each species not specified).

Qureshi et al. 1974:

Hyderabad, Sindh Province, Pakistan

In order to document the relative abundance of B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) and Dacus ciliatus   , random samples of Momordica charantia   fruits were collected from various vegetable growing areas near Hyderabad, Pakistan from 1970 to 1972. Fruits were held separately in wooden boxes with wire-gauze screen at the bottom, and placed over another box containing sterilized sand. The sand was sieved daily and recovered pupae were held in Petri plates until adult emergence. Nineteen (19) B. cucurbitae   adults were recovered from 15.8 kg of M. charantia   fruits overall. Bactrocera cucurbitae   adults were recovered from 1 of 6 collections (16.7%), with a collection average of 2.44 adults recovered per kg fruit.

+ Raghuvanshi et al. 2008:

Varanasi, State of Uttar Pradesh, India

In a test of the effectiveness of trapping methods for control of B. cucurbitae   infestation,

M. charantia   (listed as bitter gourd, cv. ‘Faizabadi’) was sown in randomized block design plots with three replications in Varanasi in “kharif” seasons (June/July–September/October) in 2003 and again in 2004. Fruits were picked weekly and percentage of infested (“damaged”) fruits calculated. Weekly percentage infestation averaged 49.87% (range: 30.70–72.73%) and 53.07% (range: 34.50–73.25%) in 2003 and 2004, respectively.

Ramadan and Messing 2003:

Thailand

Three (3) collections of immature wild M. charantia   fruits (0.75 kg) with oviposition scars or signs of larval infestation were made in 1996 from three localities in Thailand (Rattaphum, Betong, Narathiwat) and 4 collections of immature and mature cultivated M. charantia   fruits (14.5 kg) with oviposition scars or signs of larval infestation were made in 1996 from four localities in Thailand (Malakino, Nakhon Pathom, Ratchaburi, Chiang Mai [near Mae-Jo]). Fruits were held over sawdust, which was subsequently sifted for recovery of tephritid fruit fly puparia. Fifty-six (56) adult B. cucurbitae   were recovered from the wild M. charantia   fruits, for an infestation rate of 74.7 adult B. cucurbitae   per kg wild M. charantia   fruits. One thousand and thirteen (1,013) adult B. cucurbitae   were recovered from the cultivated M. charantia   fruits, for an infestation rate of 69.9 adult B. cucurbitae   per kg cultivated M. charantia   fruits.

Saha et al. 2007:

Bangladesh

In 1993, a B. cucurbitae   laboratory colony was established from flies recovered from infested M. charantia   fruits.

Shivayya et al. 2007:

Bangalore, State of Karnataka, India

Infested M. charantia   fruits were collected from local fields in Bangalore from December

1998 - September 1999 and held in a laboratory over a 5.0 cm layer of moist sand in plastic containers for recovery of B. cucurbitae   adults. Recovered adults were used to study the duration of immature stages, mating behavior and fecundity. No infestation rate data were given.

Shivayya et al. 2008:

Bangalore, State of Karnataka, India

To test the relative effectiveness of nine different “attractants + dichlorvos” treatments in reducing the infestation of M. charantia   variety ‘Coimbatore Green Long’ fruits by B. cucurbitae   , a field trial was conducted between 1999 and 2000 in Bangalore using a randomized block planting design with three replications for the nine attractant treatments and a water only control. Infested fruits were held in plastic containers and adult B. cucurbitae   flies were recovered. Percentage infestation was determined for fruits in each plot. The average control fruit infestation, based on seven pickings, was 13.7%.

Shivayya and Kumar 2008a:

Bangalore, State of Karnataka, India

To test the relative effectiveness of six different insecticidal plant product treatments in reducing the infestation of M. charantia   variety ‘Coimbatore Green Long’ fruits by B. cucurbitae   , a field trial was conducted in 2003 through 2004 in Bangalore using a randomized block planting design with three replications for the six insecticidal plant product spray treatments and a water only spray control. Infested fruits were held for recovery of tephritid fruit flies and adult B. cucurbitae   flies were recovered. Percentage infestation was determined for fruits in each plot. The average control fruit infestation, based on seven pickings, was 43.1%.

Shivayya and Kumar 2008b:

Bangalore, State of Karnataka, India

To assess the seasonal population fluctuation of B. cucurbitae   , M. charantia   was sown at Sulivara and Rajanukunte villages at the outskirts of Bangalore starting in March 2003. Sowing was staggered so that fruits would be available for B. cucurbitae   flies throughout the year. Percentage infestation of fruits by B. cucurbitae   was determined (by observation) in fruits picked monthly, commencing 72–75 days after sowing. Bactrocera cucurbitae   -infested fruits from each picking were brought to the laboratory and held over moist sand in plastic trays, for recovery of pupae. At Sulivara, the monthly infestation rate averaged 27.6% (range: 12.0–52.1%) and the average number of pupae per infested fruit averaged 11.4 (range: 10.8–11.8 pupae per infested fruit). At Rajanukunte, the monthly infestation rate averaged 27.9% (range: 14.5-43.4%) and the average number of pupae per infested fruit averaged 11.5 (range: 10.8–12.5 pupae per infested fruit).

+ Singh et al. 2000:

Kanpur, State of Uttar Pradesh, India

Momordica charantia   fruits (listed as bitter gourd) were collected weekly at growers’ fields at the bank of the river Ganga in Kanpur beginning in February 1997. Percentage infestation by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) was determined (by observation) at each picking. The overall average B. cucurbitae   infestation rate was 31.3%.

Stonehouse et al. 2007:

Anand, State of Gujarat; Thrissur, State of Kerala; Bhubaneswar, State of Odisha, India  

In a study comparing the effectiveness of protein bait spray applications for control of tephritid fruit fly infestation in M. charantia   fruits at the farm level versus the village level (defined to be 1.0 km 2) in Anand, Thrissur, and Bhubaneswar, India, between 3 and 12 harvests of M. charantia   fruits were made in each of 2 years at farms with varying extent of bait spray application. Percentage infestation was determined based either on visual examination of fruit to detect oviposition or by rearing out adult flies in the laboratory. On two farms in each of Anand, Thrissur, and Bhubaneswar where no bait spray was applied, averages of 9.4, 12.4 and 19.4%, respectively, of the fruits were infested. Infestation was primarily by B. cucurbitae   , but was accompanied in some cases by a minority of other species.

Syed 1971:

Faisalabad, Gujranwala, Multan, Murree, Province of Punjab; Harnai and Quetta, Province of Balochistan; Hyderabad, Sindh Province; Peshawar Valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan

In Faisalabad and Gujranwala (1962-1963), 14% of M. charantia   fruits were infested by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) in May, with infestation increasing to 34% in June and 62% in August; in Multan (1963–1964), 78% of M. charantia   fruits were infested in June, with infestation rate decreasing to 20% in July; in Murree (1963), B. cucurbitae   was reared from M. charantia   in September and October, with 15% of fruits infested in October; in Harnai and Quetta (1964–1965), B. cucurbitae   was reared from M. charantia   in September; in Hyderabad (1964–1965), a few M. charantia   were infested by a mix of B. cucurbitae   and Dacus ciliatus   (40%:60%) at the end of April, with infestation rate increasing to 6–10% in May; in Peshawar Valley (1962–1963), 24% of M. charantia   fruits were infested by B. cucurbitae   , with infestation rate increasing to 34% in August. Total number of fruits collected was not given.

+ Talpur et al. 1994:

Tandojam, Sindh Province, Pakistan

To test the relative effectiveness of different concentrations of two insecticides in controlling B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) on Momordica charantia   (listed as bitter gourd), M. charantia   seeds were planted in March in Tandojam in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. Percentage infestation was determined on fruits that were randomly collected from the control and each treatment at four times following each of three sprays applied at 21-day intervals. In the control, cumulative M. charantia   infestation averaged 13.69, 17.45, 23.40 and 33.33%, at 3, 7, 14, and 21 days, respectively, after the spray application.

Tan and Lee 1982:

Penang Island, Malaysia

Infested M. charantia   fruits were randomly collected on Penang Island. Fruits were held over moist sterilized sand in fine wire mesh-covered plastic containers until pupation. Pupae were transferred and held at 27–29° C and 80±5% RH until adult emergence. Bactrocera cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) was recovered from infested M. charantia   fruits. Total number of fruits collected and infestation rate were not given.

Tewatia and Dhankhar 1996:

Hisar, State of Haryana, India

For a study of the inheritance of resistance in M. charantia   fruits to infestation by B. 

cucurbitae, crosses were made using two resistant varieties (‘Faizabad Collection 17’ and ‘ Kerala Collection 1’) and two highly susceptible varieties (‘Puso do Mausami’ and ‘Arka Harir’): ‘Arka Harit’ × ‘ Kerala Collection 1’ and ‘Faizabad Collection 17’ × ‘Puso do Mausami’. The parents, F 1, F 2 and backcross generations were all sown in unsprayed fields in Hisar in August 1993 in a compact family-block design with three replications. Marketable stage M. charantia   fruits were harvested at 4-day intervals and dissected to assess the damage by B. cucurbitae   . Infestation rates in the parental varieties were 84.39, 14.44, 14.68 and 83.85%, respectively, with the infestation rates in the F 1 generation similar to those found in the resistant parents (14.59 and 15.14% in the two crosses, respectively) showing that resistance to B. cucurbitae   infestation is dominant over susceptibility.

Thakur et al. 1994:

Ludhiana, State of Punjab, India

In a stability analysis study, 10 cultivars of M. charantia   were sown the second week of

March in each of 3 years (1989–1991) in Ludhiana in a randomized block design with three replications. No insecticidal sprays were applied. At each harvest, infested and uninfested fruits were counted and percentage infestation by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) was calculated. Infestation by B. cucurbitae   , averaged over the 3 years of study, was 13.8% (range: 9.9–17.0%).

Thomas and Jacob 1990:

Thrissur, State of Kerala, India

In a study conducted to measure carbofuran residues (applied at different growth stages of M. charantia   to protect the crop from infestation by B. cucurbitae   [listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ]), M. charantia   var. ‘Priya’ was planted out in a randomized block design with three replications in October 1987 in Thrissur (listed as Trichur). Percentage infestation of fruits by B. cucurbitae   was calculated for each fruit harvest. Infestation of M. charantia   var. ‘Priya’ fruits averaged 79.94% in the control plots.

Tsuruta et al. 1997:

Sri Lanka

At least 43 B. cucurbitae   adults were recovered from M. charantia   fruits collected in Sri

Lanka. Bactrocera cucurbitae   adults were recovered from fruits collected from Dankotuwa (15), Nalanda (10), Katunayake (6), Wariapola (4), Bibile (4), Lunuwila (4), and Ambeppusa (number not indicated). No infestation rate data were given.

Vargas and Carey 1990:

Moloaa, Island of Kauai, Hawaii, U.S.A.

Infested M. charantia   fruits collected from Moloaa were used to establish a laboratory colony of B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ).

Vayssières et al. 2007:

Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal, West

Africa

Tephritid fruit fly-infested Momordica charantia   fruits were collected from untreated orchards in eight countries in West Africa. Fruits were placed on mesh supports over sand. Tephritid fruit fly pupae, recovered through weekly sieving of the sand, were transferred to small hatching boxes lined with wet blotting paper and held for adult emergence. The average B. cucurbitae   infestation level in M. charantia   fruits in West Africa fell in the range of 76– 100 pupae /kg fruit. For comparison, the authors indicated that the infestation level of M. charantia   fruits averaged over 100 pupae /kg fruit on Réunion Island.

Vayssières et al. 2008:

Réunion Island, France

A laboratory colony of B. cucurbitae   was developed using adults recovered from 5 collections of infested Momordica charantia   fruits collected at St. Paul, Réunion Island. No infestation rate data were given.

Vayssières and Carel 1999:

Réunion Island, France

Both wild Momordica charantia   fruits and fruits of a local M. charantia   cultivar were collected over the course of a year from up to 70 localities on Réunion Island. Fruits with evidence of fruit fly infestation were held in individual containers, with recovered pupae held for adult emergence. Bactrocera cucurbitae   recovery averaged 1,257.1 (standard deviation [ SD] = 1,217) adults per kg infested fruit (wild fruits) and 435.6 ( SD = 452.9) adults per kg infested fruit (local cultivar).

+ Wen 1985:

Taiwan

Momordica charantia   fruits (listed as balsam pear) were collected in southern Taiwan from November 1983 to June 1984. Infestation by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) averaged 9.78% (bimonthly averages ranged from 3.67–14.32%).

Wong et al. 1986:

Island of Oahu, Hawaii, U.S.A.

A laboratory colony of B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) was developed from B. cucurbitae- infested M. charantia   fruits collected on the Island of Oahu in 1950. No infestation rate data were given.

Wong et al. 1989:

Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

On the island of Rota, 6 cultivated M. charantia   fruits (listed as cultivated bittermelon)

(from 1 collection) were collected in 1985 and 10 fruits (from 3 collections) were collected in 1986. Fruits were held over moist sand in plastic containers with screened lids for recovery of B. cucurbitae   pupae and adult emergence. Bactrocera cucurbitae   recovery averaged 0.0 pupae/kg fruit (1985) and 16.9 pupae/ kg fruit (1986).

In a parallel study, weekly fruit collections of M. charantia   were made from 1985 to

1987 from 30 collecting sites. Fruits were held over moist sand in plastic containers with screened lids for recovery of B. cucurbitae   pupae and adult emergence. Fifteen thousand eight hundred fifty-four (15,854) fruits were collected, of which 4,960 (31.3%) were infested by B. cucurbitae   . Ten thousand six hundred four (10,604) pupae were recovered, from which 10,212 melon flies emerged, giving an average of 0.67 pupae (and 0.64 adult B. cucurbitae   ) per fruit and 2.14 pupae (and 2.06 adult B. cucurbitae   ) per infested fruit.

Yang et al. 1994:

Guangzhou, Guandong Province, China

B. cucurbitae   colony was developed from infested M. charantia   fruits collected in

Guangzhou, China. No infestation rate was given.

Yong 1992:

State of Selangor, Malaysia

Adult B. cucurbitae   flies were recovered from infested M. charantia   fruits collected from four localities in the state of Selangor in Peninsular Malaysia. Interception Data:

Defra 2008:

Thailand

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered in North West United Kingdom from 14 boxes of

M. charantia   fruits originating in Thailand, and in the Greater London area of the United Kingdom from 122 boxes of M. charantia   fruits originating in Thailand. No infestation rate data were given.

PestID 2016:

Asia Unknown

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered by USDA-APHIS-PPQ (“interceptions”) from Momordica charantia   fruit(s), originating in Asia (exact location not known), at an airport in California (San Francisco) on one occasion in 1996. Recovery was nine live larvae.

Hawaii, U.S.A.

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered by USDA-APHIS-PPQ (“interceptions”) from Momordica charantia   fruits, originating in Hawaii, at airports in Hawaii on 81 occasions (Honolulu–70; Kahului–4; Kailua–Kona–1; Lihue–6) between 1988 and 2014. Live larvae were found on 76 occasions with an average of 11.9 live larvae per interception. Live pupae were found on eight occasions with an average of 6.25 live pupae per interception. Live adults were recovered on two occasions, yielding 1 and 3 flies. Six (6) dead pupae were found on one occasion. Two (2) live eggs were found on one occasion.

India

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered by USDA-APHIS-PPQ (“interceptions”) from Momordica charantia   fruits, originating in India, at airports in California (San Francisco–2), Illinois (Chicago–2), Michigan (Detroit–2), New York (JFK–3), and Texas (Houston–1) on ten occasions between 1989 and 2003. Average recovery was 5.0 live larvae. On one occasion in 2002, one live pupa was recovered.

Philippines

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered by USDA-APHIS-PPQ (“interceptions”) from Momordica charantia   fruits, originating in the Philippines, at airports in California (Los Angeles –1 and San Francisco–4), Hawaii (Honolulu–3), Illinois (Chicago–1), and Michigan (Detroit–2) on 11 occasions between 1990 and 2009. Average recovery was 12.6 live larvae.

Thailand

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered by USDA-APHIS-PPQ (“interceptions”) from Momordica charantia   fruit(s), originating in Thailand, at an airport in New York (JKF) on one occasion in 2010. Recovery was two live larvae.

Takeishi 1992:

Thailand

Two (2) B. cucurbitae   -infested (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) M. charantia   fruits were collected from airline passengers at Narita Airport, Japan, who had arrived on a flight(s) originating in Thailand. At the time of confiscation, all larvae-infested fruits were held in individual containers with sand at 20–28°C until adult emergence. Infestation rate data were not given.

USDA 1948b:

Bactrocera cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) was recovered from balsam pear ( M. charantia   ) which originated from a port in Hawaii and was intercepted at a port in California (1 interception in consumption host) between 1 July 1946 and 30 June 1947 (number of individuals recovered and life stages not reported). Taxonomic identification was done by entomologists of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, USDA.

USDA 1954:

Bactrocera cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) was recovered from balsam pear ( M. charantia   ) which originated from the Philippines and was intercepted at a port in Guam (1 interception in consumption host) between 1 July 1952 and 30 June 1953 (number of individuals recovered and life stages not reported). Taxonomic identification was done by entomologists of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, USDA.

USDA 1959:

Bactrocera cucurbita   e (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) was recovered from balsam pear ( M. charantia   ) which originated in Hawaii and was intercepted at a port in California (1 interception in consumption host) between 1 July 1957 and 30 June 1958 (number of individuals recovered and life stages not reported). Taxonomic identification was done by entomologists of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, USDA.

USDA 1964:

Bactrocera cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) was recovered from balsam pear ( M. charantia   ) which originated in air baggage from the Philippines and was intercepted in Hawaii (1 interception in consumption host) between 1 July 1962 and 30 June 1963 (number of individuals recovered and life stages not reported). Taxonomic identification was done by entomologists of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, USDA.

USDA 1966:

Bactrocera cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) was recovered from balsam pear ( M. charantia   ) which originated in baggage from Hawaii and was intercepted in Oregon (1 interception in consumption host) between 1 July 1964 and 30 June 1965 (number of individuals recovered and life stages not reported). Taxonomic identification was done by entomologists of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, USDA.

Lab Infestation:

Agarwal and Yazdani 1991:

One hundred (100) eggs, collected from adult B. cucurbitae   flies (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) which emerged from field-infested Luffa aegyptiaca Mill.   fruits (listed as Luffa cylindrica   ), were inserted in a triangular cut in a Momordica charantia   fruit (four replications) and held at 29.85±8.33°C and 61.72±22.05% RH. An average of 73% survived from larval stage to adult emergence.

Akter et al. 2010:

In a laboratory host preference study conducted in Bangladesh during 2005 to 2006, 250 g M. charantia   , along with 250 g of each of 5 other vegetables ( Cucumis sativus   , Cucurbita maxima   , Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicum   , S. melongena   , and Trichosanthes cucumerina   ), were simultaneously exposed to one hundred (100) 15–20-day-old gravid female B. cucurbitae   flies for 3 hours, then placed over saw dust. The saw dust was sieved to recover pupae which were transferred to Petri dishes and held until adult emergence. The trial was replicated five times. Recovery of B. cucurbitae   pupae and adults averaged 258±53.66 and 233±44.03, respectively (1,032 and 932 per kg fruit, respectively). The order of adult recovery (greatest to smallest) was: S. melongena   > T. cucumerina   > C. maxima   > C. sativus   > M. charantia   > S. lycopersicum   .

Amin et al. 2011:

Bactrocera cucurbitae   larvae and B. cucurbitae   -infested M. charantia   fruits were collected from a field at the Entomology Farm Laboratory, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, in Dinajpur, Bangladesh and held in jars in a laboratory at 25±2°C, 60±5% RH and a 12:12 (L:D) h photoperiod. Adult male and female B. cucurbitae   that emerged were kept in the same jar and provided fresh M. charantia   fruit for oviposition. Larvae, pupae and adults that emerged from these stock cultures were used for observation of B. cucurbitae   life history parameters.

Bains and Sidhu 1984:

Newly emerged B. cucurbitae   larvae (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) were placed on cut pieces of M. charantia   and held in Petri plates having moist blotting paper on the bottom. Larval survival to pupation was 77.5%.

Doharey 1983:

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was maintained on bitter gourd ( Momordica charantia   ). Eggs laid in fruits were removed daily and placed on sterilized sand in glass rearing jars. Freshly formed pupae were transferred to smaller glass jars and held on sterile sand until adult emergence. Holding temperature was 27±1°C. The incubation period on bitter gourd averaged 4.0 days, the larval period averaged 3.8 days, and the pupal period averaged 7.0 days, totaling 14.8 days from egg to adult.

+ Fang 1989:

In tests of the effectiveness of different bagging materials on infestation of M. charantia   fruits (listed as bitter gourd) by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ), 60 out of 200 control fruits (30.0%) were infested by B. cucurbitae   .

+ Gupta and Verma   1995:

A cohort of 50 B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) newly emerged maggots was placed on a small slice of M. charantia   fruit (listed as bitter gourd) kept in a Petri dish. Maggots were shifted daily to a new slice and mortality was recorded. Mature larvae were allowed to burrow into sand for pupation and, after 6 days, pupae were recovered and placed in plastic tubes until eclosion. Average adult survivorship from newly emerged larvae placed on bitter gourd was 60%, which was greater than on cucumber ( C. sativus   ) (54%) or on sponge gourd ( Luffa aegyptiaca   ) (44%).

Iwaizumi et al. 1994:

Intact, mature M. charantia   fruits were exposed to 10 gravid female B. cucurbitae   for 24 hours in a screen-net cage. An average (over three replications) of 123.3±34.1 adults was recovered.

Khan et al. 2011:

In a choice test, 50.0 g of M. charantia   fruits, along with 50.0 g of each of eight other natural hosts, were exposed for 20 minutes to 50 pairs of 15–20-day-old B. cucurbitae   and 50 pairs of 15–20-day-old B. tau   inside a small cage, after which fruit samples were removed and placed separately on sawdust inside a cloth-covered plastic bowl for pupation. The sawdust was sieved after 6 to 8 days to recover pupae (of both fly species) which were held for adult emergence. Out of a mean infestation of 202±16.74 pupae recovered (mixed infestation of B. cucurbitae   and B. tau   ), 75.24% (152.0) of the recovered pupae emerged as adult B. cucurbitae   .

In a no-choice test, 50.0 g of M. charantia   fruits, as well as 50.0 g of each of eight other natural hosts, were exposed for 20 minutes to 5 pairs of 15–20-day-old B. cucurbitae   and 5 pairs of 15–20-day-old B. tau   inside separate small cages, after which fruit samples were removed and placed separately on sawdust inside a cloth-covered plastic bowl for pupation. The sawdust was sieved after 6 to 8 days to recover pupae (of both fly species) which were held for adult emergence. Out of a mean infestation of 48±1.15 pupae recovered (mixed infestation of B. cucurbitae   and B. tau   ), 31.25% (15.0) of the recovered pupae emerged as adult B. cucurbitae   .

Koul and Bhagat 1994b:

Bottle gourd ( Lagenaria siceraria   ) was used to rear B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) in the lab. Eggs obtained from flies maintained on bottle gourd were placed on a thin slice of tender and fresh M. charantia   fruit. Newly emerged B. cucurbitae   larvae were transferred to freshly cut M. charantia   slices placed in glass tubes for 2-5 days and then held over sand (4 cm thick) until pupation. Pupae were sieved daily and individually transferred to glass tubes with a 3-cm sand layer moistened with water and held until adult emergence. Newly emerged flies were held in glass tubes after pairing, provided with a slice of M. charantia   fruit and a cotton plug soaked in 10% honey solution. Larval duration averaged 3.5 days, compared to 4.2, 4.7, 4.7, and 5.7 days, when reared on Lagenaria siceraria   , Cucumis sativus   , Benincasa fistulosa   and Cucurbita pepo   , respectively. No temperature or relative humidity data were provided.

+ Lall and Singh 1959:

Infestation of M. charantia   fruits (listed as bitter gourd) by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) in the State of Bihar was observed to be 59.5%.

Pal et al. 1984:

Cultivars of M. charantia   that showed promise in field trials in resistance to infestation by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) (see results of these trials under field infestation results above) were tested further in cage studies in each of three seasons (winter, summer, and rains). Twelve (12) plants of each selected cultivar were grown in insect-proof cages. Four (4) sexually mature, mated B. cucurbitae   flies per plant, reared in the laboratory from field-infested M. charantia   fruits, were added to the cages when female flowers started to appear. Average percentage infestation among 31 cultivars tested in winter 1977 was 29.7% (range: 3.3–60.0%). Average percentage infestation among 13 cultivars tested in summer 1978 was 32.0% (range: 2.2–63.2%). Average percentage infestation among 6 cultivars tested in rains 1978 was 22.6% (range: 2.6–36.1%).

Ponce 1937:

Bactrocera cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) was reared in the laboratory on M. charantia   fruit. At a mean temperature of 30.36°C, the overall larval period lasted 6.50 days, based on “14 cultures” (replications).

Rajamannar 1962:

Using B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) 1 st instar larvae obtained from eggs oviposited on bottle gourd ( Lagenaria siceraria   ; listed as L. vulgaris   ), 81 of 100 (81%) 1 st instar larvae raised on M. charantia   (listed as bitter gourd) pupated, with an average time to pupation of 5.0 days. In a separate test, 68 of 100 (68%) 1 st instar larvae were found to feed on pieces of M. charantia   (an average of 13.6 out of 20 larvae, based on five replicated trials).

Saha et al. 2007:

The relative quality of seven different B. cucurbitae   fruit hosts was assessed by comparing pupal recovery (in F 1 and F 2 generations) following exposure of 500 g of each fruit to 200 gravid B. cucurbitae   adults (from laboratory-adapted stock culture) for 30 minutes. For M. charantia   , 330 and 379 pupae (660 and 758 pupae /kg fruit) and 271 and 330 adults (541 and 659 adults per kg fruit) were recovered in the F 1 and F 2 generations, respectively.

Sarwar et al. 2013:

Healthy, undamaged, mature and ripe M. charantia   fruits were collected from a local marketplace in Faisalabad, Pakistan. One hundred twenty-five (125) g of fruits were placed in the bottom of a sieve that was suspended from a guava tree ( Psidium guajava   ) in a guava orchard that was not bearing fruits (with three replications). Fruits were left exposed to wild B. cucurbitae   flies for 48

hours. Fruits from each replication were placed over sand in muslin cloth-topped plastic containers and held for 2 to 3 weeks. Bactrocera cucurbitae   puparia, recovered by sieving the sand, were placed in moist sand in a Petri plate and held for adult emergence. An average of 134.1 B. cucurbitae   pupae (1,072.6 pupae/kg fruit) was recovered from which an average of 110.8 adult flies (886.6 adult flies/kg fruit) emerged.

Shivashankar et al. 2015:

One 1 st instar B. cucurbitae   larva, newly emerged from an egg oviposited on a tender Sechium edule   fruit, was inserted into a 5 mm diameter by 2 mm deep hole punched into the surface of a freshly harvested tender M. charantia   fruit. Fruits were held, in large plastic containers having a thin layer of sand, at the mean ambient temperature and relative humidity of 28.2±1.0°C and 58.7±1.0% RH, respectively. Pupae recovered were transferred to a different container with a thin layer of moist sand for adult emergence. There were ten replications with 10 fruits per replication. An average of 8.47 adult B. cucurbitae   emerged per replication.

Listing Only: + Agrawal and Mathur 1991 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as bitter gourd); + Akhtaruzzaman et al. 1999 (listed as bitter gourd); Armstrong and Vargas 1982 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); + Ayyar 1935 (listed as Chaetodacus cucurbitae   ; listed as bittergourd); Beller and Bhenchitr 1936 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Binder et al. 1989 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Botha et al. 2004 (listed as a secondary host); CABI 2016 (listed as a secondary host); California Department of Food and Agriculture 2001; Cantelo and Pholboon 1965 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Cantrell et al. 1999; Chaturvedi 1947 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); + Chen 1960 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as balsam pear); Cunningham et al. 1970 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); De Meyer et al. 2014; De Meyer et al. 2015 (listed as Zeugodacus cucurbitae   ); Dhillon et al. 2005a (listed as both Momordica charantia   and as Mormodica charantia var. muricata   ); EcoPort 2008; European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization 2015 (listed as a major host); Etienne 1967 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Etienne 1972 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; adults obtained very frequently); Government of Western Australia Department of Agriculture and Food 2015; + Greene 1929 (listed as bitter gourd); Harris et al. 2010; Holbrook 1967 (listed as “heavily or generally infested”); Hollingsworth and Allwood 2000; Hollingsworth et al. 2003; Kandybina 1987 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Kapoor 1970 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Kapoor 1991 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); + Kapoor 2005 –2006 (listed as bitter gourd); Kapoor and Agarwal 1983 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Kazi 1976 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); + Khan et al. 1989 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as bittergourd); + Kumagai et al. 1996 (listed as bitter gourd); + Lall 1964 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as bittergourd); Leblanc 2000; Leblanc et al. 2013b; + Liu 1993 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as bitter melon); Mamet and Williams 1993 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); + Mau et al. 2007 (listed as bittermelon); McBride and Tanada 1949 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as frequently injured); Messing et al. 1995; Metcalf 1990 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as a preferred host); Moiz et al. 1967 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Plantwise Knowledge Bank 2015; Narayanan and Batra 1960 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Nishida 1963 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as both karela and as M. charantia   L.); Oakley 1950 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); +Okinawa Prefectural Fruit Fly Eradication Project 1987 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as bitter melon); Pacific Fruit Fly Web 2002; Phillips 1946 (listed as both bitter gourd and as M. charantia   [separately]); Puttarudriah and Usman 1954 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Quilici and Jeuffrault 2001 (listed as being a very favorable host); Rejesus et al. 1991 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); + Renjhen 1949 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as bittergourd); Ryckewaert et al. 2010; Singh et al. 2004; Sookar and Khayratee 2000; + Symonds et al. 2009 (listed as bitter melon); Uchida et al. 1990; USDA 1986 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); USDA-APHIS-PPQ 1983 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CSDA 1984 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Momordica charantica   ; listed as a preferred host); Vargas et al. 1989 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Vargas et al. 2004; Vargas and Nishida 1991 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Vargas and Prokopy 2006; Vijaysegaran 1991 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Memordica Charantia   L.); +Walker 2005 (listed as bitter gourd); Weems et al. 2001 (listed as balsam apple; listed as a wild host); White and Elson- Harris 1992; Williamson et al. 1985; Wong et al. 1991 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); +Yang 1991 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as bitter melon); Yunus and Hua 1980 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Memordica charantia   L.).

Synonyms: Momordica charantia var. abbreviata Ser.   , Momordica muricata Willd.   , Momordica zeylanica Mill.  

Momordica charantia L.   subsp. charantia   , see Momordica charantia L.  

Momordica charantia var. abbreviata Ser.   , see Momordica charantia L.  

Momordica charantia var. muricata   , see Momordica charantia L.  

Momordica charantia var. pavel Crantz   Family: Cucurbitaceae Grin Nomen Number   : There is no listing in GRIN for this var.; taxonomy taken from Hatushima and Amano (1994). Field Infestation:

Kuba and Koyama 1982:

Okinawa Island, Japan

Bactrocera cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) larvae were recovered from infested

M. charantia var. pavel   (listed as pevel) fruits in 1980 in the southern part of Okinawa Island. The larvae were allowed to pupate under semi-field conditions, then brought to a rearing room maintained at 27±1°C. Progeny of recovered adults were used in mating behavior studies.

Matsuyama and Kuba 2002:

Okinawa, Japan

A laboratory strain of B. cucurbitae   was established based on the collection of 19,281

larvae recovered in 1985 from M. charantia var. pavel   fruits collected in the southern part of Okinawa Island. No fruit weight was given.

Matsuyama and Kuba 2009:

Okinawa, Japan

A laboratory strain of B. cucurbitae   was established based on the collection of 19,281

larvae recovered in 1985 from M. charantia var. pavel   fruits collected in the southern part of Okinawa Island. No fruit weight was given.

McQuate and Teruya 2015:

Southwestern Islands of Japan

Before the start of population suppression activities in a B. cucurbitae   eradication program, 59,972 M. charantia var. pavel   fruits were collected (285 collections overall) from five islands/ island groups (Amami, Kume, Miyako, Okinawa, Yaeyama) in Japan and held on sand or sawdust in plastic containers. After 2 to 3 weeks, the sand or sawdust was sieved to recover tephritid fruit fly pupae which were then held for adult emergence and identification. Infestation by B. cucurbitae   was found in 8,813 fruits, giving an average percentage infestation rate (weighted by the number of collections in the islands/island groups) of 21.6%.

Prokopy and Koyama 1982:

Okinawa, Japan

All adult flies used in oviposition experiments with B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) originated from pupae recovered from wild-collected infested fruits of M. charantia var. pavel Crantz. No   infestation rate was given.

Suenaga et al. 1992:

Amami Islands, Japan

A new laboratory strain of B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) was developed from about 2,800 wild B. cucurbitae   collected as larvae from infested cultivated M. charantia var. pavel   fruits in the Amami Islands in July 1985. Synonyms: Momordica charantia L.  

Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng.  

Family: Cucurbitaceae 

Grin Nomen Number: 24521

Common Names: balsam-pear (English), bhat karela (unknown), Chinese bitter-cucumber (English), Chinese-cucumber (English), cundeamor (Spanish), giant spine gourd (English), indische Bittergurke (German), mu bie zi (transcribed Chinese), muricie (French), spiny bitter-cucumber (English), sweet gourd (English), taggig bittergurka (Swedish).

Native: ASIA-TEMPERATE – China: China – Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang; Eastern Asia: Taiwan; ASIA-TROPICAL – Indian Subcontinent: Bangladesh, India – Assam, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; North Indian Ocean: India – Andaman and Nicobar; Indo-China: Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand; Vietnam; Malesia: Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines; AUSTRALASIA – Australia: Australia – Queensland.

Cultivated: ASIA-TEMPERATE – China: China; Eastern Asia: Japan – Ryukyu Islands; ASIA- TROPICAL – Indian Subcontinent: India; Indo-China: Indochina, Thailand; Malesia: Indonesia, Malaysia.

Field Infestation:

Allwood et al. 1999:

Thailand, Malaysia, Southern India

From fruit collections in 1992, B. cucurbitae   was recovered from samples of M. cochinchinensis   . Number   of fruit samples and infestation rate data were not given. Bactrocera cucurbitae   individuals were identified by R.A.I. Drew and D.L. Hancock.

Clausen et al. 1965:

Thailand

From collections of M. cochinchinensis   in August 1950 in Thailand, 400 puparia were recovered, a mix of three predominant species: B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae Coq.   ), B. dorsalis   (listed as Dacus dorsalis Hendel   ) and Bactrocera tau   (listed as Dacus nubilus Hendel   ) ( B. cucurbitae   was present in small numbers).

Verma   and Singh 1976:

District of Champaran, State of Bihar, India

Fruits of Momordica cochinchinensis   (listed as Memordica cochinsinensis), locally known as ‘kakari’ and ‘chathael,’ were found to be infested by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) in the district of Champaran. Fruits were found to have 6 to 10 B. cucurbitae   maggots.

Listing Only: CABI 2016 (listed as a secondary host); California Department of Food and Agriculture 2001 (listed as Momordica cochinchiensis   ); Cantrell et al. 1999; De Meyer et al. 2014; Government of Western Australia Department of Agriculture and Food 2015; Leblanc et al. 2013b; + Phillips 1946 (listed as Chinese cucumber); Plantwise Knowledge Bank 2015; Singh et al. 2004; USDA 1986 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); USDA-APHIS-PPQ 1983 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); White and Elson-Harris 1992.

Synonyms: Momordica ovata Cogn.   , Muricia cochinchinensis Lour.  

Momordica cylindrica   L., see Luffa aegyptiaca Mill.  

Momordica dioica Roxb. ex Willd.  

Family: Cucurbitaceae 

Grin Nomen Number: 24523

Common Names: kaksa ( India), spine gourd (English).

Native: ASIA-TROPICAL – Indian Subcontinent: India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka.

Cultivated: ASIA-TROPICAL – Indian Subcontinent: India.

Field Infestation:

Allwood et al. 1999:

Thailand, Malaysia, Southern India

From fruit collections in 1992, B. cucurbitae   was recovered from samples of M. dioica   . Number   of fruit samples and infestation rate data were not given. Bactrocera cucurbitae   individuals were identified by R.A.I. Drew and D. L. Hancock.

Listing Only: CABI 2016 (listed as a secondary host); De Meyer et al. 2014; Leblanc et al. 2013b; Plantwise Knowledge Bank 2015; USDA-APHIS 2000; USDA-APHIS 2008.

Momordica foetida Schumach.  

Family: Cucurbitaceae 

Grin Nomen Number: 24525

Native: AFRICA – Northeast Tropical Africa: Eritrea, Ethiopia; East Tropical Africa: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda; West-Central Tropical Africa: Burundi, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea – Bioko; Rwanda, Zaire; West Tropical Africa: Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Togo; South Tropical Africa: Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe; Southern Africa: Namibia, South Africa – Cape Province, KwaZulu-Natal, Transvaal; Swaziland.

Field Infestation:

Mwatawala et al. 2010:

Morogoro Region, Central Tanzania

Forty-one (41) immature M. foetida   fruits (listed as M. cf foetida Schumach.   ) (0.712 kg) were collected at irregular intervals between October 2004 and April 2008, from the Morogoro Region of Tanzania. Fruits were held in individual rearing boxes provided with appropriate medium for pupariation of infesting tephritid fruit flies. Emerged adults were removed and identified. Bactrocera cucurbitae   flies were recovered from from 2 of 3 collections (66.67%), with an overall infestation rate of 67.32 flies/kg fruit and 74.53 flies/kg infested fruit.

Listing Only: Copeland et al. 2009; De Meyer et al. 2014; De Meyer et al. 2015 (listed as Zeugodacus cucurbitae   ).

Synonyms: Momordica schimperiana Naudin  

Momordica luffa   L., see Luffa aegyptiaca Mill.  

Momordica muricata Willd.   , see Momordica charantia L.  

Momordica pedata   L., see Cyclanthera pedata   (L.) Schrad.

Momordica ovata Cogn.   , see Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng.  

Momordica rostrata A. Zimm.  

Family: Cucurbitaceae 

Grin Nomen Number: 24525

Native: AFRICA – East Tropical Africa: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda; Northeast Tropical Africa: Ethiopia, Somalia.

Listing Only: Copeland et al. 2009; De Meyer et al. 2015 (listed as Zeugodacus cucurbitae   ).

Momordica schimperiana Naudin   , see Momordica foetida Schumach.  

Momordica spp.   Family: Cucurbitaceae Grin Nomen Number   : 315818 Field Infestation: Back and Pemberton 1917:

Hawaii, U.S.A.

Chinese cucumber is listed as a preferred host of B. cucurbitae   . In November 1914, 319

of 331 Momordica sp.   fruits collected from 6 square feet of pasture in Kona, Hawaii Island, U.S.A. were infested by melon fly (96.4%). Two hundred fifty (250) fruits (out of a collection of 442 fruits) were held over sand, from which 1,586 melon fly larvae were obtained, an average of 6.3 larvae per fruit. Fullaway 1916:

Singapore

Bactrocera cucurbitae   adults (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) were reared out of Momordica  

sp. fruits (listed as momordicas). No infestation rate data given. Willard 1920:

Kona, Hawaii, U.S.A.

Out of 442 Momordica sp.   fruits (also referred to as wild Chinese cucumber) collected in Kona on 8 May 1916, 248 (56.1%) were infested by B. cucurbitae   . From those infested fruits, 559 B. cucurbitae   eggs and 1,222 B. cucurbitae   larvae were recovered for an average infestation rate (egg plus larvae) of 4.03 B. cucurbitae   per fruit and 7.18 B. cucurbitae   per infested fruit. Interception Data:

Defra 2008:

India

One (1) live pupa and two live immatures of Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered in

North West United Kingdom from four boxes of Momordica sp.   originating in India.

PestID 2016:

Guam

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered by USDA-APHIS-PPQ (“interceptions”) from Momordica sp.   fruit(s), originating in Guam, at an airport in Hawaii (Honolulu) on one occasion in 1993. Recovery was six live larvae.

Hawaii, U.S.A.

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered by USDA-APHIS-PPQ (“interceptions”) from Momordica sp.   fruits, originating in Hawaii, at an airport in Hawaii (Honolulu) on 24 occasions between 1992 and 2007. Average recovery was 7.0 live larvae. On one occasion in 2005, one live pupa was recovered.

India

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered by USDA-APHIS-PPQ (“interceptions”) from

Momordica sp.   fruits, originating in India, at an airport in New York (JFK) on one occasion in 1992. Recovery was two live larvae.

Philippines

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered by USDA-APHIS-PPQ (“interceptions”) from

Momordica sp.   fruits, originating in the Philippines, at an airport in California (Los Angeles) on one occasion in 1998. Recovery was 10 live larvae.

USDA 1959:

Bactrocera cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) was recovered from Momordica spp.  

which originated in Hawaii and was intercepted in Hawaii (1 interception in mail; adult fruit flies and eggs) between 1 July 1957 and 30 June 1958 (number of individuals recovered not reported). Taxonomic identification was done by agricultural specialists of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, USDA. Listing Only: Back and Pemberton 1918 (listed as a preferred host); California Department of Food and Agriculture 2001; Chawla 1966 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); De Meyer et al. 2014; Holbrook 1967 (listed as “heavily or generally infested”); Hollingsworth et al. 1996; Isnadi 1991 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); McBride and Tanada 1949 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Oakley 1950 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); USDA 1986 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); USDA-APHIS 2000; USDA-APHIS 2008; USDA-APHIS-PPQ 1983 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CSDA 1984 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as both Chinese cucumber [gourd] and as parya-soorten; Chinese cucumber is listed as a preferred host, while it is indicated that there is insufficient data to justify regulation of parya-soorten); Vijaysegaran 1985 (listed as Dacuis cucurbitae   ); Weems 1964 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as a wild host); Weems et al. 2001 (listed as a wild host).

Momordica trifoliolata Hook.   f.

Family: Cucurbitaceae 

Grin Nomen Number: 24531

Native: AFRICA – Northeast Tropical Africa: Ethiopia, Somalia; East Tropical Africa: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda; South Tropical Africa: Mozambique; Western Indian Ocean: Madagascar.

Field Infestation:

Mwatawala et al. 2010:

Morogoro Region, Central Tanzania

One thousand ninety-six (1,096) immature M. trifoliolata   fruits (listed as M. cf trifoliata Hook   f.) (9.006 kg) were collected at irregular intervals between October 2004 and April 2008, from the Morogoro Region of Tanzania. Fruits were held in individual rearing boxes provided with appropriate medium for pupariation of infesting tephritid fruit flies. Emerged adults were removed and identified. Bactrocera cucurbitae   flies were recovered from 34 of 58 collections (58.62%), with an overall infestation rate of 106.93 flies/kg fruit and 157.07 flies/kg infested fruit.

Listing Only: Copeland et al. 2009; De Meyer et al. 2014 (listed as Momordica trifoliata   ); De Meyer et al. 2015 (listed as Zeugodacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Momordica trifoliata Hook.   f.).

Momordica zeylanica Mill.   , see Momordica charantia L.  

Mukia maderaspatana   (L.) M. Roem., see Cucumis maderaspatanus   L.

Mukia scabrella   (L.) Arn., see Cucumis maderaspatanus   L.

Muricia cochinchinensis Lour.   , see Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng.  

Musa acuminata Colla  

Family: Musaceae  

Grin Nomen Number   : 24706

Common Names: ädelbanan (Swedish), banana (English), banana-nanica (Portuguese-Brazil), Banane (German), bananier (French), bananier nain (French), bitoki ( Uganda), bungulan (unknown), cau batu (Sudanese), Cavendish banana (English), Chinese banana (English), dwarf banana (English), gedang klutuk (Indonesian-Java), nanicão (Portuguese-Brazil), pisang batu (Indonesian), plátano (Spanish), Zwergbanane (German).

Native: ASIA-TEMPERATE – China: China – Guangxi, Yunnan; ASIA-TROPICAL – Indian Subcontinent: India, Sri Lanka; Indo-China: Indochina, Myanmar, Thailand; Malesia: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines.

Naturalized: AFRICA – East Tropical Africa: Tanzania – Pemba.

Cultivated: Widely cultivated.

Field Infestation:

Armstrong 1983 (Note: this is negative data; no B. cucurbitae   infestation found):

Hawaii, U.S.A.

Between 1977 and 1978, ripe culled M. acuminata   banana cultivars (a mix of three cultivars: ‘Brazilian,’ ‘Valery,’ and ‘William’s’) were collected at 3-month intervals from cull dumps at banana plantations in Kaneohe and in Waimanalo on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii and held for assessment of infestation by tephritid fruit flies. Sampled bananas were 15±2 days postharvest with about 13 days exposure to natural fly populations. Although cuelure-based trapping had shown B. cucurbitae   adults (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) were in the area of both cull dumps, no melon flies were reared from the total of 54.0 kg of cull fruits collected. The author concluded that this result supported a conclusion that bananas are not a host for B. cucurbitae   .

Lab Infestation:

Armstrong 1983:

Ten (10) fingers of each of three M.   acuminata cultivars (‘Brazilian,’ ‘Valerie,’ and ‘William’s’) of each of six ripeness stages (1 = [mature] green; 2 = green with a trace of yellow; 3 = more green than yellow; 4 = more yellow than green; 5 = green tip only; 6 = all yellow) were exposed for 1 hour to about 16,000 laboratory-reared, sexually mature, Bactrocera cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ), B. dorsalis   and Ceratitis capitata   adults in a 14.5 m 3 screened cage (10 replications per ripeness stage per variety). After exposure, bananas were held on sand in fiberglass boxes for 3 weeks, with pupae removed and placed in glass jars until adult emergence. Averages of numbers of adult B. cucurbitae   flies recovered per kg banana were 0.0, 0.0, 0.2, 1.2, 7.0, and 13.0 (‘Brazilian’), 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.8, 5.1, and 8.4 (‘Valery’), and 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.1, 7.3, and 9.9 (‘William’s’) for ripeness stages 1–6, respectively.

Synonyms: Musa cavendishii Lamb.   , Musa chinensis Sweet   , nom. nud., Musa nana Lour.   , Musa   × sapientum var. suaveolens (Blanco) Malag.   , Musa sinensis Sagot ex Baker  

Musa cavendishii Lamb.   , see Musa acuminata Colla  

Musa chinensis Sweet   , nom. nud., see Musa acuminata Colla  

Musa dacca Horan.   , see Musa   × paradisiaca L.  

Musa martinii Van Geert   , see Musa spp.  

Musa nana Lour.   , see Musa acuminata Colla  

Musa   × paradisiaca L.  

Family: Musaceae  

Grin Nomen Number   : 70453

Common Names: banana-caturra (Portuguese-Brazil), banana-da-terra (Portuguese-Brazil), banana-de-São-Tomé (Portuguese-Brazil), banana (English), banana-maçã (Portuguese-Brazil), bananaouro (Portuguese-Brazil), banana-prata (Portuguese-Brazil), Banane (German), bananier (French), banano (Spanish), Ess-Banane (German), French plantain (English), Mehlbanane (German), plantain (English).

Cultivated: Widely cultivated.

Field Infestation:

McBride and Tanada 1949:

Kaneohe, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, U.S.A.

Eleven (11) fruits of bluefield banana (listed as Musa paradisiaca   L. subsp. sapientum   [L.] Kuntze) were collected on 25 August 1947, in Kaneohe, on the Island of Oahu, by M. Chong. Recovered from these fruits were one B. dorsalis Hendel   (listed as Dacus dorsalis   ) and one B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ). The authors listed Bluefield banana as a doubtful host.

Interception Data:

PestID 2016:

Hawaii, U.S.A.

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered by USDA-APHIS-PPQ (“interceptions”) from Musa paradisiaca   fruits, originating in Hawaii, at an airport in Hawaii (Honolulu) on one occcasion in 2003. Recovery was three live larvae.

Lab Infestation:

Chawla 1966:

In captivity, female B. cucurbitae   adults (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) laid eggs on cut fruits of ripe M. paradisiaca   . The eggs hatched and the development of the larvae proceeded normally through adult emergence.

In captivity, female B. cucurbitae   adults (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) laid eggs on cut fruits of raw banana (listed as Musa sapientum   ). Larvae did not develop normally.

Rajamannar 1962:

Using B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) 1 st instar larvae obtained from eggs oviposited on bottle gourd ( Lagenaria siceraria   ; listed as L. vulgaris   ), 4 of 100 (4%) 1 st instar larvae raised on Musa   × paradisiaca   (listed as Musa paradisiaca subsp. sapientum   and banana) fruit pupated, with an average time to pupation of 8.8 days. In a separate test, 68 of 100 (68%) 1 st instar larvae were found to feed on pieces of Musa   × paradisiaca   fruit (an average of 13.6 out of 20 larvae, based on five replicated trials).

Listing Only: Dhillon et al. 2005a (listed as both Musa paradisiaca   sp. sapientum   and as blue field banana); Holbrook 1967 (listed as Musa paradisiaca var. sapientum   ); Kapoor 1970 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Musa paradisiaca sapientum   , which is listed as a doubtful host); USDA 1986 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CSDA 1984 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Musa paradisiaca var. sapientum   ; insufficient data to justify regulation); White and Elson-Harris 1992 (authors state “requires confirmation”).

Synonyms: Musa dacca Horan.   , Musa   × paradisiaca subsp. sapientum   (L.) Kuntze, Musa   × paradisiaca var. dacca (Horan.) Baker ex K. Schum.   , Musa   × sapientum   L.

Musa   × paradisiaca subsp. sapientum   (L.) Kuntze, see Musa   × paradisiaca L.  

Musa   × paradisiaca subsp. seminifera (Lour.) K. Schum.   , see Musa spp.   Musa   × paradisiaca var. dacca (Horan.) Baker ex K. Schum.   , see Musa   × paradisiaca L.  

Musa   × sapientum   L., see Musa   × paradisiaca L.  

Musa   × sapientum var. suaveolens (Blanco) Malag.   , see Musa acuminata Colla  

Musa seminifera Lour.   , see see Musa spp.  

Musa sinensis Sagot ex Baker   , see Musa acuminata Colla  

Musa spp.  

Family: Musaceae  

Grin Nomen Number   : 312415

Listing Only: Cantrell et al. 1999 (listed as “conditional–mature green bananas are non-hosts”); Dhillon et al. 2005a; Rejesus et al. 1991 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ).

Myrtus brasiliana   L., see Eugenia uniflora   L.

Myrtus samarangensis Blume   , see Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. and L. M. Perry  

Neoachmandra wallichii (C. B. Clarke) W. J. de Wilde and Duyfjes   , see Zehneria wallichii (C.B. Clarke) C. Jeffrey  

Nephelium litchi Cambess.   , see Litchi   chinensis Sonn.  

Nephelium longan (Lour.) Hook.   , see Dimocarpus longan Lour. subsp. longan  

Nephelium longana (Lam.) Cambess.   , see Dimocarpus longan Lour.  

Ochrocarpos africanus (Sabine) Oliv.   , see Mammea Africana Sabine  

Ochrosia sp.  

Family: Apocynaceae  

Grin Nomen Number   : 317684

Listing Only: Hardy and Adachi 1956 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ).

Ocimum basilicum L.  

Family: Lamiaceae  

Grin Nomen Number   : 25478

Common Names: albahaca (Spanish), alfavaca (Portuguese), basil (English), basilic (French), basilico (Italian), Basilienkraut (German), basilika (Swedish), Basilikum (German), luo le (transcribed Chinese), manjericão (Portuguese), me-bōki (Japanese Rōmaji), reihan (Arabic), sweet basil (English).

Cultivated: widely cultivated.

Origin: Possible origin Africa.

Interception Data:

PestID 2016:

Hawaii, U.S.A.

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered by USDA-APHIS-PPQ (“interceptions”) from Ocimum basilicum   leaves/cuttings, originating in Hawaii, at an airport in Hawaii (Honolulu) on three occasions from 2010 to 2013. Recovery was one live adult at each of the three interceptions.

Synonyms: Ocium basilicum var. album   (L.) Benth., Ocium basilicum var. glabratum Benth., Ocium   basilium var. majus Benth., Ocium   basilium var. purpurescens Benth.   , Ocium ciliatum Hornem.  

Ocium basilicum var. album   (L.) Benth., see Ocimum basilicum L.  

Ocium basilicum var. glabratum Benth.   , see Ocimum basilicum L.  

Ocium basilium var. majus Benth.   , see Ocimum basilicum L.  

Ocium basilium var. purpurescens Benth.   , see Ocimum basilicum L.  

Ocium ciliatum Hornem.   , see Ocimum basilicum L.  

Ocimum sp.  

Family: Lamiaceae  

Grin Nomen Number   : 301093

Interception Data:

PestID 2016:

Hawaii, U.S.A.

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered by USDA-APHIS-PPQ (“interceptions”) from Ocimum sp.   leaves, originating in Hawaii, at an airport in Hawaii (Honolulu) on one occasion in 2007 and on one occasion in 2009. Recovery was one live adult in each interception.

Opuntia amyclaea Ten.   , see Opuntia ficus-indica   (L.) Mill.

Opuntia consoleana hort. ex Lem.   , see Opuntia sp.  

Opuntia cordobensis Speg.   , see Opuntia ficus-indica   (L.) Mill.

Opuntia decumana (Willd.) Haw.   , see Opuntia ficus-indica   (L.) Mill.

Opuntia ficus-barbarica A. Berger   , see Opuntia ficus-indica   (L.) Mill.

Opuntia ficus-indica   (L.) Mill.

Family: Cactaceae  

Grin Nomen Number   : 310524

Common Names: Barbary-fig (English), boereturksvy (Africaans), chumba (Spanish), chumbera (Spanish), figo-da-Espanha (Portuguese), Feigenkaktus (German), figo-da-ĺndia (Portuguese), figueirada-Barbária (Portuguese), figuier d’Inde (French), figuier de Barbarie (French), fikonkaktus (Swedish), grootdoringturksvy (Afrikaans), higuera (Spanish), Indian-fig (English), Indian-fig prickly-pear (English), jamaracá (Portuguese), jurumbeba (Portuguese), mission cactus (English)   , mission pricklypear (English), orelha-de-onça (Portuguese), palma-de-gado (Portuguese), palma-gigante (Poruguese), prickly-pear (English), nopal de Castilla (Spanish), nopal pelón (Spanish), smooth mountain pricklypear (English), smooth prickly-pear (English), spineless cactus (English)   , sweet prickly-pear (English), tuberous prickly-pear (English), tuna (Spanish), tuna cactus (English)   , tuna de Castilla (Spanish), tuna mansa (Spanish).

Naturalized: AFRICA – Macaronesia   : Cape Verde; Portugal – Madeira Islands; Spain – Canary Islands; Northern Africa: Libya; Morocco; Tunisia; Northeast Tropical Africa: Eritrea, Ethiopia; East Tropical Africa: Kenya; South Tropical Africa: Angola; Southern Africa: South Africa; ASIA-TEM- PERATE – Arabian Peninsula   : Saudi Arabia; Yemen; Western Asia: Cyprus, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey; China: China; AUSTRALIA – Australia: Australia; EUROPE – Southeastern Europe: Greece; Italy; Southwestern Europe: France (includes Corsica); Spain (includes Baleares); NORTHERN AMERICA – Southwestern U.S.A.: United States – Arizona, California; PACIFIC – North-Central Pacific: United States – Hawaii; SOUTHERN AMERICA – Caribbean: Cuba; Guadeloupe; Hispaniola; Netherlands Antilles; Puerto Rico; Trinidad and Tobago – Trinidad; Central America: Nicaragua; Western South America: Bolivia; Ecuador; Peru; Southern South America: Argentina; Paraguay.

Cultivated: widely cultivated

Listing Only: Holbrook 1967 (listed as Opuntia megacantha   ; listed as a “non-host or host of undetermined status”).

Synonyms: Cactus decumanus Willd.   , Cactus ficus-indica   L., Opuntia amyclaea Ten.   , Opuntia cordobensis Speg.   , Opuntia decumana (Willd.) Haw.   , Opuntia ficus-barbarica A. Berger   , Opuntia ficusindica var. gymnocarpa (F. A. C. Weber) Speg.   , Opuntia gymnocarpa F. A. C. Weber   , Opuntia hispanica Griffiths   , Opuntia joconostle F. A. C. Weber ex Diguet   , Opuntia maxima Mill.   , Opuntia megacantha Salm-Dyck   , opuntia paraguayensis K. Schum.  

Opuntia ficus-indica var. gymnocarpa (F. A. C. Weber) Speg.   , see Opuntia ficus-indica   (L.) Mill.

Opuntia glaucophylla H. L. Wendl.   , see Opuntia sp.  

Opuntia gymnocarpa F. A. C. Weber   , see Opuntia ficus-indica   (L.) Mill.

Opuntia hispanica Griffiths   , see Opuntia ficus-indica   (L.) Mill.

Opuntia joconostle F. A. C. Weber ex Diguet   , see Opuntia ficus-indica   (L.) Mill.

Opuntia megacantha Salm-Dyck   , see Opuntia ficus-indica   (L.) Mill.

Opuntia paraguayensis K. Schum.   , see Opuntia ficus-indica   (L.) Mill.

Opuntia sp.  

Family: Cactaceae  

Grin Nomen Number   : 300410

Listing Only: USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CSDA 1984 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; insufficient data to justify regulation).

Synonyms: Opuntia consoleana hort. ex Lem.   , Opuntia glaucophylla H. L. Wendl.  

Orthostemon sellowianus O. Berg   , see Acca sellowiana (O. Berg) Burret  

Paliurus dao Blanco   , see Dracontomelon dao (Blanco) Merr. and Rolfe  

Paliurus edulis Blanco   , see Dracontomelon dao (Blanco) Merr. and Rolfe  

Pandanus fascicularis Lam.  

Family: Pandanaceae  

Grin Nomen Number   : 402974

Common Names: padang (English), pandan laut ( Indonesia), pandan laut (Malay), pandan pasir (Indonesian-Java), sabotan (Philippine).

Native: ASIA-TEMPERATE – China: China-Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan; Hong Kong; Eastern Asia: Japan – Ryukyu Islands; Taiwan; ASIA-TROPICAL – Indian Subcontinent: India, Sri Lanka; Indo-China: Cambodia; Laos; Myanmar; Thailand; Vietnam; Malesia: Indonesia; Malaysia; Philippines; PACIFIC – Northwestern Pacific: Micronesia.

Field Infestation:

Tsuruta et al. 1997:

Sri Lanka

Two (2) adult B. cucurbitae   were recovered from an unspecifed number of P. fascicularis   fruits (listed as Pandanus odoratissimus   ) collected from the Pamunugema area of Sri Lanka. No infestation rate data were given.

Listing Only: CABI 2016 (listed as Pandanus odorifer   ; listed as a secondary host); De Meyer et al. 2014 (listed as Pandanus odoratissimus   ); Plantwise Knowledge Bank 2015 (listed as Pandanus odorifer   ).

Synonyms: Pandanus odoratissimus   auct., Pandanus odorifer   auct., Pandanus tectorius var. sinensis Warb.  

Pandanus odoratissimus   auct., see Pandanus fascicularis Lam.  

Pandanus odorifer   auct., see Pandanus fascicularis Lam.  

Pandanus tectorius var. sinensis Warb.   , see Pandanus fascicularis Lam.  

Papaya   carica Gaertn.   , see Carica papaya L.  

Papilionaceae Giseke   , nom. cons., see Fabaceae Lindl.   , nom. cons.

Passiflora edulis Sims  

Family: Passifloraceae 

Grin Nomen Number: 26962

Common Names: common passionfruit (English), grenadella (Afrikaans), maracujá (Portuguese- Brazil), maracujá-comum (Portuguese-Brazil), maracujá-de-comer (Portuguese-Brazil), maracujá-deponche (Portuguese-Brazil), maracujá-do-mato (Portuguese-Brazil), maracujá-doce (Portuguese-Brazil), maracujá-mirim (Portuguese-Brazil), maracujá-peroba (Portuguese-Brazil), maracujá-preto (Portuguese- Brazil), maracujá-redondo (Portuguese-Brazil), passionsfrukt (Swedish), purple granadilla (English)   .

Native: SOUTHERN AMERICA – Brazil: Brazil – Alagoas, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Espirito Santo, Federal District, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins   ; Southern South America : Argentina – Corrientes, Misiones   ; Paraguay.

Naturalized: AFRICA – East Tropical Africa: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda; South Tropical Africa: Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe; Southern Africa: South Africa, Swaziland; Western Indian Ocean: Mauritius, Réunion; ASIA-TEMPERATE – China: China; Eastern Asia: Taiwan; ASIA- TROPICAL – Malesia: Philippines; AUSTRALASIA – Australia: Australia; New Zealand: New Zealand; NORTHERN AMERICA – Southeastern U.S.A.: United States – Florida; PACIFIC – North-Central Pacific: United States – Hawaii; South-Central Pacific: Cook Islands, French Polynesia, Pitcairn; Southwestern Pacific: Fiji, New Caledonia, Niue, Tonga; SOUTHERN AMERICA – Western South America: Ecuador – Galapagos Islands.

Cultivated: Widely cultivated.

Field Infestation:

Tsuruta et al. 1997:

Sri Lanka

Adult B. cucurbitae   were recovered from an unspecifed number of P. edulis   fruits collected in Sri Lanka. Seven (7) came from fruits collected in the Bombuwela area and an unspecified number came from fruits collected in the Gonnoruwa area. No infestation rate data were given.

Interception Data:

PestID 2016:

Nigeria

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered by USDA-APHIS-PPQ (“interceptions”) from Passiflora edulis   fruit(s), originating in Nigeria, at an airport in Texas (Houston) on one occasion in 1997. Recovery was 21 live larvae.

Listing Only: CABI 2016 (listed as a secondary host); California Department of Food and Agriculture 2001; De Meyer et al. 2014; De Meyer et al. 2015 (listed as Zeugodacus cucurbitae   ); Dhillon et al. 2005a; Holbrook 1967; Kapoor 1970 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); McBride and Tanada 1949 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Narayanan and Batra 1960 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Oakley 1950 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Plantwise Knowledge Bank 2015; Quilici and Jeuffrault 2001 (listed as being only a little favorable as a host); Ryckewaert et al. 2010; Syed 1971 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); USDA 1986 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); USDA-APHIS 2000; USDA-APHIS 2008; USDA-APHIS-PPQ 1983 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CSDA 1984 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; insufficient data to justify regulation); Vargas et al. 2004; White and Elson-Harris 1992 (authors state “requires confirmation”).

Passiflora edulis Sims   forma flavicarpa O. Deg.

Family: Passifloraceae 

Grin Nomen Number: 26963

Common Names: maracujá (Portuguese), maracuja (Swedish), maracuyá amarillo (Spanish), yellow passionfruit (English).

Native: SOUTHERN AMERICA – Brazil: Brazil.

Cultivated: widely cultivated.

Listing Only: Holbrook 1967 (listed as “heavily or generally infested”); Nishida and Bess 1957 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Steiner 1955 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ).

Passiflora foetida   L.

Family: Passifloraceae 

Grin Nomen Number: 26968

Common Names: granadilla de culebra (Spanish), love-in-a-mist (English), love-in-a-mist passionflower (English), Marie-Gougeat (French), mossy passionflower (English), pasiflora hedionda (Spanish), running pop (English), stinkende Grenadille (German), stinking granadilla (English)   , stinking passionflower (English), stinking passionfruit (English), wild passionfruit (English), wild water-lemon (English).

Native: NORTHERN AMERICA – South-Central U.S.A.: United States – Texas; Southwestern U.S.A.: United States – Arizona; Northern Mexico: Mexico – Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Zacatecas; Southern Mexico: Mexico – Chiapas, Colima, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Tabasco, Veracruz, Yucatan; SOUTHERN AMERICA – Caribbean: Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Cuba, Dominica, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Puerto Rico, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago; Central America: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama; Northern South America: French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela; Brazil: Brazil; Western South America: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru; Southern South America: Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay.

Naturalized: Naturalized elsewhere in tropics.

Listing Only: Holbrook 1967 (listed as “occasionally infested”); Kapoor 1970 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); McBride and Tanada 1949 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Narayanan and Batra 1960 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Oakley 1950 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Ryckewaert et al. 2010; Syed 1971 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); USDA 1986 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); USDA-APHIS-PPQ 1983 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CSDA 1984 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; insufficient data to justify regulation); White and Elson-Harris 1992 (authors state “requires confirmation”).

Synonyms: Passiflora foetida var. arizonica Killip   , Passiflora foetida var. hastata (Bertol.) Mast.   , Passiflora foetida var. hibiscifolia (Lam.) Killip   , Passiflora foetida var. hispida (DC. ex Planch. and Triana) Killip ex Gleason   , Passiflora hastata Bertol.   , Passiflora hibiscifolia Lam.   , Passiflora hispida DC. ex Triana and Planch.  

Passiflora foetida var. arizonica Killip   , see Passiflora foetida   L.

Passiflora foetida var. hastata (Bertol.) Mast.   , see Passiflora foetida   L.

Passiflora foetida var. hibiscifolia (Lam.) Killip   , see Passiflora foetida   L.