Calyptospadix cerulea Clarke, 1882,

Calder, Dale R., 2019, On a collection of hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) from the southwest coast of Florida, USA, Zootaxa 4689 (1), pp. 1-141: 22-23

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https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4689.1.1

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lsid:zoobank.org:pub:41BFBBDF-41AD-4329-B6B9-CF38D64815A6

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scientific name

Calyptospadix cerulea Clarke, 1882
status

 

Calyptospadix cerulea Clarke, 1882 

Fig. 2eView FIGURE 2

Calyptospadix cerulea Clarke, 1882: 136  , pl. 7, figs. 1–9.

Bimeria franciscana Torrey, 1902: 28  , pl. 1, fig. 4.

not Bimeria franciscana  .— Joyce, 1961: 36, pl. 5, figs 3, 4 [= Bimeria humilis Allman, 1877  ].

Garveia franciscana  .— Garman et al. 2011: 71.

Type locality. USA: Virginia, Hampton Roads, Fort Wool ( Clarke, 1882: 136)  .

Material examined. Caloosahatchee River at Fort Myers, 26°38.790’N, 81°52.354’W, on floating dock, less than 1 m, 18 July 2012, 7‰, one colony, 7.5 cm high, with a few developing female gonophores, coll. D. Calder, ROMIZ B4340.— Caloosahatchee River at Fort Myers, 26°38.790’N, 81°52.354’W, on floating dock, less than 1 m, 18 July 2012, 7‰, one colony, 2.5 cm high, without gonophores, coll. D. Calder, ROMIZ B4341GoogleMaps  .— Fort Myers Beach , Salty Sam’s Marina, 26°27’21.7”N, 81°56’34.6”W, on floating dock on oyster shells, <0.1 m, 24° C, 22 February 2018, five colony fragments, up to 5 cm high, with male gonophores, coll. D. Calder, ROMIZ B4342GoogleMaps  .— Fort Myers Beach , Salty Sam’s Marina, 26°27’21.7”N, 81°56’34.6”W, on floating dock, <0.1 m, 29° C, 27 August 2018, three colony fragments, up to 13 cm high, with female gonophores, coll. D. Calder, ROMIZ B4417GoogleMaps  .

Remarks. Calyptospadix cerulea Clarke, 1882  was originally described from Hampton Roads, Virginia, at the mouth of the James River estuary. The species has been reported relatively few times under that name, mostly from areas of reduced salinity along the Atlantic coast of North America ( Fraser 1944). Much resembling it is the more widely reported Bimeria franciscana Torrey, 1902  , first discovered in the San Francisco Bay estuary on the Pacific coast of the United States. That hydroid is commonly believed to be an invasive estuarine endemic with a disjunct but widespread geographic distribution in temperate and tropical regions. The only apparent morphological difference between the two putative species is the supposed number of planulae generated per female sporosac, with several originally reported in C. cerulea  and one in B. franciscana  . On examining specimens of the common morphotype from Virginia during this study, some colonies had gonophores with a single egg cell, corresponding to B. franciscana  , while others had several cells or possibly zygotes, corresponding to C. cerulea  . The latter were interpreted as cell aggregations resulting from cleavage of the single egg. Hydroids of the two were otherwise indistinguishable. Meanwhile, specimens examined here from Fort Myers Beach (ROMIZ B4417) had, on the same colony, some female gonophores with a single egg and others containing a varying number of cells. The latter were again taken to have been the result of cell division. While gonosomes of the two supposed species may differ, the apparent difference is believed to simply reflect different stages of embryological development. Thus, C. cerulea  and B. franciscana  are treated here as conspecific. Molecular analyses of populations from the two type localities, and ones supposedly differing in their gonosomes, are nevertheless needed to better resolve the synonymy of the two. Of the two subjective synonyms, the junior name ( B. franciscana  ) is the more familiar. However, nomenclatural stability is not greatly threatened by application of the Principle of Priority, and C. cerulea  is adopted here as the name of the species.

A change in the binomen Bimeria franciscana  is necessary in any case because the species has been assigned to the wrong genus. These hydroids have been referred in most recent works to Garveia Wright, 1859  , as G. franciscana  or G. cerulea  . However, specimens do not match the diagnosis of that genus, as outlined by Schuchert (2007). Instead, Calyptospadix Clarke, 1882  is recognized here as valid, referable to family Bougainvilliidae Lütken, 1850  , and the original binomen of the species ( Calyptospadix cerulea  ) is restored. Meanwhile, Garveia  was recently removed from Bougainvilliidae  to Pandeidae Haeckel, 1879  in having vasiform hydranths surrounded by pseudohydrothecae, and notably robust hypostomes (see Calder 2017). Molecular data in Prudkovsky et al. (2016) provide additional support for assignment of Garveia  to Pandeidae  . As noted earlier, Bougainvilliidae  as presently constituted is taken to be polyphyletic ( Mendoza-Becerril 2018a).

Hydroids identified here as C. cerulea  were abundant on a floating dock at 26°38.790’N, 81°52.354’W in the Caloosahatchee River estuary at Fort Myers, Florida, during July 2012 (ROMIZ B4340, ROMIZ B4341). In the aftermath of Hurricane Irma passing through south Florida in September 2017, a massive discharge of fresh water passed through the estuary from Lake Okeechobee upstream. Colonies of C. cerulea  disappeared at that location un- der salinities of less than 1‰ and were replaced by the more fresh-water tolerant Cordylophora caspia  . Instead, hydroids of the species appeared down-estuary in Estero Bay on floating docks at Salty Sam’s Marina (26°27’21.7”N, 81°56’34.6”W), San Carlos Island, in winter 2018 (ROMIZ B4342). Colonies with abundant female gonophores were found at the same location in late summer 2018 ( ROMIZ B4418)  .

Calyptospadix cerulea  has been reported elsewhere on the Gulf coast of Florida from Crystal Beach Spring ( Garman et al. 2011, as Garveia franciscana  ). The report of Bimeria franciscana  by Joyce (1961) from Seahorse Key, on the Florida Gulf coast, is based on a misidentification of B. humilis Allman, 1877  , as noted elsewhere. Also likely misidentified are reports of the species by Fox & Ruppert (1985), as Garveia franciscana  , from typically high salinity areas in coastal South Carolina. The species is regarded as an estuarine endemic, with a reported bathymetric range of 0–5 m ( Calder & Cairns 2009).

Reported distribution. Gulf coast of Florida. Crystal Beach, Crystal Beach Spring ( Garman et al. 2011: 71, as Garveia franciscana  ).

Elsewhere in western North Atlantic. USA: Virginia, Hampton Roads, Fort Wool ( Clarke, 1882: 136).— USA: Massachusetts, Woods Hole + Buzzard’s Bay ( Hargitt 1909: 371, 372; Fraser 1912a: 41).— Canada: New Brunswick, Miramichi Bay ( Fraser 1926: 212).— USA: Louisiana coast ( Fraser 1943: 86, as Bimeria tunicata  ).— USA: tributaries of Chesapeake Bay ( Fraser 1944: 55; 1945: 21, as Bimeria tunicata  ; Cory 1967: 79, as Bimeria franciscana  ; Calder & Brehmer 1967: 153, as Calyptospadix cerulea  ; Cory & Nauman 1969: 215, as Bimeria franciscana  ; Calder 1971: 39, as Garveia cerulea  ; 1971: 40, as Garveia franciscana  ; McLean 1972: 229, as Bimeria franciscana  ; Andrews 1973: 231, as Garveia franciscana  (= Bimeria  ).— USA: coast of Louisiana and Texas ( Deevey 1950: 335; 1954: 269; both as Bimeria franciscana  ).— USA: Louisiana, Lake Pontchartrain ( Crowell & Darnell 1955: 516, as Bimeria franciscana  ; Poirrier & Mulino 1977: 15, as Garveia franciscana  ).— USA: Mississippi, Mississippi Sound, most abundant hydroid observed ( Fincher 1955: 91, as Bimeria tunicata  ).— USA: Delaware Bay ( Watling & Maurer 1972: 646, as Garveia franciscana  ; Smedes & Hurd 1981: 1568, as Garveia franciscana  ).— USA: Texas, Galveston Bay ( Defenbaugh 1972: 387, as Bimeria franciscana  ; Defenbaugh & Hopkins 1973: 49, as Bimeria franciscana  ).— Colombia: Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta ( Wedler 1973: 32; Palacios 1979: 114; Bandel & Wedler 1987: 39, as Garveia cerula  ).— USA: North Carolina, Pamlico River estuary ( Dean & Bellis 1975: 6, as Garveia cerulea  ).— USA: South Carolina, estuaries ( Calder & Hester 1978: 89, as Garveia franciscana  ).—? USA: South Carolina, Folly River + Breach Inlet, jetties + Beaufort area, pilings and jetties ( Fox & Ruppert 1985: 162, 167, 219, as Garveia franciscana  ).— USA: Virginia, James River, oyster reefs ( Larsen 1985: 800, as Garveia franciscana  ).— Venezuela: Lake Maracaibo (de Rincon & Morris 2003: 17, as Garveia franciscana  ).—Caribbean Sea ( Wedler 2017b: 23, figs. 7, 8, as Garveia franciscana  ).

Kingdom

Animalia

Genus

Calyptospadix

Loc

Calyptospadix cerulea Clarke, 1882

Calder, Dale R. 2019
2019
Loc

Garveia franciscana

Garman, K. M. & Rubelmann, H. & Karlen, D. J. & Wu, T. & Garey, J. R. 2011: 71
2011
Loc

Bimeria franciscana

Joyce, E. A. Jr. 1961: 36
1961
Loc

Bimeria franciscana

Torrey, H. B. 1902: 28
1902
Loc

Calyptospadix cerulea

Clarke, S. F. 1882: 136
1882