Fragaria chiloensis var. ananassa (Duchesne ex Rozier) Ser.

McQuate, Grant T., Liquido, Nicanor J. & Nakamichi, Kelly A. A., 2017, Annotated World Bibliography of Host Plants of the Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), Insecta Mundi 2017 (527), pp. 1-339: 133-161

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5353580

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:AA9AB625-4CAB-49D9-A2AA-0C05F41E2076

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/9D17878B-6EFD-53EF-EF80-FB9B3552FE94

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Fragaria chiloensis var. ananassa (Duchesne ex Rozier) Ser.
status

 

Fragaria chiloensis var. ananassa (Duchesne ex Rozier) Ser.   , see Fragaria   × ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier

Fragaria sp.  

Family: Rosaceae  

Grin Nomen Number   : 300221

Listing Only: Oakley 1950 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Fragaria sp.   [experimentally]).

Fragaria vesca   L.

Family: Rosaceae  

Grin Nomen Number   : 264

Common Names: alpine strawberry (English), besuka-ichigo (Japanese Rōmaji), European strawberry (English), ezo-hebi-ichigo (Japanese Rōmaji), ezo-no-hebi-ichigo (Japanese Rōmaji), fraisier commun (French), fraisier des bois (French), fresa silvestre (Spanish), fresal común (Spanish), morangueirobravo (Portuguese), smultron (Swedish), Walderdbeere (German), wild strawberry (English), woodland strawberry (English), ye cao mei (transcribed Chinese).

Native: AFRICA – Northern Africa: Tunisia; ASIA-TEMPERATE – Western Asia: Iran, Turkey; Caucasus: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russian Federation – Ciscaucasia, Dagestan; Siberia   : Russian Federation - Altay, Buryatia, Gorno-Altay, Irkutsk, Kemerovo, Krasnoyarsk, Kurgan, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Tomsk, Tuva, Tyumen; Middle Asia: Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Mongolia: Mongolia; China: China- Gansu, Guizhou, Jilin, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Yunnan; EUROPE – Northern Europe: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom; Middle Europe: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Slovaskia, Switzerland; East Europe: Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russian Federation - European part, Ukraine; Southeastern Europe: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Italy, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia; Southwestern Europe: France, Portugal, Spain; NORTHERN AMERICA – Eastern Canada: Canada – New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Quebec; Western Canada: Canada – Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Saskatchewan; Northeastern U.S.A.: United States – Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont, West Virginia; North-Central U.S.A.: United States-Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin; Northwestern U.S.A.: United States – Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming; Southeastern U.S.A.: United States – Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia; South-Central U.S.A.: United States – New Mexico, Texas; Southwestern U.S.A.: United States – Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah.

Naturalized: AFRICA – Macaronesia   : Portugal – Azores, Spain – Canary Islands; Southern Africa: South Africa – Eastern Cape, Limpopo, Mpumulanga, Western Cape; ASIA-TEMPERATE – Eastern Asia: Japan-Hokkaido; AUSTRALIA – New Zealand: New Zealand; NORTHERN AMERICA – Eastern Canada: Canada-Prince Edward Island, Mexico; SOUTHERN AMERICA – Caribbean: Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica; Central America: Guatemala; Northern South America: Venezuela; Brazil: Brazil; Western South America: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru; Southern South America: Argentina.

Field Infestation:

Fadlelmula and Ali 2014:

Blue Nile State, Sudan

Samples of 10 to 50 suspected infested F. vesca   fruits were collected from plants in five localities of Blue Nile State, Sudan, during the 2009 to 2010 and 2010 to 2011 growing seasons. Collected fruits were held on moist sand in mesh-covered aerated plastic containers. Pupae were collected from the sand by sieving and transferred to Petri dishes for adult emergence. Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered from F. vesca   fruits in one of the five localities (Damazine area).

Synonym: Fragaria insularis Rydb.  

Garcinia spp.  

Family: Clusiaceae  

Grin Nomen Number   : 312374

Field Infestation:

Clausen et al. 1965:

Sri Lanka (referred to as Ceylon)

A small number of Bactrocera cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) was recovered from a small lot of fruits of Garcinia sp.   ( Bactrocera dorsalis   [listed as Dacus dorsalis   ] was the dominant species).

Listing Only: USDA 1986 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); USDA-APHIS-PPQ 1983 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ).

Synonyms: Rheedia spp.  

Gijefa (M. Roem.) Post and Kuntze   , see Kedrostis Medik.  

Granadilla   hondala Gaertn.   ,see Adenia hondala (Gaertn.) W. J. de Wilde  

Gymnopetalum integrifolium (Roxb.) Kurz   , see Gymnopetalum scabrum (Lour.) W. J. de Wilde and Duyfjes  

Gymnopetalum scabrum (Lour.) W. J. de Wilde and Duyfjes  

Family: Cucurbitaceae 

Grin Nomen Number: no listing in GRIN for this species; naming authority taken from The Plant List.

Distribution: India and Ceylon; Malay Peninsula, Thailand, Indochina and Indonesia (Java).

Field Infestation:

Allwood et al. 1999:

Thailand, Malaysia, Southern India

From fruit collections in 1992, B. cucurbitae   was recovered from 4 samples of G. scabrum   (listed as Gymnopetalum integrifolium   ). Infestation rate data were not given. Bactrocera cucurbitae   individuals were identified by R.A.I. Drew and D.L. Hancock. Listing Only: CABI 2016 (listed as Gymnopetalum integrifolium   ; listed as a wild host); Cantrell et al. 1999 (listed as Gymnopetalum integrifolium   ); De Meyer et al. 2014 (listed as Gymnopetalum integrifolium   ); Plantwise Knowledge Bank 2015 (listed as Gymnopetalum integrifolium   ).

Hedysaraceae Bercht. and J. Presl   , see Fabaceae Lindl.   , nom. cons.

Helianthus annuus   L.

Family: Asteraceae  

Grin Nomen Number   : 27923

Common Names: alizeti (Swahili), girasol (Spanish), girasole (Italian), girassol (Portuguese), grand soleil (French), haebaragi (transcribed Korean), himawari (Japanese Rōmaji), solros (Swedish), Sonnenblume (German), sunflower (English), tournesol (French).

Native: NORTHERN AMERICA – Western Canada: Canada – Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Saskatchewan   ; Northeastern U.S.A.: United States – Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia   ; North-Central U.S.A.: United States – Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wisconsin   ; Northwestern U.S.A.: United States – Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming   ; Southeastern U.S.A.: United States – Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia   ; South-Central U.S.A.: United States – New Mexico, Texas   ; Southwestern U.S.A.: United States – Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah   ; Northern Mexico: Mexico – Baja Norte, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo Leon, Sonora, Tamaulipas   ; probably not native in the United States.

Naturalized: NORTHERN AMERICA – Subarctic America: Canada – Northwest Territory; Eastern Canada: Canada – New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec   ; widely naturalized.

Cultivated: Widely cultivated.

Listing Only: Dhillon et al. 2005a (listed as Helianthus annus   ).

Synonyms: Helianthus annuus subsp. jaegeri (Heiser) Heiser   , Helianthus annuus subsp. lentifularis (Douglas) Cockerell   , Helianthus annuus var. macrocarpus (DC.) Cockerell   , Helianthus annuus subsp. texanus Heiser   , Helianthus annuus   [unranked] lenticularis (Douglas) Cockerell   , Helianthus jaegeri Heiser   , Helianthus lenticularis Douglas  

Helianthus annuus subsp. jaegeri (Heiser) Heiser   , see Helianthus annuus   L.

Helianthus annuus subsp. lentifularis (Douglas) Cockerell   , see Helianthus annuus   L.

Helianthus annuus var. macrocarpus (DC.) Cockerell   , see Helianthus annuus   L.

Helianthus annuus subsp. texanus Heiser   , see Helianthus annuus   L.

Helianthus annuus   [unranked] lenticularis (Douglas) Cockerell   , see Helianthus annuus   L.

Helianthus jaegeri Heiser   , see Helianthus annuus   L.

Helianthus lenticularis Douglas   , see Helianthus annuus   L.

Hibiscus esculentus   L., see Abelmoschus esculentus   (L.) Moench

Hylocereus undatus (Haw.) Britton and Rose   Family: Cactaceae  

Grin Nomen Number   : 19487

Common Names: belle-of-the-night (English), chacam (Spanish), chak-wob (Spanish), Distelbirne (German), dragon-fruit (English), junco tapatío (Spanish), moonlight cactus (English)   , night-blooming cereus (English), pitahaya (Spanish), pitahaya dulce (Spanish), pitahaya orejona (Spanish), pitahaya rouge (French), pitaya (French), queen-of-the-night (English), red pitaya (English), reina de la noche (Spanish), röd pitahaya (Swedish), strawberry-pear (English), tasajo (Spanish), zacamb (Spanish).

Naturalized: AFRICA – Southern Africa: South Africa; Western Indian Ocean: Réunion; ASIA- TEMPERATE – China: China; Eastern Asia: Taiwan; AUSTRALASIA – Australia: Australia – New South Wales, Queensland; NORTHERN AMERICA – Southeastern U.S.A.: United States – Florida; PACIFIC – North-Central Pacific: United States – Hawaii; Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia, Niue; SOUTHERN AMERICA – Brazil: Brazil; Southern South America: Chile – Juan Fernandez.

Cultivated: Widely cultivated.

Origin: Neotropics.

Field Infestation:

McQuate 2010:

Kapoho, Hawaii Island, Hawaii, U.S.A.

During 2007 to 2008, Hylocereus undatus   varieties, ‘Sweetest One’ and ‘Pink Star’, which were both previously imported into Hawaii from Thailand, were monitored on a 2-ha farm at an elevation of 184 m in Kapoho, Hawaii. From this plot, B. cucurbitae   was recovered from dragonfruit in both 2007 and 2008. During 2007, 5 nonrandomly selected fruits, weighing a total of 0.9 kg, were collected on 10 October. Two (2) out of 5 fruits were infested with a total of 120 B. cucurbitae   for an average infestation rate of 272.0 flies/kg infested fruit. No B. dorsalis   were recovered. On 14 November 2007, 49 randomly selected fruits were collected for a total weight of 13.0 kg. Three (3) out of 49 fruits (6.1%) were infested by B. cucurbitae   , 2 of which were also infested with B. dorsalis   . Total recovery was 13 B. cucurbitae   out of a total of 30 fruit flies, for average infestation rates of 1.0 B. cucurbitae   flies/kg fruit and 13.8 B. cucurbitae   flies/kg infested fruit.

On 12 November 2008, 50 randomly selected fruits were collected for a total weight of 15.5 kg. Four (4) out of 50 fruits (8.0%) were infested by B. cucurbitae   , 3 of which were also infested with B. dorsalis   . Total recovery was 23 B. cucurbitae   out of a total of 167 fruit flies, for average infestation rates of 1.48 B. cucurbitae   per kg fruit and 13.1 B. cucurbitae   flies/kg infested fruit.

Interception data:

Iwaizumi et al. 1995:

Tokyo, Japan

On 12 August 1994, 11 B. cucurbitae   larvae were detected in H. undatus   fruits that had been imported from Vietnam into Japan. Eight (8) adults emerged: 5 males and 3 females.

Lab Infestation:

Iwaizumi et al. 1995:

Each of 6 H. undatus   fruits (3 intact and 3 punctured) was exposed individually to 10 gravid B. cucurbitae   females for 24 hours in a screened cage. An average of 139.7±91.1 (standard deviation) B. cucurbitae   adults emerged from the intact fruits, while an average of 81.3±134.0 adults emerged from the punctured fruits.

Synonyms: Cereus undatus Haw.  

Inocarpaceae Zoll.   , see Fabaceae Lindl.   , nom. cons.

Ipomoea batatas   (L.) Lam.

Family: Convolvulaceae  

Grin Nomen Number   : 20142

Native: NORTHERN AMERICA – Southern Mexico: Mexico – Veracruz.

Naturalized: Widely naturalized in tropics.

Cultivated: Cultivated worldwide.

Origin: Neotropics.

Listing Only: + EcoPort 2008 (listed as sweet potato).

Synonyms: Convolvulus batatas   L., Ipomoea apiculata M. Martens and Galeotti   , Ipomoea batatas var. apiculata   , Ipomoea batatas var. batatas  

Jatropha sp.  

Family: Euphorbiaceae  

Grin Nomen Number   : 312392

Interception Data:

PestID 2016:

Mali

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered by USDA-APHIS-PPQ (“interceptions”) from Jatropha sp.   fruit(s), originating in Mali, at an airport in Texas (Houston) on one occasion in 2008. Recovery was 20 live larvae.

Juglans californica var. hindsii Jeps.   , see Juglans hindsii Jeps. ex R. E. Sm.  

Juglans duclouxiana Dode   , see Juglans regia   L.

Juglans fallax Dode   , see Juglans regia   L.

Juglans hindsii Jeps. ex R. E. Sm.  

Family: Juglandaceae  

Grin Nomen Number   : 20747

Common Names: Hinds’s black walnut (English), Hinds’s walnut (English), kalifornische Walnuss (German), northern California black walnut (English), northern California walnut (English).

Native: NORTHERN AMERICA – Southwestern U.S.A.: United States – California.

Cultivated: also cultivated.

Field Infestation:

Maehler 1951:

Kula, Island of Maui, Hawaii, U.S.A.

K. L. Maehler reported recovering three different species of fruit flies from Juglans hindsii   fruit(s) collected in November (1949?) at an elevation of 1,067 m at Kula, on the Island of Maui: Bactrocera cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ), B. dorsalis   (listed as D. dorsalis   ), and C. capitata   . Out of 10 puparia obtained, 1 B. cucurbitae   , 2 male B. dorsalis   , and 3 C. capitata   were recovered.

Listing Only: Holbrook 1967; Hollingsworth et al. 1996; USDA 1986 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); USDA-APHIS-PPQ 1983 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CSDA 1984 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; insufficient data to justify regulation); White and Elson-Harris 1992.

Synonyms: Juglans californica var. hindsii Jeps.  

Juglans kamaonica (C. DC.) Dode   , see Juglans regia   L.

Juglans orientis Dode   , see Juglans regia   L.

Juglans regia   L.

Family: Juglandaceae  

Grin Nomen Number   : 20772

Common Names: Carpathian walnut (English), echte Walnuss (German), English walnut (English), hu tao (transcribed Chinese), nogal común (Spanish), nogal europeo (Spanish), nogal inglés (Spanish), nogueira-comum (Portuguese), nogueira-européia (Portuguese-Brazil), Madeira walnut (English), noyer commun (French), Persian walnut (English), valnöt (Swedish), walnut (English).

Native: ASIA-TEMPERATE – Western Asia: Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Turkey; Caucasus: Azerbaijan; Middle Asia: Tajikistan, Turkmenistan; ASIA-TROPICAL – Indian Subcontinent: Pakistan; EUROPE – Middle Europe: Czech Republic, Slovakia; Southeastern Europe: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia.

Naturalized: Widely naturalized elsewhere in temperate regions.

Cultivated: also cultivated.

Listing Only: USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CSDA 1984 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; insufficient data to justify regulation).

Synonyms: Juglans duclouxiana Dode   , Juglans fallax Dode   , Juglans kamaonica (C. DC.) Dode   , Juglans orientis Dode   , Juglans regia subsp. kamaonica (C. DC.) Mansf.   , Juglans regia var. orientis (Dode) Kitam.   , Juglans regia var. sinensis C. DC.   , Juglans sinensis (C. DC.) Dode  

Juglans regia subsp. kamaonica (C. DC.) Mansf.   , see Juglans regia   L.

Juglans regia var. orientis (Dode) Kitam.   , see Juglans regia   L.

Juglans regia var. sinensis C. DC.   , see Juglans regia   L.

Juglans sinensis (C. DC.) Dode   , see Juglans regia   L.

Juglans spp.  

Family: Juglandaceae  

Grin Nomen Number   : 300288

Listing Only: Holbrook 1967; + Margosian et al. 2009 (“possibly”; listed as walnut).

Kedrostis hirtella (Naudin) Cogn.   , see Kedrostis leloja (Forssk.) C. Jeffrey  

Kedrostis leloja (Forssk.) C. Jeffrey  

Family: Cucurbitaceae 

Grin Nomen Number: 459864

Native: AFRICA – Northeast Tropical Africa: Ethiopia; Somalia; East Tropical Africa: Kenya; Tanzania; Uganda; West-Central Tropical Africa: Cameroon; Zaire; West Tropical Africa: Nigeria; Senegal; South Tropical Africa: Angola; Malawi; Zambia; Zimbabwe; Southern Africa: Botswana, South Africa – Eastern Cape, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga, North West, Northern Cape; Swaziland; ASIA-TEMPERATE – Arabian Peninsula   : Yemen.

Listing Only: Copeland et al. 2009; De Meyer et al. 2014; De Meyer et al. 2015 (listed as Zeugodacus cucurbitae   ); Ndiaye et al. 2012 (listed as Kedrostis hirtella   ).

Synonyms: Kedrostis hirtella (Naudin) Cogn.   , Kedrostis natalensis   (Hook. f.) A. Meeuse, Rhynchocarpa hirtella Naudin   , Toxanthera natalensis Hook.   f., Turia leloja Forssk.  

Kedrostis Medik. sp.  

Family: Cucurbitaceae 

Grin Genus Number   : 6280

Listing Only: Isnadi 1991 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Bryonopsis sp.   ; could otherwise be a reference to Diplocyclos spp.   ).

Synonyms: Aechmandra Arn.   ; Bryonopsis Arn.   ; Cedrostis Post and Kuntze   , orth. var.; Cerasiocarpum Hook.   f.; Coniandra Schrad.   ; Cyrtonema Schrad.   ; Gijefa (M. Roem.) Post and Kuntze   ; Pisosperma Sond.   ; Rhynchocarpa Schrad. ex Endl.   ; Toxanthera Hook.   f.

Kedrostis natalensis   (Hook. f.) A. Meeuse, see Kedrostis leloja (Forssk.) C. Jeffrey  

Lablab leucocarpos Savi, see Lablab purpureus   (L.) Sweet subsp. purpureus  

Lablab niger Medik., see Lablab purpureus   (L.) Sweet subsp. purpureus  

Lablab purpureus   (L.) Sweet

Family: Fabaceae 

Grin Nomen Number: 104887

Common Names: bian dou (transcribed Chinese), fagiolo d’Egitto (Italian), hjälmböna (Swedish), hyacinth-bean (English), lablab-bean (English).

Native: AFRICA – Northeast Tropical Africa: Chad, Ethiopia, Sudan; East Tropical Africa: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda; West-Central Tropical Africa: Cameroon, Gabon, Rwanda; West Tropical Africa: Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo; South Tropical Africa: Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe; Southern Africa: Botswana, Namibia, South Africa – Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu – Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West, Western Cape, Swaziland; Western Indian Ocean: Madagascar.

Cultivated: Widely cultivated.

Listing Only: Cantrell et al. 1999; White and Elson-Harris 1992 (authors state “requires confirmation”).

Lablab purpureus   (L.) Sweet subsp. purpureus  

Family: Fabaceae 

Grin Nomen Number: 314607

Common Names: bonavist-bean (English), dolique (French), dolique d’Egypte (French), Faselbohne (German), Helmbohne (German), hyacinth-bean (English), kkachikong (transcribed Korean), lablabbean (English), Lablab-Bohne (German).

Cultivated: Only cultivated.

Field Infestation:

Lucas 1941:

Hawaii, U.S.A.

On 21 April 1940, 11 L.   purpureus subsp. purpureus fruits (pods) (listed as Dolichos lablab   L.) were collected from one site (U.H. Nutrition plot) in Hawaii. Pods were held until adult emergence. Bactrocera cucurbitae   (listed as melon fly) (60 adults) and the braconid parasitoid, Psyttalia fletcheri   (listed as Opius fletcheri   ) (39 adults), were recovered. All 11 of 11 (100%) L. purpureus subsp. purpureus   pods were infested with an overall infestation rate of 9.0 B. cucurbitae   per pod.

Listing Only: California Department of Food and Agriculture 2001 (listed as Dolichos lablab   ); Chawla 1966 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Dolichos lablab   L.); Dhillon et al. 2005a (listed as Dolichos lablab   ); Holbrook 1967 (listed as Dolichos lablab   ; listed as “occasionally infested”); Kapoor 1970 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Dolichos lablab   ); McBride and Tanada 1949 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Dolichos lablab   L.; listed as occasionally injured); Narayanan and Batra 1960 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Dolichos lablab   ); Oakley 1950 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Dolichos lablab   ); Syed 1971 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Dolichos lablab   ); USDA 1986 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Dolichos lablab   ); USDA-APHIS 2000 (listed as Dolichos lablab   ); USDA- APHIS 2008 (listed as Dolichos lablab   ); USDA-APHIS-PPQ 1983 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Dolichos lablab   ); USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CSDA 1984 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Dolichos lablab   ; listed as a preferred host).

Synonyms: Dolichos lablab   L., Dolichos purpureus   L., Lablab leucocarpos Savi, Lablab niger Medik., Lablab vulgaris Savi  

Lablab vulgaris Savi   , see Lablab purpureus   (L.) Sweet subsp. purpureus  

Lagenaria amebicana  

Family: Cucurbitaceae 

Grin Nomen Number: No taxonomic reference found which supports this name.

Listing Only: Dhillon et al. 2005a.

Lagenaria hispida Ser.  

Family: Cucurbitaceae 

Grin Nomen Number: No listing in GRIN for this sp.; naming authority taken from The Plant List, which indicates that this is an unresolved name.

Listing Only: Cantrell et al. 1999.

Lagenaria lagenaria   (L.) Cockerell nom. inval., see Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.  

Lagenaria leucantha Rusby   , see Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.  

Lagenaria leucaritha (Dush) Pusby   , see Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.  

Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.  

Family: Cucurbitaceae 

Grin Nomen Number: 21385

Common Names: acocote (Spanish), bag (transcribed Korean), bottle gourd (English), cabaco (Portuguese), cajombre (Spanish), calabash (English), calabash gourd (English), calabaza (Spanish), calebassier (French), dudhi ( India), Flaschenkürbis (German), gewöhnlicher Flaschenkürbis (German), flaskkurbits (Swedish), gourde bouteille (French), guiro amargo (Spanish), hu lu (transcribed Chinese), hyōtan (Japanese Rōmaji), Kalebasse (German), lauki ( Pakistan), upo (Tagalog), white-flower gourd (English).

Native: AFRICA – South Tropical Africa: Zimbabwe.

Naturalized: Widely naturalized in tropics.

Origin: Paleotropics.

Field Infestation:

Allwood et al. 1999:

Thailand, Malaysia, Southern India

From fruit collections in 1992, B. cucurbitae   was recovered from 2 samples of L. siceraria   . Infestation rate data were not given. Bactrocera cucurbitae   individuals were identified by R.A.I. Drew and D.L. Hancock.

Badii et al. 2015:

Northern Ghana

Lagenaria siceraria   fruits were collected from Northern, Upper West and Upper East regions of Ghana. Fruits were brought to a laboratory in Nyankpala, Ghana, and held over a layer of sterilized sand. Pupae recovered from the sand were held on moistened filter paper in Petri plates until adult emergence. Adults were killed and identified after being fed for 3 days. Taxonomic keys were used for species identification, with final species confirmation provided by Dr. Maxwell Billah. Adult B. cucurbitae   were recovered from L. siceraria   fruits. Also recovered were adult B. dorsalis   (listed as Bactrocera invadens   ) and Dacus ciliatus   .

Clausen et al. 1965:

Malaysia (Sabah) (referred to as North Borneo; place names listed are in present day Sabah, Malaysia)

From collections of L. siceraria   (listed as Lagenaria leucantha   ) from April to July 1951 in Sabah, Malaysia (referred to as North Borneo), 540 puparia were recovered, a mix of two predominant species: Bactrocera cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae Coq.   ) and Bactrocera tau   (listed as Dacus hageni Meij   ) ( B. cucurbitae   was the dominant species).

+ Gupta and Verma   1978:

Hisar (listed as Hissar), State of Haryana, India

Lagenaria siceraria   (listed as bottle gourd, var. ‘Pusa Summer’) was grown from seed planted both 28 February and 31 July 1975, in randomized complete block designs with ten other cucurbit crops in Hisar, Haryana State, India. Fallen and marketable sized fruits were collected/picked every 3 days and assessed for infestation by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ). Infestation results were summarized weekly. Bactrocera cucurbitae   infestation was found in 16 of 22 weekly summaries (72.7%). Overall, 191 (128.1 kg) fruits were collected, of which 41 were infested, for an average of 8.7 fruits collected per week with an average infestation rate of 19.5%.

+ Gupta and Verma   1992:

State of Himachal Pradesh, India

The average total number of maggots within L. siceraria   fruits (listed as bottle gourd) in the field was determined from examination of 10 fruits randomly selected on a weekly basis from May to August 1986, and May to October 1987. Maggots included both B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) and B. tau   (listed as D. tau   ), with no indication given as to the relative proportion of the two species. Mean maggot population per fruit reached a maximum of 14.07 and 13.63 in 1986 and 1987, respectively.

Jacquard et al. 2013:

Réunion Island, France

Bactrocera cucurbitae   -infested L. siceraria   fruits (listed as L. leucaritha   ) were collected from “Location 5” on Réunion Island from June-September 2009, and held over sand. Puparia, recovered by sifting the sand, were held for adult emergence. Twenty-one (21) adult B. cucurbitae   were recovered.

+ Jakhar and Pareek 2005:

Jobner, State of Rajasthan, India

Seeds of nine cucurbit species were sown in a randomized block design with four replications at the Horticultural Farm of S.K.N. College of Agriculture in Jobner, India during the kharif season in 2000. The infestation rate of L. siceraria   fruits (listed as bottle gourd) by B. cucurbitae   averaged 16.23% (range: 13.39–20.40%) over the course of 6 collection dates, each 3 days apart, in September–October 2000.

Khan et al. 1993:

Faisalabad, Pakistan

Lagenaria siceraria   fruits (listed as Lagenaria vulgaris Ser.   ) (1 fruit at a time) were placed in a cage with adult B. cucurbitae   flies (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) for 24 hours, then, 1 week later, were dissected to count the number of 2 nd and 3 rd instar larvae. Over five replications, an average of 35.4 and 19.6, 2 nd and 3 rd instar larvae, respectively, was recovered.

Khandelwal and Nath 1979:

Jobner, State of Rajasthan, India

A trap crop of L. siceraria   was planted around a field used for screening the relative resistance or susceptibility of C. lanatus   cultivars to infestation by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ). The planting was done to maintain a sufficient B. cucurbitae   population in the field.

+ Lee 1972:

Taiwan

Two varieties of L. siceraria   plants (listed as calabash gourd, variety 1 and variety 2)

were grown in the field year-round from 2 June 1969 to 10 June 1970, and from March to August 1971. Fruits, picked 5, 10, and 15 days after flowering, were placed over sand in holding boxes. The sand was screened weekly to recover B. cucurbitae   pupae (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ). Pupal recovery per fruit was averaged quarterly for 1969 to 1970 harvests. Pupal recovery per kg fruit was averaged monthly for 1971 harvests. Bactrocera cucurbitae   pupal recovery averaged 3.9, 7.6, and 15.3 [variety 1] and 3.5, 9.4, and 3.4 [variety 2] pupae/fruit (1969–1970) and 2.8, 12.6, and 12.5 [variety 1] and 45.3, 11.9, and 27.7 [variety 2] pupae/kg fruit (1971) overall, for fruits picked 5, 10, and 15 days after flowering, respectively.

Liquido et al. 1994:

Island of Hawaii, Hawaii, U.S.A.

From July 1990 to October 1992, 3 (1.99 kg) ripe “on vine” or ground L. siceraria   fruits were collected (through collections made once or twice a month) from several sites on Hawaii Island, Hawaii. Fruits were weighed, counted, and held over sand in plastic buckets at 19–24°C until pupation (2 weeks). Bactrocera cucurbitae   larvae and pupae were recovered from infested L. siceraria   fruits with an overall infestation rate of 184.67 larvae and pupae per fruit (278.39 larvae and pupae/kg fruit).

McQuate and Teruya 2015:

Southwestern Islands of Japan

Before the start of population suppression activities in a B. cucurbitae   eradication program, 6 L.   siceraria fruits (listed as L. siceraria   cv. Gourda) were collected (1 collection overall) from one island/island group (Yaeyama) in Japan and held on sand or sawdust in plastic containers. After 2 to 3 weeks, the sand or sawdust was sieved to recover tephritid fruit fly pupae which were then held for adult emergence and identification. Infestation by B. cucurbitae   was found in 1 fruit, giving an average percentage infestation rate (weighted by the number of collections in the island/island group) of 16.7%.

McQuate and Teruya 2015:

Southwestern Islands of Japan

Before the start of population suppression activities in a B. cucurbitae   eradication program, 39 L.   siceraria fruits (listed as L. siceraria   cv. Hispida   ) were collected (6 collections overall) from three islands/island groups (Amami, Okinawa, Yaeyama) in Japan and held on sand or sawdust in plastic containers. After 2 to 3 weeks, the sand or sawdust was sieved to recover tephritid fruit fly pupae which were then held for adult emergence and identification. Infestation by B. cucurbitae   was found in 2 fruits, giving an average percentage infestation rate (weighted by the number of collections in the islands/island groups) of 3.7%.

Mwatawala et al. 2010:

Morogoro Region, Central Tanzania

Fifty-seven (57) immature L. siceraria   fruits (1.895 kg) were collected at irregular intervals between October 2004 and April 2008, from the Morogoro Region of Tanzania. Fruits were held in individual rearing boxes provided with appropriate medium for pupariation of infesting tephritid fruit flies. Emerged adults were removed and identified. Bactrocera cucurbitae   flies were recovered from 1 of 8 collections (12.5%), with an overall infestation rate of 0.53 flies/kg fruit and 200.0 flies/kg infested fruit.

Nath and Bhushan 2006:

Varanasi, State of Uttar Pradesh, India

Lagenaria siceraria   was sown, with three replications, in Varanasi, India, the last week of March (summer season) and again the last week of June (rainy season) in both 2001 and 2002. Percentage infestation by B. cucurbitae   averaged 14.4% (range: 10.7–18.0%) in the summer season and 30.2% (range: 29.9–30.5%) in the rainy season.

+ Nath 1964:

New Delhi, India

Five experiments with completely randomized design, with three replications, were conducted in New Delhi, India, in the spring, summer, and rainy season of 1963 to test the relative resistance of different cultivars of L. siceraria   (listed as bottlegourd) to infestation by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ). The assessment of resistance or susceptibility was based entirely on the percentage of fruits damaged by B. cucurbitae   in the field. There was a significant difference among 15 varieties in regards to the degree of resistance to infestation, with infestation ranging from 40–95% (except for one cultivar where infestation averaged only 26%). Total number of fruits collected and infestation rate data were not given.

Nath 1966:

New Delhi, India

A completely randomized design experiment, with three replicates, was conducted at each of three times in 1963 (spring [28 February planting], summer [15 May planting] and rainy season/ late Fall [15 July planting]) in New Delhi, India to compare the relative resistance to infestation by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) of 13 different varieties of L. siceraria   . Fruits were examined twice a week and damaged fruits showing fruit fly punctures were harvested while undamaged fruits were left on the vine. The percentage of total fruits damaged throughout the season was calculated for each variety. Percentage of fruits infested averaged (across varieties) 16.3% (range: 0.0–52.3%), 34.6% (range: 0.0–50.0%) and 65.1% (range: 25.0–100%) in the three planting seasons, respectively.

+ Pareek and Kavadia 1994:

Jobner and Udaipur, state of Rajasthan, India

Lagenaria siceraria   fruits (listed as bottle gourd, variety ‘PSP long’) were raised in a randomized block design with nine other cucurbit crops (with three replicated plots) for assessment of preference of B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ). The trials were conducted from February to June in 1979, and again in 1981, in Udaipur (semi-humid agroclimatic conditions) and in 1980 and 1981 in Jobner (semi-arid agroclimatic condition). Fruits were examined on 10 plants per replicate twice a week, and then percentage of fruits infested by B. cucurbitae   calculated. Percentage infestation averaged 17.0% (range: 16.5–17.5%) in Udaipur and 13.2% (range: 13.1–13.4%) in Jobner.

Prabhakar et al. 2012

State of Himachal Pradesh, India

Infested L. siceraria   fruits were collected from the Kangra District of the State of Himalchal Pradesh in India on 9 August 2009. Fruits were held in rearing cages under laboratory conditions in Palampur. Emerging tephritid fruit flies were identified following adult emergence. Adult B. cucurbitae   were recovered from L. siceraria   fruits collected in the Kangra District.

Pradhan 1977:

Nepal

Lagenaria siceraria   was planted by seed in Nepal in four separate plots (four replicates) during the first week of April in 1974 and again in 1975. Daily counts were made of infestation of flowers and then of fruits by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ). Infested flowers and fruits were detached and thrown to the ground after observations were completed. Infestation rate of flowers averaged 62.24% (range: 31.81–96.80%) in 1974 and 39.16% (range: 31.10–44.48%) in 1975. Infestation rate of fruits averaged 31.07% (range: 24.7–40.0%) in 1974 and 20.10% (range: 15.8–26.5%) in 1975.

+ Singh et al. 2000:

Kanpur, State of Uttar Pradesh, India

Lagenaria siceraria   fruits (listed as bottle gourd) were collected weekly at growers’ fields at the bank of the river Ganga in Kanpur beginning in February 1997. Percentage infestation by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) was determined (by observation) at each picking. The overall average B. cucurbitae   infestation rate was 25.3%.

+ Sookar and Khayratee 2000:

Plaine Sophie, Mauritius

Control of infestation of L. siceraria   fruits (listed as calabash; the Sookar et al. 2004

publication associates “calabash” as a common name for L. siceraria   ) by B. cucurbitae   through the use of only cover sprays (year one) was compared with control by cover sprays plus spot sprays of protein bait + toxicant and cuelure + toxicant traps (year two). Every 2 weeks, L. siceraria   fruits with fruit fly punctures were randomly sampled and placed in a plastic tray over dry sand. The sand was sifted after 10 days for B. cucurbitae   pupal recovery. Pupae were held in insect cages until adult emergence. From January to December 1999, when the cover spray only control method was used, average infestation of L. siceraria   fruits over 2-week intervals ranged from 67 to 137 pupae /kg infested fruit.

Syed 1971:

Multan and Rawalpindi, Province of Punjab; Karachi, Sindh Province, Pakistan  

In Multan (1963–1964), 33% of L. siceraria   fruits (listed as L. vulgaris   ) were infested by

B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) in November; in Rawalpindi (1962–1963), some L. siceraria   fruits were infested in July; in Karachi (1962–1966), 3–4% of L. siceraria   fruits were infested in September by a mix of B. cucurbitae   and Dacus ciliatus   . Total number of fruits collected were not given.

Tsuruta et al. 1997:

Sri Lanka

Twenty-two (22) adult B. cucurbitae   were recovered from an unspecifed number of L. 

siceraria fruits collected in the Madabavita area of Sri Lanka. No infestation rate data were given.

Vayssières and Carel 1999:

Réunion Island, France

Lagenaria siceraria   fruits of a local variety were   collected over the course of a year from up to 70 localities on Réunion Island. Fruits with evidence of fruit fly infestation were held in individual containers, with recovered pupae held for adult emergence. Bactrocera cucurbitae   recovery averaged 96 (standard deviation = 167) adults per kg infested fruit.

Vayssières et al. 2007:

Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal, West

Africa

Tephritid fruit fly-infested Lagenaria siceraria   fruits were collected from untreated orchards in eight countries in West Africa. Fruits were placed on mesh supports over sand. Tephritid fruit fly pupae, recovered through weekly sieving of the sand, were transferred to small hatching boxes lined with wet blotting paper and held for adult emergence. The average B. cucurbitae   infestation level in L. siceraria   fruits in West Africa fell in the range of 1– 25 pupae /kg fruit. For comparison, the authors indicated that the infestation level of L. siceraria   fruits averaged 76– 100 pupae /kg fruit on Réunion Island.

+ Wen 1985:

Taiwan

Lagenaria siceraria   fruits (listed as calabash gourd) were collected in southern Taiwan from January to June 1984. Infestation by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) averaged 1.55% (bimonthly averages ranged from 1.33–1.87%). Interception Data:

PestID 2016:

Hawaii, U.S.A.

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered by USDA-APHIS-PPQ (“interceptions”) from Lagenaria siceraria   fruits, originating in Hawaii, at airports in Hawaii (Honolulu-2; Kahului-1) on three occasions between 1991 and 2003. Average recovery was 11.7 live larvae. Lab Infestation:

Agarwal and Yazdani 1991:

One hundred (100) eggs, collected from adult B. cucurbitae   flies (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) which emerged from field-infested Luffa aegyptiaca Mill.   fruits (listed as Luffa cylindrica   ), were inserted in a triangular cut in a Lagenaria siceraria   fruit (four replications) and held at 29.85±8.33°C and 61.72±22.05% RH. An average of 55% survived from larval stage to adult emergence.

+ Bhagat et al. 1998:

Slices of L. siceraria   (listed as bottle gourd) were used “as larval food for feeding and breeding of” B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ). Recovered pupae were held on moist sand until adult emergence.

+ Lall and Singh 1959:

Infestation of L. siceraria   fruits (listed as bottle-gourd) by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) in the State of Bihar was observed to be 20.20%.

Khan et al. 2011:

In a choice test, 50.0 g of L. siceraria   fruits, along with 50.0 g of each of eight other natural hosts, were exposed for 20 minutes to 50 pairs of 15–20-day-old B. cucurbitae   and 50 pairs of 15–20-day-old B. tau   inside a small cage, after which fruit samples were removed and placed separately on sawdust inside a cloth-covered plastic bowl for pupation. The sawdust was sieved after 6 to 8 days to recover pupae (of both fly species) which were held for adult emergence. Out of a mean infestation of 115±0.66 pupae recovered (mixed infestation of B. cucurbitae   and B. tau   ), 86.95% (100.0) of the recovered pupae emerged as adult B. cucurbitae   .

In a no-choice test, 50.0 g of L. siceraria   fruits, as well as 50.0 g of each of eight other natural hosts, were exposed for 20 minutes to 5 pairs of 15–20-day-old B. cucurbitae   and 5 pairs of 15–20-day-old B. tau   inside separate small cages, after which fruit samples were removed and placed separately on sawdust inside a cloth-covered plastic bowl for pupation. The sawdust was sieved after 6 to 8 days to recover pupae (of both fly species) which were held for adult emergence. Out of a mean infestation of 112±2.33 pupae recovered (mixed infestation of B. cucurbitae   and B. tau   ), 57.14% (64.0) of the recovered pupae emerged as adult B. cucurbitae   .

Koul and Bhagat 1994a:

Newly emerged B. cucurbitae   larvae from 10 eggs were transferred to fresh L. siceraria   slices placed in glass tubes for 2 to 3 days and then held over sand (4 cm thick) until pupation. Pupae were sieved daily and individually transferred to glass tubes with a 3-cm sand layer moistened with water and held until adult emergence. Newly emerged flies were held in glass tubes after pairing, provided with a slice of L. siceraria   and a cotton plug soaked in 10% honey solution and protein hydrolysate (Casein). The process was repeated for nine generations of B. cucurbitae   on L. siceraria   slices. Larval duration averaged 7.36 days (range: 4.22–16.28 days), while adult emergence averaged 74.3% (range: 60.0–90.0%). No temperature or relative humidity data were provided.

Koul and Bhagat 1994b:

Bottle gourd ( Lagenaria siceraria   ) was used to rear B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) in the lab. Eggs obtained from flies maintained on bottle gourd were placed on a thin slice of tender and fresh L. siceraria   fruit. Newly emerged B. cucurbitae   larvae were transferred to freshly cut L. siceraria   slices placed in glass tubes for 2–5 days and then held over sand (4 cm thick) until pupation. Pupae were sieved daily and individually transferred to glass tubes with a 3 cm sand layer moistened with water and held until adult emergence. Newly emerged flies were held in glass tubes after pairing, provided with a slice of L. siceraria   fruit and a cotton plug soaked in 10% honey solution.

Larval duration averaged 4.2 days, compared to 3.5, 4.7, 4.7, and 5.7 days, when reared on Momordica charantia   , Cucumis sativus   , Benincasa fistulosa   , and Cucurbita pepo   , respectively. No temperature or relative humidity data were provided.

Nishida 1963:

All larval rearing to maintain a laboratory colony of B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) was carried out using coarsely grated fresh L. siceraria   fruit (listed as L. vulgaris   ).

Ponce 1937:

Bactrocera cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) was reared in the laboratory on L. siceraria   (listed as Lagenaria leucantha   ) fruit. At a mean temperature of 30.36°C, the overall larval period lasted 6.0 days, based on “six cultures” (replications).

Rajamannar 1962:

Using B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) 1 st instar larvae obtained from eggs oviposited on bottle gourd ( Lagenaria siceraria   ; listed as L. vulgaris   ), 81 of 100 (81%), 1 st instar larvae raised on L. siceraria   (listed as bottle gourd) pupated, with an average time to pupation of 4.5 days. In a separate test, 94 of 100 (94%) 1 st instar larvae were found to feed on pieces of fruit of L. siceraria   (an average of 18.8 out of 20 larvae, based on five replicated trials).

+ Shivashankar et al. 2015:

One 1 st instar B. cucurbitae   larva, emerged from an egg oviposited on a tender Sechium edule   fruit, was inserted into a 5 mm diameter by 2 mm deep hole punched into the surface of a freshly harvested tender L. siceraria   fruit (listed as bottle gourd). Fruits were held, in large plastic containers having a thin layer of sand, at the mean ambient temperature and relative humidity of 28.2±1.0°C and 58.7±1.0%, respectively. Pupae recovered were transferred to a different container with a thin layer of moist sand for adult emergence. There were ten replications with 10 fruits per replication. An average of 8.73 adult B. cucurbitae   emerged per replication.

+ Vijay and Bhagat 2000:

For use in a study on depth of pupation, mature B. cucurbitae   3 rd instar larvae (listed as Dacus cucurbitae Coquillet   ) were obtained from a culture maintained on Lagenaria siceraria   (listed as bottle gourd).

Listing Only: + Agrawal and Mathur 1991 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as bottle gourd); Botha et al. 2004 (listed as a secondary host); CABI 2016 (listed as a secondary host); California Department of Food and Agriculture 2001; Cantrell et al. 1999; Chaturvedi 1947 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Lagenaria vulgaris   ); Chawla 1966 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); De Meyer et al. 2014 (listed as both Lagenaria leucaritha   and as L. siceraria   ); De Meyer et al. 2015 (listed as Zeugodacus cucurbitae   ; listed as both Lagenaria leucaritha   and as L. siceraria   ); Dhillon et al. 2005a (listed as both Lagenaria siceraria   and as L. vulgaris   ); Government of Western Australia Department of Agriculture and Food 2015; Holbrook 1967 (listed as “heavily or generally infested”); Kandybina 1987 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Kapoor 1970 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed both as Lagenaria siceraria   and as L. vulgaris   ); Kapoor 1991 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Lagenaria vulgaris Ser.   ); + Kapoor 2005 –2006 (listed as bottle gourd); Kapoor and Agarwal 1983 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Lagenaria vulgaris   ); Kazi 1976 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Lagenaria vulgaris Serr.   ); + Lall 1964 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as bottlegourd); + Lall and Singh 1969 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as bottle gourd); + Leblanc et al. 2013b (listed as calabash); + Lee et al. 1992 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as bottle gourd); Mamet and Williams 1993 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Lagenaria ciceraria   [Molina] Stand.); + Mau et al. 2007 (listed as hyotan); McBride and Tanada 1949 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as frequently injured); Moiz et al. 1967 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Lagenaria vulgaris Ser.   ); Narayanan and Batra 1960 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed both as Lagenaria siceraria   and as L. vulgaris   ); Nishida 1963 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as both lauki and as Lagenaria vulgaris Ser.   ); Oakley 1950 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Orian and Moutia 1960 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Lagenaria vulgaris Serv.   ); Phillips 1946 (listed as Lagenaria leucantha   ); Plantwise Knowledge Bank 2015; Ponce 1937 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Lagenaria leucantha   ); Quilici and Jeuffrault 2001 (listed as Lagenaria leucaritha   [Dush] Pusby; listed as being a very favorable host on Mauritius and a favorable host on Réunion Island); Ramsamy 1989 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Lagenaria vulgaris Serv.   ); Rejesus et al. 1991 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed both as Langenaria skeraria L. and as upo); Singh et al. 2004; Sookar et al. 2004; USDA 1986 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   );

USDA-APHIS 2000; USDA-APHIS 2008; USDA-APHIS-PPQ 1983 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); USDA- APHIS-PPQ-CSDA 1984 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Lagenaria leucantha   and L. vulgaris   as well as L. siceraria   ; listed as a preferred host); White and Elson-Harris 1992.

Synonyms: Cucurbita lagenaria   L., Cucurbita leucantha Duchesne   , Cucurbita longa   hort., Cucurbita siceraria Molina   , Lagenaria lagenaria   (L.) Cockerell nom. inval., Lagenaria leucantha Rusby   , Lagenaria vulgaris Ser.  

Lagenaria sphaerica (Sond.) Naudin  

Family: Cucurbitaceae 

Grin Nomen Number: 104888

Common Names: Kanonkulspumpa (Swedish).

Native: AFRICA – Northeast Tropical Africa: Somalia; East Tropical Africa: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda; West-Central Tropical Africa: Burundi, Rwanda, Zaire; South Tropical Africa: Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe; Southern Africa: Botswana; South Africa – Cape Province, KwaZulu-Natal, Transvaal; Western Indian Ocean: Comoros, Madagascar.

Field Infestation:

Jacquard et al. 2013:

Réunion Island, France

Bactrocera cucurbitae   -infested L. sphaerica   fruits were collected from “Location 10” on Réunion Island from June-September 2009, and held over sand. Puparia, recovered by sifting the sand, were held for adult emergence. Two (2) adult B. cucurbitae   were recovered.

Vayssières and Carel 1999:

Réunion Island, France

Wild L. sphaerica   fruits were collected over the course of a year from up to 70 localities on Réunion Island. Fruits with evidence of fruit fly infestation were held in individual containers, with recovered pupae held for adult emergence. Bactrocera cucurbitae   recovery averaged 556 (standard deviation = 408) adults per kg infested fruit.

Listing Only: De Meyer et al. 2014; De Meyer et al. 2015 (listed as Zeugodacus cucurbitae   ); Quilici and Jeuffrault 2001 (listed as being a very favorable host); Ryckewaert et al. 2010.

Synonyms: Luffa sphaerica Sond.  

Lagenaria spp.  

Family: Cucurbitaceae 

Grin Nomen Number: 300296

Interception Data:

PestID 2016:

Hawaii, U.S.A.

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered by USDA-APHIS-PPQ (“interceptions”) from Lagenaria sp.   fruits, originating in Hawaii, at an airport in Hawaii (Honolulu) on two occasions in 2005. Average recovery was 5.5 live larvae.

Listing Only: California Department of Food and Agriculture 2001; USDA-APHIS 2000; USDA- APHIS 2008.

Lagenaria vulgaris Ser.   , see Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.  

Landolphia senegalensis (A. DC.) Kotschy and Peyr.   , see Saba senegalensis (A. DC.) Pichon  

Landolphia sp.  

Family: Apocynaceae  

Grin Nomen Number   : 317814

Interception Data:

PestID 2016:

Nigeria

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered by USDA-APHIS-PPQ (“interceptions”) from Landolphia sp.   fruit(s), originating in Nigeria, at an airport in Virginia (Dulles) on one occasion in 2012. Recovery was one live larva.

Laurus persea   L., see Persea americana Mill.  

Leguminosae Juss.   , nom. cons., see Fabaceae Lindl.   , nom. cons.

Limonia trifolia Burm.   f., see Triphasia trifolia   (Burm. f.) P. Wilson

Limonia trifoliata   L., see Triphasia trifolia   (Burm. f.) P. Wilson

Litchi   chinensis Sonn.  

Family: Sapindaceae  

Grin Nomen Number   : 22399

Common Names: cerisier de Chine (French), leechee (English), lichia (Portuguese-Brazil), lici (Italian), litchi (English)   , Litchi (German), litchi (Swedish)   , litchi de Chine (French), litchia (Portuguese), Litchibaum (German), Litchipflanze (German), lychee (English).

Native: ASIA-TROPICAL – Indo-China: Cambodia, Vietnam; Malesia: Philippines.

Cultivated: also cultivated.

Listing Only: Dhillon et al. 2005a.

Synonyms: Nephelium litchi Cambess.  

Lucuma campechiana Kunth   , see Pouteria campechiana (Kunth) Baehni  

Lucuma mammosa C. F. Gaertn.   , see Manilkara zapota   (L.) P. Royen

Lucuma mammosa   auct., see Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H.E. Moore and Stearn  

Lucuma nervosa A. DC.   , see Pouteria campechiana (Kunth) Baehni  

Lucuma rivicoa var. angustifolia Miq.   , see Pouteria campechiana (Kunth) Baehni  

Lucuma salicifolia Kunth   , see Pouteria campechiana (Kunth) Baehni  

Lucuma spp.   , see Pouteria sp.  

Luffa acutangula   (L.) Roxb.

Family: Cucurbitaceae 

Grin Nomen Number: 22787

Common Names: angled loofah (English), Chinese-okra (English), dishcloth gourd (English), gerippte Schwammgurke (German), guang dong si gua (transcribed Chinese), kantgurka (Swedish), ljufa (transliterated Russian), ribbed gourd (English), ribbed loofah (English), ridge gourd (English), ridged gourd (English), silky gourd (English), strainervine (English), tokado-hechima (Japanese Rōmaji), tori ( India).

Native: ASIA-TROPICAL – Indian Subcontinent: India, Pakistan.

Naturalized: Naturalized throughout tropics and subtropics.

Field Infestation:

Allwood et al. 1999:

Thailand, Malaysia, Southern India

From fruit collections in 1992, B. cucurbitae   was recovered from 49 samples of L. acutangula   . Infestation rate data were not given. Bactrocera cucurbitae   individuals were identified by R.A.I. Drew and D.L. Hancock.

Amin et al. 2011:

Dinajpur, Bangladesh

From April through July 2009, L. acutangula   was grown in a randomized complete design with four other cucurbit species (four replicates) at the Entomology Farm Laboratory, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh. Fruits were observed for infestation by B. cucurbitae   , and harvested at maturity stage. An average of 21.0±2.4% of L. acutangula   fruits were infested by B. cucurbitae   . Adult B. cucurbitae   were also recovered from field-infested L. acutangula   fruits brought to the laboratory.

+ Birah et al. 2015:

Port Blair, South Andaman Island, India

In order to test for the effectiveness of different management techniques to minimize infestation by B. cucurbitae   , L. acutangula   (listed as ridge gourd), var. ‘Pusa Nasdar,’ was planted out in a randomized block design with four replicates during the 2010 to 2011 and 2011 to 2012 growing seasons at Garacharma farm in Port Blair, South Andaman Island. Percentage infestation of L. acutangula   fruits was determined at each of 15 fruit harvests. In the control treatment, the average percentage infestation, averaged over both production years, was 33.2% (range over the 15 harvests: 10.5–46.9%).

Chinajariyawong et al. 2000:

Thailand

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was reared from 3 samples of L. acutangula   collected in Thailand.

No infestation rate data given.

Chinajariyawong et al. 2003:

Thailand

Out of 5,456 L. acutangula   fruits sampled from a control field in a bait spray trial in

Thailand, 1,711 (31.4%) were infested by B. cucurbitae   and/or B. tau   ( B. cucurbitae   was the dominant species).

Clarke et al. 2001:

Thailand

Eight hundred seventy (870) (51.1 kg) infested L. acutangula   fruits were collected in

Thailand from 1986 to 1994. Three regions of Thailand (Chiang Rai, Bangkok, Songhkla) recorded infestation rates of 1.9, 6.2 and 1.4 B. cucurbitae   per infested fruit and 30.4, 76.7 and 27.7 B. cucurbitae   per kg infested fruits, respectively. Bactrocera cucurbitae   individuals were identified by either R.A.I. Drew or D. L. Hancock.

Clausen et al. 1965:

Island of Mindanao, Philippines

From L. acutangula   collections from February to March 1950, on the island of Mindanao in the Philippines, 1,778 B. cucurbitae   puparia (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) were recovered.

Sabah, Malaysia (referred to as North Borneo; place names listed are in present day

Sabah, Malaysia)

From collections of L. acutangula   from January to July 1951, in Sabah, Malaysia (referred to as North Borneo), 220,618 puparia were recovered, a mix of two predominant species: Bactrocera cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae Coq.   ) and Bactrocera tau   (listed as Dacus hageni Meij   ) ( B. cucurbitae   was the dominant species). It was reported by the authors that patola ( L. acutangula   ) was quite heavily infested by B. cucurbitae   .

South India

From L. acutangula   collections from January to May 1951 in South India, 1,806 B. 

cucurbitae (listed as Dacus cucurbitae Coq.   ) puparia were recovered.

Sri Lanka (referred to as Ceylon)

Bactrocera cucurbitae   puparia (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) recovered from L. acutangula   collections in Sri Lanka were shipped to Hawaii during August and September 1951.

+ Duradundi et al. 2015:

Bagalkot, State of Karnataka, India

Eighteen (18) genotypes of L. acutangula   (listed as ridge gourd) were planted out, in a randomized complete block design with two replications, in Bagalkot, India. Marketable size fruits were picked weekly. At each picking, infestation of fruits by B. cucurbitae   was determined based on visual inspection and the percentage of infested fruits calculated. Average percentage infestation was reported for 45, 60 and 75 days after sowing. Infestation averaged 40.6% overall (range: 9.90 [‘KRCCH-1’]–78.3% [‘Vijayawad local’]).

Ghule et al. 2015:

Nadia, State of West Bengal, India

Percentage infestation of L. acutangula   var. ‘Seven star’ fruits by B. cucurbitae   , and average number of maggots per fruit, were recorded at 7-day intervals over 2011 and 2012 cropping seasons at Incheck farm, C Block, BCKV, Kalyani, Nadia, West Benegal, India. In 2011, B. cucurbitae   infestation was observed from the fourth week in January through the second week in March, averaging 39.2% infestation (range: 9.2–62.5%) and averaging 7.1 B. cucurbitae   maggots per fruit (range: 1.8–11.1). In 2012, B. cucurbitae   infestation was observed from the second week of April through the first week of June, averaging 39.2% infestation (range: 8.7–71.6%) and averaging 8.9 B. cucurbitae   (range: 2.7–14.4) maggots per fruit.

+ Gupta and Verma   1978:

Hisar (listed as Hissar), State of Haryana, India

Luffa acutangula   (listed as ridge gourd) was grown from seed planted both 28 February and 31 July 1975, in randomized complete block designs with ten other cucurbit crops in Hisar, Haryana State, India. Fallen and marketable sized fruits were collected/picked every 3 days and assessed for infestation by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ). Infestation results were summarized weekly. Bactrocera cucurbitae   infestation was found in 20 of 21 weekly summaries (95.2%). Overall, 242 (16.0 kg) fruits were collected, of which 56 were infested, for an average of 11.5 fruits collected per week with an average infestation rate of 23.2%.

Haldhar et al. 2015a:

Bikaner, State of Rajasthan, India

Twenty-nine (29) varieties/genotypes of L. acutangula   were sown in the rainy season in 2011 in a randomized complete block design with three replications at the experimental farm of the Central Institute for Arid Horticulture in Bikaner, India. Fruits randomly selected at three pickings over the course of the growing season were used to calculate percentage infestation and to count the number of B. cucurbitae   larvae in infested fruits. Percentage fruit infestation averaged 49.91% (range: 16.47–80.47%) while B. cucurbitae   larval density averaged 21.56 larvae/fruit (range: 13.6–29.27 larvae/ fruit) across all 29 varieties/genotypes.

Fifteen (15) varieties/genotypes of L. acutangula   , selected from those used in the 2011

trial, were sown, both in summer 2012 and in summer 2013, in a randomized complete block design with three replications at the experimental farm of the Central Institute for Arid Horticulture in Bikaner, India. Fruits randomly selected at three pickings over the course of the growing seasons were used to calculate percentage infestation and to count the number of B. cucurbitae   larvae in infested fruits. Percentage fruit infestation, averaged across both growing seasons, was 43.65% (range: 15.92–79.72%) while B. cucurbitae   larval density averaged 19.79 larvae/fruit (range: 13.23–28.5 larvae/fruit) across all 15 varieties/genotypes.

+ Inayatullah et al. 1993:

Faisalabad, Pakistan

Based on observation, the average rate of infestation of L. acutangula   fruits (listed as tori) by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) in the vicinity of the University of Agriculture in Faisalabad was about 98%.

Jacquard et al. 2013:

Réunion Island, France

Bactrocera cucurbitae   -infested L. acutangula   fruits were collected from “Location 1” on

Réunion Island from January to April 2009 and held over sand. Puparia, recovered by sifting the sand, were held for adult emergence. Twenty-six (26) adult B. cucurbitae   were recovered.

+ Jakhar and Pareek 2005:

Jobner, State of Rajasthan, India

Seeds of nine cucurbit species were sown in a randomized block design with four replications at the Horticultural Farm of S.K.N. College of Agriculture in Jobner, India during the kharif season in 2000. The infestation rate of L. acutangula   fruits (listed as ridge gourd) by B. cucurbitae   averaged 32.54% (range: 16.90–44.29%) over the course of nine collection dates, each 3 days apart, between August and September, 2000.

Kittayapong et al. 2000:

Thailand

Luffa acutangula   fruits were collected throughout Thailand within the time period of

October 1995 to December 1998. Collections were placed over sawdust in a ventilated plastic container and brought back to the laboratory at Mahidol University in Bangkok. Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered from L. acutangula   fruits. Total number of fruits collected and infestation rate data were not given.

Kumar et al. 2008:

Bangalore, South India

Luffa acutangula   fruits were harvested monthly at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore, South India from July 2002 to October 2003 (a total of 67 harvests). At each harvest, damaged and healthy fruits were sorted and weighed separately, with damaged fruits placed in separate cages on a thin layer of sand to facilitate pupation and adult emergence. Bactrocera cucurbitae   and D. ciliatus   adults that emerged were counted. Infestation of L. acutangula   (by month of collection) by B. cucurbitae   averaged 30.0% (range: 0.0–75.65%), with an average infestation rate of 90.37 individuals (range: 0.0–210.74) per kg fruit.

Mwatawala et al. 2009a:

Morogoro Region, Central Tanzania

Tender-skinned immature L. acutangula   fruits were randomly collected at regular intervals between October 2004 and October 2006 from areas within the Sokoine University of Agriculture campus in Morogoro and from Nyandira, Mikese, Mkindo in the Morogoro region of Tanzania. Fruits were held in individual rearing boxes provided with appropriate medium for pupation of infesting tephritid fruit flies. Emerged adults were removed and identified. Two (2) of 2 (100.0%) L. acutangula   samples (0.2 kg) were infested by B. cucurbitae   .

Mwatawala et al. 2009b:

Morogoro Region, Central Tanzania

Luffa acutangula   fruits were randomly collected weekly between October 2004 through

October 2006, and from August through December 2007, from areas within the Sokoine University of Agriculture campus in Morogoro and from Nyandira, Mikese, Mkindo in the Morogoro region of Tanzania. Fruits were held in individual rearing boxes provided with appropriate medium for pupation of infesting tephritid fruit flies. Emerged adults were removed and identified. Out of 83 collected fruits (5.954 kg), infestation by B. cucurbitae   averaged 47.20 emerged adults per kg fruit.

Mwatawala et al. 2010:

Morogoro Region, Central Tanzania

One hundred twenty (120) immature L. acutangula   fruits (8.302 kg) were collected at irregular intervals between October 2004 and April 2008, from the Morogoro Region of Tanzania. Fruits were held in individual rearing boxes provided with appropriate medium for pupariation of infesting tephritid fruit flies. Emerged adults were removed and identified. Bactrocera cucurbitae   flies were recovered from 16 of 26 collections (61.54%), with an overall infestation rate of 60.59 flies/kg fruit and 92.41 flies/kg infested fruit.

+ Nath 1964:

New Delhi, India

Five experiments with completely randomized design, with three replications, were conducted in New Delhi, India, in the spring, summer and rainy season of 1963 to test the relative resistance of different cultivars of L. acutangula   (listed as ridge gourd) to infestation by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ). The assessment of resistance or susceptibility was based entirely on the percentage of fruits damaged by B. cucurbitae   in the field. There was a significant difference among 15 varieties in regards to the degree of resistance to infestation, with infestation ranging from 40–95%. Total number of fruits collected and infestation rate data were not given.

Nath 1966:

New Delhi, India

A completely randomized design experiment, with three replicates, was conducted at each of two times in 1963 (spring [28 February planting] and summer [15 May planting]) in New Delhi, India to compare the relative resistance to infestation by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) of seven different varieties of L. acutangula   . Fruits were examined twice a week and damaged fruits showing fruit fly punctures were harvested while undamaged fruits were left on the vine. The percentage of total fruits damaged throughout the season was calculated for each variety. Percentage of fruits infested averaged (across varieties) 57.6% (range: 32.3–73.5%) and 43.9% (range: 36.2–54.3%) in the two planting seasons, respectively.

Nath and Bhushan 2006:

Varanasi, State of Uttar Pradesh, India

Luffa acutangula   was sown, with three replications, in Varanasi, India, the last week of March (summer season) and again the last week of June (rainy season) in both 2001 and 2002. Percentage infestation by B. cucurbitae   averaged 15.8% (range: 11.5–20.0%) in the summer season and 32.2% (range: 31.3–33.2%) in the rainy season.

+ Pareek and Kavadia 1994:

Jobner and Udaipur, state of Rajasthan, India

Luffa acutangula   fruits (listed as ridge gourd, variety ‘Pusa nasdar’) were raised in a randomized block design with nine other cucurbit crops (each with three replicated plots) for assessment of preference of B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ). The trials were conducted from February to June in 1979, and again in 1981, in Udaipur (semi-humid agroclimatic conditions) and in 1980 and 1981 in Jobner (semi-arid agroclimatic condition). Fruits were harvested twice a week, examined for fruit fly damage, and then percentage of fruits infested by B. cucurbitae   calculated. Percentage infestation averaged 7.9% (range: 7.9–8.0%) in Udaipur and 3.1% (range: 2.8–3.3%) in Jobner.

Ramadan and Messing 2003:

Thailand

Two (2) collections of immature L. acutangula   fruits with oviposition scars or signs of larval infestation were made in 1996 from two localities in Thailand (Hatyai, Betong). Fruits were held over sawdust, which was subsequently sifted for recovery of tephritid fruit fly puparia. Four (4) adult B. cucurbitae   were recovered.

+ Ranganath et al. 1997:

Andaman Island, India

In a test, from June to August 1996, of the effectiveness of “safer insecticides” for control of B. cucurbitae   , two unsprayed control plots were included: (1) Control: two rows of C. sativus   (listed as cucumber, variety ‘white long’) were planted in between rows of Luffa acutangula   (listed as ridge gourd, local variety), with two rows of marigold plants in between them; and (2) Absolute Control: two rows of C. sativus   (listed as cucumber, variety ‘white long’) were planted in between rows of Luffa acutangula   (listed as ridge gourd, local variety) with no marigold plants. Each treatment was replicated four times. Percentage damage of fruits was determined at each of 12 harvests. Damage of L. acutangula   fruits by B. cucurbitae   averaged 30.8% and 35.0% in the control and absolute control plots, respectively.

Sambandam and Chelliah 1969:

India

Bactrocera cucurbitae   flies (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ), recovered from a single infested

L. acutangula   fruit, were the basis of a B. cucurbitae   laboratory colony which was used to test host status of fruits.

Sookar et al. 2004:

Pamplemousses, Mauritius

In a trial testing the effectiveness of protein bait spot sprays to reduce infestation of

L. acutangula   fruits (listed as L. acutangulata   ) by B. cucurbitae   , samples of 15 fruits (75–150 g each) were taken from each plot at weekly intervals. Fruits were examined for fruit fly punctures and placed over a layer of sand in separate plastic containers. Sand was sieved to recover tephritid fruit fly pupae which were placed in a small cage for adult emergence. In the untreated control plot, infestation by B. cucurbitae   averaged 94.7% (range: 60–100%) over 12 weekly collections. Bactrocera cucurbitae   was the only fruit fly species recovered from L. acutangula   fruits.

Syed 1971:

Harnai and Quetta, Province of Balochistan; Hyderabad, Sindh Province; Peshawar

Valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan

In Harnai and Quetta (1964–1965), 24% of L. acutangula   fruits were infested in August,

which changed to 5–40% in October, by a mix of B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) and Dacus ciliatus   , mostly by D. ciliatus   ; in Hyderabad (1964–1965), 4–6% of L. acutangula   fruits were infested in August and September, with some infested in October and 5–6% infested in November, by a mix of B. cucurbitae   and D. ciliatus   (40:60%); in Peshawar Valley (1962–1963), some L. acutangula   fruits were infested by B. cucurbitae   when it started fruiting in July, with infestation rate increasing to 40% in August and 50% in September. Total number of fruits collected was not given.

Tsuruta et al. 1997:

Sri Lanka

At least 104 B. cucurbitae   adults were recovered from L. acutangula   fruits collected in Sri Lanka. Bactrocera cucurbitae   adults were recovered from fruits collected from Wariyapola (22), Dankotuwa (13), Pilimatalawa (22), Nalanda (24), Pelwehera (18), Madavavita (5) and Thodu (number not indicated). No infestation rate data were given.

Tuason 1917:

Philippines

Luffa acutangula   seeds from the University of the Philippines College of Agriculture

(College number 1389 F2) were planted in a flat in the College nursery then later transplanted to the field. Resulting fruits, while young, were attacked by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae Coq.   ) and by Leptoglossus australis (Fabricius)   (listed as Leptoglossus membranaceous Fabr.   ), causing a loss of about 30–40% of the yield.

Vayssières and Carel 1999:

Réunion Island, France

Luffa acutangula   fruits of a local variety were   collected over the course of a year from up to 70 localities on Réunion Island. Fruits with evidence of fruit fly infestation were held in individual containers, with recovered pupae held for adult emergence. Bactrocera cucurbitae   recovery averaged 337 (standard deviation = 480) adults per kg infested fruit. Interception Data:

PestID 2016:

Hawaii, U.S.A.

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered by USDA-APHIS-PPQ (“interceptions”) from Luffa acutangula   fruits, originating in Hawaii, at airports in Hawaii (Honolulu-11; Kahului-1) on 12 occasions between 1988 and 2005. Average recovery was 3.8 live larvae. Also recovered were one live pupa (1990) and four live adults (1999). Lab Infestation:

Amin et al. 2011:

Bactrocera cucurbitae   larvae and B. cucurbitae   -infested L. acutangula   fruits were collected from a field at the Entomology Farm Laboratory, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, in Dinajpur, Bangladesh and held in jars in a laboratory at 25±2°C, 60±5% RH and a 12:12 (L:D) h photoperiod. Adult male and female B. cucurbitae   that emerged were kept in the same jar and provided fresh L. acutangula   fruit for oviposition. Larvae, pupae and adults that emerged from these stock cultures were used for observation of B. cucurbitae   life history parameters.

Chelliah 1970:

Bactrocera cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) was successfully reared from egg to adult emergence in the laboratory on fruits of L. acutangula   . Larval survival, based on 200 individuals reared in 20 replications, averaged 94.0%, with an average larval duration of 4.68 days.

Chelliah and Sambandam 1974c:

Luffa acutangula   fruits were used as a larval host for a laboratory colony of B. cucurbitae  

(listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ).

Saha et al. 2007:

The relative quality of seven different B. cucurbitae   fruit hosts was assessed by comparing pupal recovery (in F 1 and F 2 generations) following exposure of 500 g of each fruit to 200 gravid B. cucurbitae   adults (from laboratory-adapted stock culture) for 30 minutes. For L. acutangula   , 242 and

324 pupae (484 and 648 pupae /kg fruit) and 179 and 242 adults (358 and 483 adults per kg fruit) were recovered in the F 1 and F 2 generations.

+ Shivashankar et al. 2015:

One 1 st instar B. cucurbitae   larva, newly emerged from an egg oviposited on a tender Sechium edule   fruit, was inserted into a 5 mm diameter by 2 mm deep hole punched into the surface of a freshly harvested tender L. acutangula   fruit (listed as ridge gourd). Fruits were held, in large plastic containers having a thin layer of sand, at the mean ambient temperature and relative humidity of 28.2±1.0°C and 58.7±1.0%, respectively. Pupae recovered were transferred to a different container with a thin layer of moist sand for adult emergence. There were ten replications with 10 fruits per replication. An average of 8.83 adult B. cucurbitae   emerged per replication.

Listing Only: + Agrawal and Mathur 1991 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as ribbed gourd); Beller and Bhenchitr 1936 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Botha et al. 2004 (listed as a secondary host); CABI 2016 (listed as a secondary host); California Department of Food and Agriculture 2001; Cantelo and Pholboon 1965 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Cantrell et al. 1999; De Meyer et al. 2014; De Meyer et al. 2015 (listed as Zeugodacus cucurbitae   ); Dhillon et al. 2005a; Etienne 1967 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Etienne 1972 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; adults obtained very frequently); Government of Western Australia Department of Agriculture and Food 2015; Holbrook 1967 (listed as “heavily or generally infested”); Kandybina 1987 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Kapoor 1970 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Kapoor 1991 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); + Kapoor 2005 –2006 (listed as ribbed gourd); Kapoor and Agarwal 1983 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Kazi 1976 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Leblanc et al. 2013b; Mamet and Williams 1993 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); McBride and Tanada 1949 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as frequently injured); Moiz et al. 1967 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Narayanan and Batra 1960 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Nishida 1963 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as both arro torai and as Luffa acutangula Roxb.   ); Oakley 1950 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Pacific Fruit Fly Web 2002; Phillips 1946; Plantwise Knowledge Bank 2015; Quilici and Jeuffrault 2001 (listed as being a very favorable host); Qureshi et al. 1974 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); + Rajamannar 1962 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as ribbed gourd); Rejesus et al. 1991 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Singh et al. 2004; Sookar and Khayratee 2000; USDA 1986 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); USDA-APHIS 2000; USDA-APHIS 2008; USDA-APHIS-PPQ 1983 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CSDA 1984 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as a preferred host); Vijaysegaran 1991 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); +Walker 2005 (listed as angled luffa); White and Elson-Harris 1992; Yunus and Hua 1980 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ).

Synonyms: Cucumis acutangulus   L.

Luffa aegyptiaca Mill.  

Family: Cucurbitaceae 

Grin Nomen Number: 22788

Common Names: courge torchon (French), dishrag gourd (English), esponja-vegetal (Portuguese), estropajo (Spanish), ghia tori (Urdu-Pakistan), hechima (Japanese Rōmaji), loofah (English), paste (Spanish), pétole (French), rag gourd (English), Schwammgurke (German), si gua (transcribed Chinese), smooth loofah (English), sponge gourd (English), susemioi (transcribed Korean), torai ( India), vegetable-sponge (English).

Cultivated: Cultivated throughout tropics.

Origin: Asia or possibly Africa.

Field Infestation:

Allwood et al. 1999:

Thailand, Malaysia, Southern India

From fruit collections in 1992, B. cucurbitae   was recovered from 27 samples of both fruits and flowers of L. aegyptiaca   . Infestation rate data were not given. Bactrocera cucurbitae   individuals were identified by R.A.I. Drew and D.L. Hancock.

Agarwal and Yazdani 1991:

North Bihar, India

Bactrocera cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) -infested fruits of L. aegyptiaca   (listed as Luffa cylindrica   ) were collected in the field and brought to the lab for adult emergence from which eggs were obtained for laboratory experiments.

Bains and Sidhu 1984:

State of Punjab, India

Field observations of infestation of L. aegyptiaca   fruits (listed as Luffa cylindrica   ) by B. 

cucurbitae (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) were made at 10-day intervals in Punjab, India, between May and October. Infested fruits were found in 16 of 16 observations (100%) with an average infestation rate of 22.9 (±5.6 [standard error])%.

Chinajariyawong et al. 2000:

Thailand

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was reared from 2 samples of L. aegyptiaca   (listed as L. cylindrica   )

collected in Thailand. No infestation rate data were given.

Clarke et al. 2001:

Thailand

Two hundred ninety-three (293) (27.3 kg) infested L. aegyptica   fruits (listed as L. cylindrica   ) were collected in Thailand from 1986 to 1994. Three regions of Thailand (Chiang Rai, Chiang Mai, Songhkla) recorded infestation rates of 1.9, 0.96 and 3.3 B. cucurbitae   per infested fruit and 12.2, 11.9, and 32.5 B. cucurbitae   per kg infested fruits, respectively. Bactrocera cucurbitae   individuals were identified by either R.A.I. Drew or D. L. Hancock.

Clausen et al. 1965:

Malaysia (listed as Malaya, but locations listed are in present day Malaysia)

From L. aegyptiaca   collections (listed as Luffa cylindrica   ) in December 1948 in Malaysia

(listed as Malaya, but locations listed are in present day Malaysia) 359 puparia were recovered, a mix of two predominant species: Bactrocera cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae Coq.   ) and Bactrocera tau   (listed as Dacus hageni Meij   ) (ratio not stated).

+ Desai et al. 2014:

Sardarkrushinagar, State of Gujarat, India

In a test of the effectiveness of different insecticides in reducing infestation of L. aegyptiaca   fruits (listed as sponge gourd) by B. cucurbitae   , L. aegyptiaca   plants were grown at the horticultural farm of C. P. College of Agriculture in Sardarkrushinagar, India, in a randomized block design with seven treatments, including a water-sprayed control, and three replications. Treatment sprays were made at 50% of fruit crop set and 15 days after that. Luffa aegyptiaca   fruits, harvested before the first spray and at 3, 7, and 14 days after each spray, were visually assessed for infestation by B. cucurbitae   and the percentage infestation was calculated for each fruit collection. Percentage infestation steadily increased in each fruit collection from the first collection (21.6%) up until the fifth collection (39.8%; 3 days after the second spray). Overall, infestation averaged 33.4% (range: 21.6–39.8%).

+ Fang 1989:

Taiwan

In tests of the effectiveness of different bagging materials on infestation of L. aegyptiaca   fruits (listed as sponge gourd) by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ), 192 out of 400 control fruits (48.0%) were infested by B. cucurbitae   .

+ Gupta and Verma   1978:

Hisar (listed as Hissar), State of Haryana, India

Luffa aegyptiaca   (listed as smooth gourd, var. ‘Hissar Selection-3’) was grown from seed planted both 28 February and 31 July 1975, in randomized complete block designs with ten other cucurbit crops in Hisar, Haryana State, India. Fallen and marketable sized fruits were collected/picked every 3 days and assessed for infestation by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ). Infestation results were summarized weekly. Bactrocera cucurbitae   infestation was found in 20 of 22 weekly summaries (90.9%). Overall, 250 (14.4 kg) fruits were collected, of which 58 were infested, for an average of 11.4 fruits collected per week with an average infestation rate of 22.5%.

+ Gupta and Verma   1992:

State of Himachal Pradesh, India

The average total number of maggots within L. aegyptiaca   fruits (listed as sponge gourd)

in the field was determined from examination of 10 fruits randomly selected on a weekly basis from May to August 1986, and May to October 1987. Maggots included both B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) and B. tau   (listed as D. tau   ), with no indication given as to the relative proportion of the two species. Mean maggot population per fruit reached a maximum of 8.80 and 12.70 in 1986 and 1987, respectively.

+ Jakhar and Pareek 2005:

Jobner, State of Rajasthan, India

Seeds of nine cucurbit species were sown in a randomized block design with four replications at the Horticultural Farm of S.K.N. College of Agriculture in Jobner, India during the kharif season in 2000. The infestation rate of L. aegyptiaca   fruits (listed as sponge gourd) by B. cucurbitae   averaged 27.89% (range: 15.47–39.46%) over the course of ten collection dates, each 3 days apart, between August and September, 2000.

+ Khan et al. 1993:

Faisalabad, Pakistan

In a test of ovipositional preference of B. cucurbitae   adult females in the field (listed as

Dacus cucurbitae   ), small, medium and large L. aegyptiaca   fruits (listed as spongegourd) and Cucumis melo subsp. melo var. flexuosus   fruits (listed as Cucumis flexuosus   ), each grown in separate fields of about 1 ha each, were inspected for infestation bewteen 1985 and 1986, based on the presence of oviposition punctures, 20 samples for each host. Luffa aegyptiaca   fruit infestation averaged 43.0%, 40.0% and 17.0% in small, medium and large fruits, respectively.

One hundred (100) L. aegyptiaca   fruits (when available) were randomly observed in the field monthly from 1985 to 1986 and percentage infestation by B. cucurbitae   calculated. High L. aegyptiaca   infestation (76–100%) was observed from May to December.

Kittayapong et al. 2000:

Thailand

Luffa aegyptiaca   fruits (listed as Luffa cylindrica   ) were collected throughout Thailand within the time period of October 1995 to December 1998. Collections were placed over sawdust in a ventilated plastic container and brought back to the laboratory at Mahidol University in Bangkok. Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered from L. aegyptiaca   fruits. Total number of fruits collected and infestation rate data were not given.

Leblanc et al. 2012:

Papua New Guinea ( PNG)

Luffa aegyptiaca   (listed as Luffa cylindrica   ) fruits were collected during 1997 to 2000

in PNG and held in plastic containers over finely sieved sawdust that had been sterilized in an oven or frozen overnight to kill mites. The sawdust was sieved to recover tephritid fruit fly puparia. Puparia were kept in moist sawdust until adult emergence. Adults were fed for 5 days, then killed by freezing to allow colors and markings, necessary for correct species identification, to fully develop. Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered in 1 of 7 (14.3%) samples in PNG.

Leblanc et al. 2013a:

Papua New Guinea ( PNG)

Luffa aegyptiaca   (listed as Luffa cylindrica   ) fruits (55 fruits; 1.79 kg) were collected during 1997 to 2000 in PNG and held in plastic containers over finely sieved sawdust that had been sterilized in an oven or frozen overnight to kill mites. The sawdust was sieved to recover tephritid fruit fly puparia. Puparia were kept in moist sawdust until adult emergence. Adults were fed for 5 days, then killed by freezing to allow colors and markings, necessary for correct species identification, to fully develop. Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered in 1 of 7 (14.3%) samples in PNG with an overall infestation rate of 22.35 flies/kg fruit and 667.0 flies/kg infested fruit.

+ Lee et al. 1992:

Taiwan

From June 1989 to September 1991, rotten and ripening Luffa aegyptiaca   fruits (listed as sponge gourd) were collected every 2 weeks from one site (Ta-Hu agricultural plantation) in Taiwan. Fruits were transferred to the laboratory and held until adult emergence. Bactrocera cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) was recovered from infested ‘sponge gourd’ fruits with an infestation rate of 0.5% at Ta-Hu.

+ Lee 1972:

Taiwan

Luffa aegyptiaca   plants (listed as vegetable sponge) were grown in the field year-round from 2 June 1969 to 10 June 1970, and from March-August 1971. Fruits, picked 5, 10, and 15 days after flowering, were placed over sand in holding boxes. The sand was screened weekly to recover B. cucurbitae   pupae (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ). Pupal recovery per fruit was averaged quarterly for 1969 to 1970 harvests. Pupal recovery per kg fruit was averaged monthly for 1971 harvests. Bactrocera cucurbitae   pupal recovery averaged 1.9, 5.9, and 0.32 pupae/fruit (1969–1970) and 28.9, 16.1, and 1.2 pupae/kg fruit (1971) overall, for fruits picked 5, 10, and 15 days after flowering, repectively.

Matsuyama and Kuba 2002:

Taiwan

Adult B. cucurbitae   flies were obtained (for use as a wild strain in a mating compatibility test) from larvae recovered from naturally infested L. aegyptiaca   fruits (listed as L. cylindrica Roem   ).

Matsuyama and Kuba 2009:

Taiwan (Chayi, Tainan and Yunlin Prefectures)

A Taiwanese wild strain of B. cucurbitae   (T strain) was developed from 1,108 larvae collected from naturally infested L. aegyptiaca   fruits (listed as L. cylindrica Roem   ) in 2000. No fruit weight was given.

McQuate and Teruya 2015:

Southwestern Islands of Japan

Before the start of population suppression activities in a B. cucurbitae   eradication program, 4,844 L. aegyptiaca   fruits were collected (97 collections overall) from five islands/island groups (Amami, Kume, Miyako, Okinawa, Yaeyama) in Japan and held on sand or sawdust in plastic containers. After 2 to 3 weeks, the sand or sawdust was sieved to recover tephritid fruit fly pupae which were then held for adult emergence and identification. Infestation by B. cucurbitae   was found in 707 fruits, giving an average percentage infestation rate (weighted by the number of collections in the islands/ island groups) of 15.3%.

+ Nath 1964:

New Delhi, India

Five experiments with completely randomized design, with three replications, were conducted in New Delhi, India, in the spring, summer and rainy season of 1963 to test the relative resistance of different cultivars of L. aegyptiaca   (listed as sponge gourd) to infestation by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ). The assessment of resistance or susceptibility was based entirely on the percentage of fruits damaged by B. cucurbitae   in the field. There was a significant difference among 15 varieties in regards to the degree of resistance to infestation, with infestation ranging from 40–95%. Total number of fruits collected and infestation rate data were not given.

Nath 1966:

New Delhi, India

A completely randomized design experiment, with three replicates, was conducted at each of three times in 1963 (spring [28 February planting], summer [15 May planting] and rainy season/late fall [15 July planting]) in New Delhi, India to compare the relative resistance to infestation by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) of 11 different varieties of L. aegyptiaca   (listed as L. cylindrica Roem   ). Fruits were examined twice a week and damaged fruits showing fruit fly punctures were harvested while undamaged fruits were left on the vine. The percentage of total fruits damaged throughout the season was calculated for each variety. Percentage of fruits infested averaged (across varieties) 28.1% (range: 7.1–55.3%), 59.8% (range: 47.4–75.2%) and 54.9% (range: 44.4–64.7%) in the three planting seasons, respectively.

Nath and Bhushan 2006:

Varanasi, State of Uttar Pradesh, India

Luffa aegyptiaca   was sown, with three replications, in Varanasi, India, the last week of

March (summer season) and again the last week of June (rainy season) in both 2001 and 2002. Percentage infestation by B. cucurbitae   averaged 25.0% (range: 21.4–28.7%) in the summer season and 39.3% (range: 37.6–41.0%) in the rainy season.

Nath and Bhushan 2006:

Varanasi, State of Uttar Pradesh, India

Luffa aegyptiaca   (listed as Luffa cylindrica   ) was sown, with three replications, in Varanasi, India, the last week of March (summer season) and again the last week of June (rainy season) in both 2001 and 2002. Percentage infestation by B. cucurbitae   averaged 18.1% (range: 13.8–22.4%) in the summer season and 35.4% (range: 33.4–37.5%) in the rainy season.

+ Nishida 1953:

Island of Oahu, Hawaii, U.S.A.

Infested L. aegyptiaca   fruits (listed as dish cloth gourd) were collected at cultivated areas in Waianae on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii between 1950 to 1951. Seventy-three (73) B. cucurbitae   larvae (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) were recovered from the fruits at the site. Number   of fruits and infestation rate data were not given.

+ Pareek and Kavadia 1994:

Jobner and Udaipur, state of Rajasthan, India

Luffa aegyptiaca   fruits (listed as sponge gourd, variety ‘Pusa chikni’) were raised in a randomized block design with nine other cucurbit crops (each with three replicated plots) for assessment of preference of B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ). The trials were conducted from February to June 1979, and again in 1981, in Udaipur (semi-humid agroclimatic conditions) and in 1980 and 1981 in Jobner (semi-arid agroclimatic condition). Fruits were harvested twice a week, examined for fruit fly damage, and then percentage of fruits infested by B. cucurbitae   calculated. Percentage infestation averaged 9.1% (range: 7.8–10.5%) in Udaipur and 12.3% (range: 11.2–13.4%) in Jobner.

Pradhan 1977:

Nepal

Luffa aegyptiaca   (listed as L. cylindrica   ) was planted by seed in Nepal in four separate plots (four replicates) during the first week of April in 1974 and again in 1975. Daily counts were made of infestation of flowers and then of fruits by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ). Infested flowers and fruits were detached and thrown to the ground after observations were completed. Infestation rate of fruits averaged 15.67% (range: 0.0–26.6%) in 1974 and 3.8% (range: 0.0–14.2%) in 1975.

Qureshi et al. 1974:

Hyderabad, Sindh Province, Pakistan

In order to document the relative abundance of B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   )

and Dacus ciliatus   , random samples of Luffa aegyptiaca   fruits were collected from various vegetable growing areas near Hyderabad, Pakistan from 1970 to 1972. Fruits were held separately in wooden boxes with wire-gauze screen at the bottom, and placed over another box containing sterilized sand. The sand was sieved daily and recovered pupae were held in Petri plates until adult emergence. Two hundred eighty-six (286) B. cucurbitae   adults were recovered from 60.4 kg of L. aegyptiaca   fruits overall. Bactrocera cucurbitae   adults were recovered from 8 of 12 collections (66.7%), with a collection average of 4.77 adults recovered per kg fruit.

Ramadan and Messing 2003:

Thailand

Four (4) collections of immature L. aegyptiaca   fruits (listed as L. cylindrica   [L.] Roem)

with oviposition scars or signs of larval infestation were made in 1996 from two localities in Thailand (Betong, Yala). Fruits were held over sawdust, which was subsequently sifted for recovery of tephritid fruit fly puparia. Thirty-five (35) B. cucurbitae   puparia were recovered, from which 32 adults emerged (91.4% emergence).

Syed 1971:

Faisalabad and Gujranwala, Province of Punjab; Karachi, Sindh Province; Peshawar

Valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan

In Faisalabad and Gujranwala (1962–1963), 7% of L. aegyptiaca   fruits (listed as Luffa cylindrica   ) were infested by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) in August, with infestation rate increasing to 60% in September and October; In Karachi (1962–1966), 3–4% of L. aegyptiaca   fruits were attacked by a mix of B. cucurbitae   and Dacus ciliatus   , with rate of infestation increasing to 6–13% in October and November; in the Peshawar Valley (1962–1963), L. aegyptiaca   fruits were infested by B. cucurbitae   from August through December. Total number of fruits collected was not given.

Vayssières and Carel 1999:

Réunion Island, France

Luffa aegyptiaca   fruits (listed as Luffa cylindrica   ) of a local variety were   collected over the course of a year from up to 70 localities on Réunion Island. Fruits with evidence of fruit fly infestation were held in individual containers, with recovered pupae held for adult emergence. Bactrocera cucurbitae   recovery averaged 924.3 (standard deviation = 1,040) adults per kg infested fruit.

Vayssières et al. 2007:

Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea and Mali, West Africa

Tephritid fruit fly-infested Luffa aegyptiaca   fruits (listed as L. cylindrica   [L.] Roen) were collected from untreated orchards in West Africa. Fruits were placed on mesh supports over sand. Tephritid fruit fly pupae, recovered through weekly sieving of the sand, were transferred to small hatching boxes lined with wet blotting paper and held for adult emergence. The average B. cucurbitae   infestation level in L. aegyptiaca   fruits in West Africa fell in the range of 26– 50 pupae /kg fruit. For comparison, the authors indicated that the infestation level of L. aegyptiaca   fruits averaged over 100 pupae /kg fruit on Réunion Island.

Wen 1985:

Taiwan

Luffa aegyptiaca   fruits (listed as vegetable sponge) were collected in southern Taiwan from July to December 1983 and May to June 1984. Infestation by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) averaged 15.65% (bimonthly averages ranged from 5.75–24.33%). Lab Infestation:

Agarwal and Yazdani 1991:

One hundred (100) eggs, collected from adult B. cucurbitae   flies (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) which emerged from field-infested L. aegyptiaca   fruits (listed as Luffa cylindrica   ), were inserted in a triangular cut in a Luffa aegyptiaca   fruit (four replications) and held at 29.85±8.33°C and 61.72±22.05% RH. An average of 63% survived from larval stage to adult emergence.

Bains and Sidhu 1984:

Newly emerged B. cucurbitae   larvae (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) were placed on cut pieces of L. aegyptiaca   (listed as Luffa cylindrica   ) and held in Petri plates having moist blotting paper on the bottom. Larval survival to pupation was 74.2%.

+ Gupta and Verma   1995:

A cohort of 50 B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) newly emerged maggots was placed on a small slice of L. aegyptiaca   fruit (listed as sponge gourd) kept in a Petri dish. Maggots were shifted daily to a new slice and mortality was recorded. Mature larvae were allowed to burrow into sand for pupation and, after 6 days, pupae were recovered and placed in plastic tubes until eclosion. Average adult survivorship from newly emerged larvae placed on sponge gourd was 44%, which was less than on cucumber ( Cucumis sativus   ) (54%) or on bitter gourd ( Momordica charantia   ) (60%).

Khan et al. 2011:

In a choice test, 50.0 g of L. aegyptiaca   fruits (listed as Luffa cylindsica   [L]), along with 50.0 g of each of eight other natural hosts, were exposed for 20 minutes to 50 pairs of 15–20-day-old B. cucurbitae   and 50 pairs of 15–20-day-old B. tau   inside a small cage, after which fruit samples were removed and placed separately on sawdust inside a cloth-covered plastic bowl for pupation. The sawdust was sieved after 6 to 8 days to recover pupae (of both fly species) which were held for adult emergence. Out of a mean infestation of 179±7.21 pupae recovered (mixed infestation of B. cucurbitae   and B. tau   ), 54.74% (98.0) of the recovered pupae emerged as adult B. cucurbitae   .

In a no-choice test, 50.0 g of L. aegyptiaca   fruits, as well as 50.0 g of each of eight other natural hosts, were exposed for 20 minutes to 5 pairs of 15–20-day-old B. cucurbitae   and 5 pairs of 15–20-day-old B. tau   inside separate small cages, after which fruit samples were removed and placed separately on sawdust inside a cloth-covered plastic bowl for pupation. The sawdust was sieved after 6 to 8 days to recover pupae (of both fly species) which were held for adult emergence. Out of a mean infestation of 131±3.48 pupae recovered (mixed infestation of B. cucurbitae   and B. tau   ), 9.16% (12.0) of the recovered pupae emerged as adult B. cucurbitae   .

Ponce 1937:

Bactrocera cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) was reared in the laboratory on L. aegyptiaca   (listed as L. cylindrica   ) fruit. At a mean temperature of 30.34°C, the overall larval period lasted 6.49 days, based on “31 cultures” (replications).

Renjhen 1949:

Duration of egg, larval and pupal periods of Bactrocera cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) were recorded under laboratory conditions following oviposition in pieces of immature L. aegyptiaca   fruits. The larval period ranged between 5 and 9 days in the hotter months (with temperatures ranging between 26.1 and 37.2°C), though lasted as long as 22 days in the colder months (temperature as low as 14.4°C).

Saha et al. 2007:

The relative quality of seven different B. cucurbitae   fruit hosts was assessed by comparing pupal recovery (in F 1 and F 2 generations) following exposure of 500 g of each fruit to 200 gravid B. cucurbitae   adults (from laboratory-adapted stock culture) for 30 minutes. For L. aegyptiaca   (listed as L. cyclindsica   [L.]), 219 and 287 pupae (438 and 574 pupae /kg fruit) and 118 and 185 adults (237 and 369 adults per kg fruit) were recovered in the F 1 and F 2 generations, respectively, the fewest number of pupae among the seven host plant species tested.

Listing Only: + Agarwal et al. 1987 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as smooth gourd); + Akhtaruzzaman et al. 1999 (listed as sponge gourd); Beller and Bhenchitr 1936 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Botha et al. 2004 (listed as a secondary host); CABI 2016 (listed as a secondary host); California Department of Food and Agriculture 2001; Cantelo and Pholboon 1965 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Luffa cylindrica Roem.   ); Cantrell et al. 1999; Chaturvedi 1947 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); De Meyer et al. 2014 (listed as both Luffa aegyptiaca   and as L. cylindrica   ); De Meyer et al. 2015 (listed as Zeugodacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Luffa cylindrica M. Roem.   ); Dhillon et al. 2005a (listed as Luffa cylindrica   ); Government of Western Australia Department of Agriculture and Food 2015; Holbrook 1967 (listed as Luffa cylindrica   ; listed as “heavily or generally infested”); Kapoor 1970 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Luffa cylindrica   ); Kapoor 1991 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed both as Luffa cylindrica   (L.) and as L. aegyptica   [L.]); Kapoor and Agarwal 1983 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed both as Luffa cylindrica   and as L. aegyptica   ); Kazi 1976 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); + Khan et al. 1989 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as sponge gourd); + Lall and Singh 1969 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as sponge gourd); + Leblanc et al. 2013b (listed as smooth luffa); + Liu 1993 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as sponge gourd); McBride and Tanada 1949 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Luffa cylindrica Roem.   ; listed as frequently injured); Moiz et al. 1967 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Narayanan and Batra 1960 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Luffa cylindrica   ); Nishida 1963 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as chia torai, torai, Luffa aegyptiaca Mill.   and as L. cylindrica   L.); Oakley 1950 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Luffa cylindrica   ); Pacific Fruit Fly Web 2002 (listed as Luffa cylindrica   ); Phillips 1946 (listed as both Luffa aegyptiaca   and L. cylindrica   ); Plantwise Knowledge Bank 2015; Quilici and Jeuffrault 2001 (listed as Luffa cylindrica M. Roem.   ; listed as being a very favorable host); Singh et al. 2004; + Symonds et al. 2009 (listed as vegetable sponge); USDA 1986 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); USDA-APHIS 2000; USDA-APHIS 2008; USDA-APHIS-PPQ 1983 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CSDA 1984 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as a preferred host); White and Elson-Harris 1992; Yang 1991 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as Luffa cylindrica   ).

Synonyms: Cucurbita luffa   hort., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem.   , Luffa pentandra Roxb.   , Momordica cylindrica   L., Momordica luffa   L.

Luffa cylindrica M. Roem.   , see Luffa aegyptiaca Mill.  

Luffa pentandra Roxb.   , see Luffa aegyptiaca Mill.  

Luffa sphaerica Sond.   , see Lagenaria sphaerica (Sond.) Naudin  

Luffa spp.  

Family: Cucurbitaceae 

Grin Nomen Number: 300322

Field Infestation:

Clancy 1952:

Bareilly, State of Uttar Pradesh, India

In November 1949, 21,883 fruit fly puparia, reared from Luffa sp.   , were received in

Hawaii from Bareilly, India. The flies from these pupae were identified by Dr. Elmo Hardy as B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett   ) and B. caudatus   (listed as Dacus caudatus   F.), the majority being the former.

Clausen et al. 1965:

South China

From Luffa spp.   collections in July 1950 in South China, 625 Bactrocera cucurbitae  

(listed as Dacus cucurbitae Coq.   ) puparia were recovered.

Taiwan (referred to as Formosa)

From Luffa spp.   collections in August 1950 in Taiwan, 1,700 puparia were recovered, a mix of two predominant species: Bactrocera cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae Coq.   ) and Bactrocera tau   (listed as Dacus nubilus Hendel   ) (the fruits yielded mainly B. cucurbitae   , with a small number of B. tau   ).

North India

From collections of Luffa spp.   from October 1949 to October 1950 in Northern India,

172,958 puparia were recovered, a mix of three dominant species: Bactrocera cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae Coq.   ), Bactrocera tau   (listed as Dacus nubilus Hendel   ), and Dacus ciliatus Loew   ( B. cucurbitae   was the dominant species).

+ Fullaway 1916:

Singapore

Bactrocera cucurbitae   adults (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) were reared out of Luffa sp.  

fruits (listed as luffas). No infestation rate data were given.

Ramadan and Messing 2003:

Thailand

One (1) collection of immature Luffa sp.   fruits with oviposition scars or signs of larval infestation was made in 1996 from one locality in Thailand (Narathiwat). Fruits were held over sawdust, which was subsequently sifted for recovery of tephritid fruit fly puparia. Four (4) B. cucurbitae   puparia were recovered, from which 2 adults emerged (50.0% emergence).

Syed 1971:

Multan and Rawalpindi, Province of Punjab, Pakistan

In Multan (1963-1964), some Luffa spp.   fruits were infested by B. cucurbitae   (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ) in August, near the time of first fruiting, with infestation rate increasing to 53% by November; in Rawalpindi (1962-1963), infestation of Luffa spp.   by B. cucurbitae   began in August, increased to 10% in September, and continued at about this rate until late in November. Total number of fruits collected was not given. Interception Data:

PestID 2016:

Hawaii, U.S.A.

Bactrocera cucurbitae   was recovered by USDA-APHIS-PPQ (“interceptions”) from Luffa  

sp. fruits, originating in Hawaii, at an airport in Hawaii ( Honolulu ) on two occasions: in 1999 and in 2007. Recovery was five live larvae on each occasion. Listing Only: + Ayyar 1935 (listed as Chaetodacus cucurbitae   ; listed as luffa)   ; California Department of Food and Agriculture 2001   ; Chawla 1966 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Hawaii Department of Agriculture 2009; Holbrook 1967; Isnadi 1991 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Kandybina 1987 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Margosian et al. 2009; + Mau et al. 2007 (listed as luffa); McBride and Tanada 1949 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Oakley 1950 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Okinawa Prefectural Fruit Fly Eradication Project 1987 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); USDA 1986 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); USDA- APHIS 2000   ; USDA-APHIS 2008; USDA-APHIS-PPQ 1983 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ); Vijaysegaran 1985 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   )   ; + Walker 2005 (listed as luffa)   ; + Yong 1992 (listed as Dacus cucurbitae   ; listed as luffa)   .

Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.   , see Solanum lycopersicum L.   var. lycopersicum   Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.   forma pyriforme (Alef.) C. H. Müll.   , see Solanum lycopersicum L.   var. lycopersicum  

Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. cerasiforme Alef.   , see Solanum lycopersicum L.   var. cerasiforme (Alef.) Fosberg