Thyroscyphus marginatus ( Allman, 1877 ),

Calder, Dale R., 2019, On a collection of hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) from the southwest coast of Florida, USA, Zootaxa 4689 (1), pp. 1-141: 74-75

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4689.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:41BFBBDF-41AD-4329-B6B9-CF38D64815A6

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/9E4CE23A-FF85-F10B-FF03-6657FA8A28D8

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scientific name

Thyroscyphus marginatus ( Allman, 1877 )
status

 

Thyroscyphus marginatus ( Allman, 1877) 

Figs. 19i, jView FIGURE 19

Obelia marginata Allman, 1877: 9  , pl. 6, figs. 1, 2.— Fewkes, 1881a: 128.

Campanularia insignis  .— Wallace, 1909: 137 [not Campanularia insignis Fewkes, 1881  ].

Campanularia marginata  .— Nutting, 1915: 45, pl. 6, figs. 5–7.— Fraser, 1943: 88; 1944: 124, pl. 22, figs. 97a–d.— Penner, 1962: 177 [not Campanularia marginata Bale, 1884  = Thyroscyphus macrocytharus ( Lamouroux, 1824)  ].

Lytoscyphus marginatus  .— Leloup, 1935a: 31.

Cnidoscyphus marginatus  .— Splettstösser, 1929: 89, figs. 83–87, 88a, b.— Leloup, 1937: 101.— Van Gemerden-Hoogeveen, 1965: 14.

Type locality. USA: Florida, off Loggerhead Key , 9 ftm (16 m) ( Allman 1877: 9, as Obelia marginata  )  .

Material examined. Fort Myers Beach, 26°27’24”N, 81°57’48”W, washed ashore, 22 January 2013, several colonies and colony fragments, up to 16 cm high, without gonophores, ROMIZ B4412.— Fort Myers Beach , stranded on shore, 01 March 2013, several tangled colony fragments, up to 8 cm high, without gonophores, ROMIZ B4413  .— Sanibel Island , beach at Lighthouse Point, detached and stranded in tidepool, 30 March 2013, one colony, 7.3 cm high, without gonophores, coll. D. Calder, ROMIZ B4382  .— Sanibel Island , beach at Lighthouse Point, 26°26’57”N, 82°01’06”W, on detached shell fragments at water’s edge, 13 March 2018, 20° C, 33.5‰, one colony, 18 cm high, without gonophores, coll. D. Calder, ROMIZ B4383GoogleMaps  .— Sanibel Island , beach at Lighthouse Point, 26°26’58”N, 82°01’04.5”W, on detached shell debris at water’s edge, 21 March 2018, 22° C, 34.5‰, one colony, 2.8 cm high, without gonophores, coll. D. Calder, ROMIZ B4384GoogleMaps  .

Remarks. Thyroscyphus marginatus  was originally described from the vicinity of Loggerhead Key, Dry Tortugas, southwest Florida, by Allman (1877, as Obelia marginata  ). The species is large, conspicuous, easily collected, and easily identified from the morphology of its colonies and distinctive hydrothecae. While reported at depths from the lower intertidal zone to 805 m ( Nutting 1915, as Campanularia marginata  ), it is primarily a species of relatively shallow waters (Calder 1998, as Cnidoscyphus marginatus  ). The hydroid is a familiar one in southwest Florida and the southern Gulf of Mexico, as well as in the Caribbean region and in shelf waters of the southeastern United States. Its geographic range in the western Atlantic extends from North Carolina ( Cain 1972, as C. marginatus  ) to Brazil ( Oliveira et al. 2016). The species also occurs in warm waters of the eastern Atlantic ( Medel & Vervoort 1998, as C. marginatus  ).

Allman (1888) described this species a second time, as Campanularia insignis  from Challenger Bank near Bermuda, and it was reported under that name in southwest Florida by Wallace (1909). That binomen is invalid as both a junior primary homonym of Campanularia insignis Fewkes, 1881  (likely identical with C. macroscypha Allman, 1877  ) and a subjective junior synonym of Obelia marginata Allman, 1877  (now Thyroscyphus marginatus  ). Also of note, Nutting (1915), Fraser (1944), and others applied the binomen Campanularia marginata  to this species, rendering Campanularia marginata Bale, 1884  from Australia a junior secondary homonym. A replacement name, Thyroscyphus balei  , was proposed for Bale’s (1884) species by me ( Calder 1983), but a senior synonym of both the original and the replacement name, Clytia macrocythara Lamouroux, 1824  (= Thyroscyphus macrocytharus  ), has subsequently been discovered by Watson (1994). The original spelling of the specific name of Lamouroux’s species was macrocyttara, but the change to macrocythara  by de Blainville (1830) and virtually all subsequent authors is taken to be a justified emendation (ICZN Art. 33.2.3.1).

Detailed accounts of T. marginatus  are given elsewhere ( Splettstösser 1929, as Cnidoscyphus marginatus  ; Vervoort 1968, as C. marginatus  ; Calder 1991b, 2013; Medel & Vervoort 1998, as C. marginatus  ). The hydroid was reported to be venomous by Penner (1962).

Reported distribution. Gulf coast of Florida. Off Loggerhead Key, 9 ftm (16 m) ( Allman 1877: 9, as Obelia marginata  ).—Off Sand Key, 15 ftm (27 m), on a telegraph cable ( Fewkes 1881a: 128, as Obelia marginata  ).—Dry Tortugas ( Wallace 1909: 137, as Campanularia insignis  ).—S of St. George Island, 28°46’N, 84°49’W, 26 ftm (48 m) + S of Alligator Point, 28°28’N, 84°25’W, 21 ftm (38 m) + W of Marco Island, 26°N, 82°57’30”W, 24 ftm (44 m) ( Nutting 1915: 45, as Campanularia marginata  ).—Dry Tortugas ( Splettstösser 1929: 89, as Cnidoscyphus marginatus  ).—Dry Tortugas, 25 feet (8 m) ( Leloup 1935a: 31, as Lytoscyphus marginatus  ).—Off Tampa Bay, 7–10 miles (11–16 km) offshore, 8–10 ftm (15–18 m) ( Leloup 1937: 101, as Cnidoscyphus marginatus  ).—Salt Key Bank, 24°36’40”N, 83°02’20”W, W of Loggerhead Key, 16 ftm (29 m) + Eastern Dry Rocks, off Key West + Key West, off South Beach, 5 ftm (9 m) + W of North Naples, 26°16’10”N, 82°25’40”W, 20 ftm (37 m) ( Fraser 1943: 88, as Campanularia marginata  ).—Off Sand Key + off Dry Tortugas ( Fraser 1944: 126, as Campanularia marginata  ).—Dry Tortugas ( Van Gemerden-Hoogeveen 1965: 15, as Cnidoscyphus marginatus  ).—Key West ( Penner 1962: 177, as Campanularia marginata  ).

Elsewhere in western North Atlantic. Mexico: off Zoblos Island (= Isla Holbox) ( Clarke 1879: 241, as Obelia marginata  ).— Bermuda: Challenger Bank, 30 ftm (55 m) ( Allman 1888: 19, as Campanularia insignis  ).— Cuba: off Morro Castle, 100–250 ftm (183–457 m) ( Nutting 1895: 87, as Obelia marginata  ).— Bahamas: ridge between Eleuthera and Little Cat Island ( Nutting 1895: 223, as Obelia marginata  ).— Venezuela: near Los Testigos Islands, 11 m ( Versluys 1899: 30, as Obelia marginata  ).— Anguilla: 100–150 ftm (183–274 m) ( Jäderholm 1903: 270, as Obelia marginata  ).— Bermuda: “…along the shores…plentiful” ( Congdon 1907: 468, as Campanularia insignis  ).— Bermuda: Challenger Bank, 30 ftm (55 m) ( Ritchie 1909: 250, as C. insignis  ).— Cuba: off Havana, 23°10’42”N, 82°18’24”W, 67 ftm (123 m) ( Nutting 1915: 45, as Campanularia marginata  ).— USA: Georgia, slope off southern Cumberland Island, 30°44’N, 79°26’W, 440 ftm (805 m) ( Nutting 1915: 45, as Campanularia marginata  ).— Barbados ( Nutting 1919: 116, as Campanularia marginata  ).— Bermuda: Bailey’s Bay ( Splettstösser 1929: 89, as Cni- doscyphus marginatus  ).— Virgin Islands of the United States: St. Thomas + St. John ( Splettstösser 1929: 89, as Cnidoscyphus marginatus  ).— Bermuda: Challenger Bank ( Splettstösser 1929: 89, as Cnidoscyphus marginatus  ).— Venezuela: near Islas Los Tortuguillos ( Leloup 1937: 101, as Cnidoscyphus marginatus  ).— Anguilla: inside Sombrero Island ( Fraser 1943: 88, as Campanularia marginata  ).— USA: South Carolina, continental slope E of Hilton Head Island, 32°07’N, 78°37’30”W, 229 ftm (419 m) ( Fraser 1944: 126, as Campanularia marginata  ).— Puerto Rico: Puerto Rico, including Culebra ( Fraser 1944: 126, as Campanularia marginata  ).— Bermuda: (Challenger Bank?), 30 ftm (55 m) ( Fraser 1944: 126, as Campanularia marginata  ).— Aruba: 8 miles (13 km) SW of Sint Nicolaas Baai, 23–24 ftm (42–44 m) Fraser 1947b: 5, as Campanularia marginata  ).—Unstated location: on buoys ( Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 1952: 186, as Campanularia marginata  ).— Curaçao: Knip Baai ( Van Gemerden-Hoogeveen 1965: 14, as Cnidoscyphus marginatus  ).— Bahamas: North Bimini ( Van Gemerden-Hoogeveen 1965: 15, as Cnidoscyphus marginatus  ).— Virgin Islands of the United States: St. Thomas ( Vervoort 1968: 33, as Cnidoscyphus marginatus  ).— USA: North Carolina, Lithothamnion  reef S of Cape Lookout ( Cain 1972: 80, as Cnidoscyphus marginatus  ).— Colombia: widespread ( Wedler 1975: 340; Flórez González 1983: 123; Bandel and Wedler 1987: 41; all as Cnidoscyphus marginatus  ).— USA: Florida, southeast coast ( Mergner 1977: 122, as Cnidoscyphus marginatus  ; 1987: 187, as Cnidoscyphus marginatus  ).— USA: South Carolina, Prices Creek, 8 m ( Calder & Hester 1978: 91, as Cnidoscyphus marginatus  ; Calder 1983: 16).— Belize: Carrie Bow Cay, 5–31 m ( Spracklin 1982: 249, as Cnidoscyphus marginatus  ).— USA: continental shelf of South Carolina and Georgia ( Wenner et al. 1983: 151).— Dominican Republic: south coast ( Williams et al. 1983: 43, as Cnidoscyphus marginatus  ).— USA: South Carolina, inner (17–18 m), middle (32–36 m) and outer (46–69 m) continental shelf + Georgia, inner (17–22 m), middle (23–29 m) and out- er (59–67 m) continental shelf ( Wenner et al. 1984: 21, 40).— USA: Texas, Flower Garden Bank ( Rezak et al. 1985: 224).— Puerto Rico: La Parguera ( Wedler & Larson 1986: 89, as Cnidoscyphus marginatus  ).— Bermuda: shallow inshore and deeper offshore waters, common ( Calder 1986: 137).— Puerto Rico: Mona Island + Desecheo Island ( Larson 1987: 514).— British Virgin Islands: Virgin Gorda Island ( Larson 1987: 514).— Bermuda: Flatts Inlet, 0.5–2 m + Harrington Sound, Cripplegate Cave, 0.5 m + Whalebone Bay, 1.5–4 m + 2 km SE of Castle Roads, 60–90 m (Calder 1990 [1991a]: 79).— USA: Florida, off Boca Raton, on artificial reef ( Cummings 1994: 1208).— Cuba: north coast ( Ortiz Rosado 2000: 87, as Campanularia marginata  ).— Bermuda:Argus (=Plantagenet) Bank, on Argus Tower, 20 m ( Calder 2000: 1136, as Cnidoscyphus marginatus  ).— Costa Rica, near Limón, 1–2 m ( Kelmo & Vargas 2002: 605).— Panama: Bocas del Toro, Hospital Point, 09°20’00.7”N, 82°13’06.8”W, 0–2 m + Hospital Point, 09°20’01.9”N, 82°13’07.7”W, 2–13 m + Swan’s Key, 09°27’12.2”N, 82°18’01.8”W, 1–4 m + Bastimentos (north), 09°20.898’N, 82°09.959’W, 1–4 m ( Calder & Kirkendale 2005: 484, as Cnidoscyphus marginatus  ).— Cuba: Alamar, east coast of Havana ( Ortea & Caballer 2007: 122).—French Lesser Antilles: Guadeloupe, Basse-Terre, N of Malendure, 16°10’25.00”N, 61°46’58.00”W, rocky shore ( Galea 2008: 37).—French Lesser Antilles: Guadeloupe, Grande-Terre, Les Arches, 16°27.529’N, 61°32.021’W, 17 m + Grotte aux Barracudas, 16°27.343’N, 61°32.244’W, 21 m + Pointe Plate, 16°27.220’N, 61°32.128’W + Les Ancres, 16°27.002’N, 61°32.320’W, 15–18 m + Pointe d’Antigues, 16°26.251’N, 61°32.523’W ( Galea 2010: 3, 4).— Cuba: Golfo de Batabanó ( Castellanos-Iglesias et al. 2011: 20).—French Lesser Antilles: Martinique, Le Diamant, 14.442310, -61.039697, 10–13 m + Le Prêcheur, La Perle, 14.841853, -61.227858, 13 m + Le Prêcheur, Les Jardins des Abîmes, 14.809044, -61.228853, 10–15 m + Le Prêcheur, Pointe Lamare, 14.780461, -61.211935, 10–17 m + Case-Pilote, Anse Batterie, 14.643113, -61.141711, 6–8 m + Case-Pilote, Case-Pilote, 14.637536, -61.139743, 9–15 m ( Galea 2013: 11, 14, 15, 18, 29, 35).— USA: Florida, Bethel Shoal off Vero Beach, 27°42.6’N, 80°06.8’W, 24 m ( Calder 2013: 23).— Colombia: Guajira, on gas platforms ( Gracia et al. 2013: 385).—French Lesser Antilles: Martinique, Saint Pierre, 14.75144, -61.18236, 10–15 m + Case-Pilote, 14.63753, -61.13974, 9–15 m ( Galea & Ferry 2015: 224, 237).—Caribbean Sea ( Wedler 2017b: 136, figs. 147, 148, 149A–G, 150A, B, 151A, B).— Mexico: Alacranes Reef, on sponges, corals, molluscs, rocks ( Mendoza-Becerril et al. 2018b: 130).— Panama: Bocas del Toro area, Crawl Cay ( Miglietta et al. 2018b: 108).

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Cnidaria

Class

Hydrozoa

Order

Leptothecata

Family

Sertulariidae

Genus

Thyroscyphus

Loc

Thyroscyphus marginatus ( Allman, 1877 )

Calder, Dale R. 2019
2019
Loc

Lytoscyphus marginatus

Leloup, E. 1935: 31
1935
Loc

Cnidoscyphus marginatus

Van Gemerden-Hoogeveen, G. C. H. 1965: 14
Leloup, E. 1937: 101
Splettstosser, W. 1929: 89
1929
Loc

Campanularia marginata

Penner, L. R. 1962: 177
Fraser, C. M. 1944: 124
Fraser, C. M. 1943: 88
Nutting, C. C. 1915: 45
1915
Loc

Campanularia insignis

Wallace, W. S. 1909: 137
1909
Loc

Obelia marginata

Fewkes, J. W. 1881: 128
Allman, G. J. 1877: 9
1877