Clytia cf. hemisphaerica ( Linnaeus, 1767 ),

Calder, Dale R., 2019, On a collection of hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) from the southwest coast of Florida, USA, Zootaxa 4689 (1), pp. 1-141: 46-48

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https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4689.1.1

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scientific name

Clytia cf. hemisphaerica ( Linnaeus, 1767 )
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Clytia cf. hemisphaerica ( Linnaeus, 1767) 

Figs. 10View FIGURE 10 f –h

Medusa hemisphaerica Linnaeus, 1767: 1098  [medusa stage].

Clytia bicophora  .— Wallace, 1909: 37.

? Campanularia minuta  .— Wallace, 1909: 37.

? Campanularia  (edwardsii?).— Wallace, 1909: 37 [incorrect subsequent spelling].

Clytia edwardsi  .— Joyce, 1961: 50, pl. 9, fig. 2.

Clytia Johnstoni.  — Fraser, 1943: 88.— Joyce, 1961: 55, pl. 11, figs. 3, 4.— Shier, 1965: 36, pls. 18, 20.

Type locality. “Habitat in Oceano Belgico” ( Linnaeus 1767: 1098, as Medusa hemisphaerica  )  .

Material examined. Sanibel Island, beach at Lighthouse Point, on a detached and stranded colony of Eudendrium carneum  , 13 December 2017, two colonies or colony fragments, to 4 mm high, with gonothecae, coll. D. Calder, ROMIZ B4371.— Sanibel Island , beach at Lighthouse Point, 26°26’58”N, 82°01’04.5”W, on stranded Sargassum pteropleuron  , 21 March 2018, 22° C, 34.5‰, several colonies, up to 3 mm high, with gonophores, coll. D. Calder, ROMIZ B4372GoogleMaps  .

Remarks. Trophosomes of Clytia hemisphaerica ( Linnaeus, 1767)  , C. gracilis (M. Sars, 1850)  , and C. elsaeoswaldae Stechow, 1914  are all much alike, and their geographic distributions overlap in the western North Atlantic. Identification of sterile colonies is therefore difficult. According to Cornelius (1995b), hydroids of C. hemisphaerica  differ from those of C. gracilis  in having (1) colonies that tend to be shorter and less frequently branched, (2) hydrothecae that are shallower and less delicate, (3) hydrothecal cusps that are upright rather than oblique when viewed laterally, (4) a hydrothecal diaphragm that is thicker, (5) hydranths with typically 24–26 tentacles rather than 18–20. Differences in nematocyst morphology also have also been noted in the two species ( Östman 1979 a, b, 1987, 1999; Östman et al. 1987; Lindner & Migotto 2001). Most notably, fertile colonies of C. hemisphaerica  differ from those of C. gracilis  and C. elsaeoswaldae  in having gonothecae with walls that are spirally ribbed rather than being predominantly smooth (but see Cunha et al. 2017). Besides differences in gonothecal morphology, characters said to distinguish hydroids of C. hemisphaerica  from those of C. elsaeoswaldae  include (1) hydrothecal cusps that are rounded and usually upright rather than pointed and inclined to the right when viewed laterally, (2) gonothecae that commonly arise from both stolons and hydrothecal pedicels rather than predominantly or exclusively from the hydrorhiza ( Hincks 1868 [1869]; Cornelius 1982, 1995b; Lindner & Migotto 2011). In a multigene phylogenetic analysis by Lindner & Migotto (2011), C. elsaeoswaldae  was found to be closely related to, but distinct from, a clade including C. hemisphaerica  and two species of the C. gracilis  morphotype.

At present, C. hemisphaerica ( Linnaeus, 1767)  is widely taken to be a species with a nearly cosmopolitan distribution in coastal waters ( Cornelius 1995b). Commonly included among its synonyms in literature on hydroids reported from eastern North America are C. Johnstoni ( Alder 1856), C. bicophora L. Agassiz, 1862  , C. coronata ( Clarke, 1879)  , C. grayi Nutting, 1901  , C. minuta ( Nutting, 1901)  , and C. edwardsi ( Nutting, 1901)  . The question whether C. hemisphaerica  truly occurs from boreal waters of Atlantic Canada to the tropical Caribbean Sea in the western North Atlantic, as reported, has yet to be settled. While suspecting that cryptic species exist under the binomen, it was decided, based on current assumptions, to include records of the nominal species and its subjective synonyms across that entire latitudinal range in the Reported Distribution below. If the warm water hydroid population from lower latitudes and from pelagic Sargassum  assigned here to C. hemisphaerica  eventually proves to be a distinct species, the name C. coronata  may need to be resurrected for it. Reports summarized below refer largely to the hydroid stage of this species, with only a few accounts of the medusa stage having been listed.

Clytia intermedia L. Agassiz, 1862  from New England, included as a synonym of C. hemisphaerica  by Fraser (1944), appears from the original description and illustrations to have been based on a species of Campanularia Lamarck, 1816  or Orthopyxis L. Agassiz, 1862  . Rather than having a true diaphragm as in Clytia Lamouroux, 1812  , an annular perisarcal thickening was present at the base of the hydrotheca, and a subhydrothecal spherule was present. Records of C. intermedia  have therefore been excluded from distribution records below. Likewise excluded are records of C. Johnstoni by Leloup (1937) from the Bahamas and the Sargasso Sea. From illustrations provided by Leloup, those specimens were likely referable to C. noliformis ( McCrady, 1859)  rather than C. hemisphaerica  .

Thaumantias  (?) elsaeoswaldae Stechow, 1914  (not Clytia elsaeoswaldae Stechow, 1914  ), mentioned below in the Reported Distribution records, is a species inquirenda assigned with doubts to the synonymy of C. hemisphaerica  . No gonothecae were present in type material of the species, but it is clearly referable to Clytia Lamouroux, 1812  . As briefly discussed above under C. elsaeoswaldae Stechow, 1914  , T. elsaeoswaldae  was founded as a different species and its current binomen ( C. elsaeoswaldae  ) constitutes a secondary homonym.

The taxonomy and nomenclature of C. hemisphaerica  has been discussed in greater detail elsewhere (Calder 1990 [1991a]; Cornelius 1995b). Medel & Vervoort (2000) provided an extensive bibliography and a review of worldwide distribution records. The identity of Clytia noliformis  , unclear from the original description ( McCrady, 1859) but appearing similar to C. hemisphaerica  , was conserved as a distinct species through designation of a neotype ( Lindner & Calder 2000; Opinion 1986, International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 2002).

Clytia hemisphaerica  has recently become a model organism for the study of various biological processes ( Cook et al. 2016). Even a draft genome of the species has been assembled ( Leclere et al. 2019), with distinct transcriptome signatures in polyp, medusa, and planula larva stages.

Reported distribution. Gulf coast of Florida. Dry Tortugas ( Wallace 1909: 137, as Clytia bicophora  ).—?Dry Tortugas ( Wallace 1909: 137, as Campanularia minuta  ).—?Dry Tortugas ( Wallace 1909: 137, as Campanularia  (edwardsii? )).—Dry Tortugas ( Fraser 1943: 88, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).—Seahorse Key area, on Syringodium filiforme  ; gonothecae ribbed ( Joyce 1961: 50, as Clytia edwardsi  ).—Seahorse Key area, on floating grasses; gonothecae ribbed ( Joyce 1961: 55, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).—Cape San Blas area; gonothecae ribbed ( Shier 1965: 36, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).

Elsewhere in western North Atlantic. Canada: New Brunswick, Grand Manan (L. Agassiz 1862: 304–306, as Clytia (Trochopyxis) bicophoba  [sic], and Clytia bicophora  ).— USA: Massachusetts, Vineyard Sound (L. Agassiz 1862: 304–306, as Clytia (Trochopyxis) bicophoba  [sic], and Clytia bicophora  ).— USA: Maine, Eastport, hydroid & medusa (A. Agassiz 1865: 79, as Clytia bicophora  ).— USA: Massachusetts, Massachusetts Bay + Vineyard Sound + Naushon + Beverly, hydroid + Nahant, medusa (A. Agassiz 1865: 79, as Clytia bicophora  ).— Canada: New Brunswick, Grand Manan, medusa (A. Agassiz 1865: 79, as Clytia bicophora  ).— Canada: Gulf of St. Lawrence, Orphan Bank ( Whiteaves 1874: 185, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— USA: Maine, Casco Bay, among the islands, 8–30 ftm (15–55 m) ( Verrill 1874a: 44, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— USA: Maine, Casco Bay, 8–34 ftm (15–62 m) ( Verrill 1874c: 364).— USA: Vineyard Sound and vicinity, bays and sounds, rocky shores + rocky bottoms + gravelly and shelly bottoms ( Verrill 1874d: 334, 408, 411, 424, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— USA: Connecticut, Long Island Sound + New Haven area and Thimble Islands, 2–6 ftm (4–11 m) and in tidepools ( Verrill 1874d: 725, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— USA: Rhode Island, Watch Hill, 3–5 ftm (5–9 m) + off Block Island, 29 ftm (53 m) ( Verrill 1874d: 725, 726, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— USA: Massachusetts, Buzzards Bay + Vineyard Sound, 1–14 ftm (2–26 m) ( Verrill 1874d: 726, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— USA: Maine, Casco Bay ( Verrill 1874d: 726, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— Canada / USA: Bay of Fundy ( Verrill 1874d: 726, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— USA: Massachusetts, Georges Bank ( Verrill 1874d: 726, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— Canada: Nova Scotia, LaHave Bank (actually Baccaro Bank), 42°56.5’N, 64°51.3’W, 45 ftm (82 m), gravelly and stony bottom ( Smith & Harger 1875: 13, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— USA: Massachusetts, Cashes Ledge, 27–73 ftm (49–134 m) ( Verrill 1875a: 414, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— USA: New Hampshire, Jeffreys Ledge ( Verrill 1875a: 414, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— USA: Maine, Gulf of Maine, 43°11’N, 69°35’W, 32 ftm (59 m) ( Verrill 1875a: 414, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— Mexico: 10 miles (16 km) N of Zoblos Island (= Isla Holbox) ( Clarke 1879: 242, as Clytia coronata  ).— USA: Massachusetts, Provincetown, Long Point beach, inner shore, on stranded Fucus  ( Rathbun 1880: 132, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— USA: Massachusetts, Woods Hole, on Mytilus  ( Bumpus 1898: 857, as Clytia bicophora  ).— USA: Massachusetts, Woods Hole region, shallow water, on shells, algae, and other hydroids including Ectopleura crocea  on U.S. Fish Commission dock ( Nutting 1901: 343, as Clytia bicophora  ).— USA: Massachusetts, S of Martha’s Vineyard, 40°46’30”N, 70°40’W, 31 ftm (57 m), on worm tubes of sand ( Nutting 1901: 343, as Clytia grayi  ).— USA: Massachusetts, New Bedford, on Obelia  stems from wharf piles ( Nutting 1901: 345, as Campanularia minuta  ).— USA: Massachusetts, Woods Hole, on U.S. Fish Commission dock ( Nutting 1901: 346, as Campanularia edwardsi  ).— USA: northeast coast, on Fucus  , shells, other hydroids ( Hargitt 1901b: 381, as Clytia bicophora  ).— USA: Massachusetts, on Sargassum  ( Hargitt 1909: 373, as Clytia volubilis  ).— USA: Louisiana, seasonally abundant on stranded gulfweed ( Cary & Spaulding 1909: 6, as Clytia cylindrica  ).— USA: New England coast, in shallow tidepools, on seaweeds and other hydroids; gonothecae ribbed ( Mayer 1910b: 263, as Clytia volubilis  ).— USA: Massachusetts, Woods Hole area, Fays Wharf + Penzance ( Fraser 1912a: 44, as Clytia edwardsi  ).— USA: Massachusetts, Martha’s Vineyard, Vineyard Haven, bridge at entrance to Lagoon Pond, on stems of Eudendrium  + Woods Hole, Fay’s Wharf, on a tubulariid ( Fraser 1912a: 44, as Clytia minuta  ).— USA: Rhode Island, Newport, on eelgrass ( Fraser 1912a: 44, as Clytia minuta  ).— USA: Massachusetts, Vineyard Sound ( Fraser 1912a: 44, as Clytia minuta  ).— USA: North Carolina, Beaufort area, seaward side of Bogue Bank, on floating Sargassum  ; gonothecae ribbed ( Fraser 1912b: 359, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— Canada: New Brunswick, St. Andrews ( Stafford 1912b: 73, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— Canada: Nova Scotia, Barrington Passage, shallow water + Canso, on mussel shells and Obelia commissuralis  (= O. longissima  ) under wharves and in harbour near low water ( Fraser 1913: 165, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— USA: Massachusetts, Woods Hole area, on Fucus  , other hydroids, shells (Sumner et al. 2013: 568, as Clytia bicophora  ).— USA: Massachusetts, Crab Ledge (Sumner et al. 2013: 568, as Clytia grayi  ).—? Virgin Islands of the United States: St. Thomas, Charlotte Amalie, port, surface, on a bryozoan ( Stechow 1914: 122, as Thaumantias  (?) elsae-oswaldae  ).—? Bahamas: Great Bahama Bank, on seaweed ( Nutting 1915: 52, as Clytia coronata  ).— Canada: New Brunswick, from Grand Manan to the head of Passamaquoddy Bay ( Fraser 1918: 345, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— Canada: Nova Scotia, Brier Island, 22 ftm (40 m) ( Fraser 1918: 345, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— Canada: New Brunswick, St. Andrews Point ( Fraser 1918: 345, as Clytia edwardsi  ).— Bermuda: unspecified location, on Sargassum  ( Bennitt 1922: 246, as Campanularia raridentata  ).— Bermuda: Cow Ground Flat, on Pennaria  ( Bennitt 1922: 247, as Clytia bicophora  ).— Bermuda: Agar’s Island, on Sargassum  + off north shore, on floating Sargassum  ( Bennitt 1922: 247, as Clytia cylindrica  ).— Bermuda: unspecified location, one of commonest species on floating Sargassum  ; gonothecae ribbed ( Bennitt 1922: 248, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).—Sargasso Sea, on Sargassum  ( Hentschel 1922: 4, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— USA: Massachusetts, Woods Hole region, on rocks and rockweed ( Allee 1923: 175, as Clytia grayi  ).— USA: Massachusetts, Woods Hole region, on eelgrass, rocks and rockweed, pilings ( Allee 1923: 175, as Clytia bicophora  ).— Canada: New Brunswick, Miramichi River estuary, inside Portage and Fox islands,> 15 m ( Fraser 1926: 210, as Clytia edwardsi  ).— Canada: New Brunswick, Miramichi River estuary, outside Portage and Fox islands,> 15 m ( Fraser 1926: 210, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).—?Sargasso Sea: 34°25’N, 40°05’W, on Sargassum  ( Timmermann 1932: 298, as Clytia cylindrica  ).—Klein Bonaire: west coast, 0.3 m, on algae (Leloup 1935: 19, as Clytia coronata  ).— Bonaire: Kralendijk, Pasanggrahan, 0.2–0.3 m, on algae + De Hoop, 0.7 m, on algae + Plaja Oranje Pan, on stranded octocoral (Leloup 1935: 19, as Clytia coronata  ).— Aruba: Rif Boekoetie, 0.2 m, on a brachyuran crab (Leloup 1935: 19, as Clytia coronata  ).— USA: Maine, Mount Desert region, shore to 239 feet (73 m) ( Procter 1933: 120, as Clytia bicophora  ).—Gulf Stream, on pelagic Sargassum  + Sargasso Sea, on pelagic Sargassum  (Burkenroad, in Parr 1939: 24, as Clytia bicophora  ).—? USA: North Carolina, 100 miles (161 km) E of Cape Hatteras, on Sargassum  ( Fraser 1943: 88, as Clytia cylindrica  ).— USA: Maine, Casco Bay ( Fraser 1944: 136, as Clytia edwardsi  ).— USA: Massachusetts, Gloucester Harbor, 7 ftm (13 m) ( Fraser 1944: 136, as Clytia edwardsi  ).— USA: Massachusetts, Cape Cod, off Nasett Light (Nauset Light, Eastham, MA), 61.5 ftm (112 m) ( Fraser 1944: 136, as Clytia edwardsi  ).— USA: Rhode Island, Narragansett Bay, near Fort Dumpling, 20 ftm (37 m) ( Fraser 1944: 136, as Clytia edwardsi  ).— Canada: Newfoundland and Labrador, Labrador ( Fraser 1944: 140, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— USA: Maine, off Portsmouth, 43°11’N, 69°35’W, 32 ftm (59 m) ( Fraser 1944: 140, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— Canada: Nova Scotia, continental slope S of Halifax, 42°44’N, 62°43’W, 620 ftm (1134 m) ( Fraser 1944: 140, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— USA: Massachusetts, off Gloucester, 42°30’15”N, 70°38’W, 45 ftm (82 m) + SE of Salem, 42°30’N, 70°45’W, 22 ftm (40 m) + off Cape Cod, 42°07’N, 69°59’W + Cape Cod Bay, 41°48’30”N, 70°12’W, 7 ftm (13 m) + off Chatham Light, 5.75 miles (9 km), 14 ftm (26 m) + Gloucester, on piles + Provincetown, Long Point, on floating Sargassum  + Georges Bank, 45 ftm (72 m) + Between Nantucket and High Duck islands, 4 ftm (7 m) ( Fraser 1944: 140, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— USA: New York, S of Fishers Island ( Fraser 1944: 140, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— USA: Rhode Island, Block Island, off North Light, 13 ftm (24 m) ( Fraser 1944: 140, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— USA: Connecticut, off Stonington ( Fraser 1944: 140, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— Bahamas: Cay Sal Bank ( Fraser 1944: 140, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— Venezuela: 3 miles (5 km) N of Isla de Coche, 19–33 ftm (35–60 m) + Isla Cubagua, shallow water, on algae ( Fraser 1947b: 6, as Clytia similis  ).— USA: Maine, Boothbay Harbor ( Berrill 1950: 1, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).—? USA: Texas, Buoy I-3 off Sabine Pass + Port Aransas, on driftwood, Sargassum  , tar + Palacios ( Deevey 1950: 339, as Clytia coronata  ).—? USA: Texas, Port Aransas, on Sargassum  , tar + Palacios ( Deevey 1950: 341, as Clytia cylindrica  ).— USA: Louisiana, Grand Isle area, open Gulf of Mexico, on Sargassum  ( Behre 1950: 6, as Gonothyraea gracilis  ).— USA: North Carolina and South Carolina, reefs on continental shelf (Pearse & Willams 1951: 136, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— USA: Massachusetts, Woods Hole area ( Brock & Strehler 1963: 23, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— USA: Massachusetts, Woods Hole region ( Petersen 1964: 17, as Clytia edwardsi  and C. Johnstoni).— USA: Virginia, Norfolk, Naval Station Norfolk, Pier 12, on test panels, 5 m (Calder & Brehm- er 1967: 153, as Clytia edwardsi  ).— USA: Virginia, York River (Gloucester Point; Bell Rock) + James River (Hampton Roads Middle Ground; Norfolk, Naval Station Norfolk, Pier 12, on test panels, 5 m) + Chesapeake Bay (Willoughby Bank; Thimble Shoal; Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel, Virginia Beach span) ( Calder 1971: 49, as Clytia edwardsi  ).—? USA: Virginia, Pamunkey River + James River (Hampton Roads Middle Ground; Deep Water Shoal; Hog Island), on the hydroids “ Garveia  sp.” ( Calyptospadix cerulea  ) and Sertularia argentea ( Calder 1971: 50)  .— USA: Massachusetts, Woods Hole area, studies on bioluminescence ( Morin & Cooke 1971b: 718, as Clytia edwardsi  ; Morin & Hastings 1971: 307, as Clytia edwardsi  ).— USA: Texas, Galveston Island near San Luis Pass, on Sargassum  ; gonothecae ribbed ( Defenbaugh & Hopkins 1973: 78, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).—Sargasso Sea + Gulf Stream, several stations between Florida and New Jersey, on Sargassum natans  I, S. natans  IX, S. fluitans  III, S. fluitans  X, S. ramifolium  , S. filipendula  , S. polyceratium  , S. pteropleuron  , S. hystrix  , Sargassum  sp.; frequent; gonothecae ribbed ( Rackley 1974: 28).— USA: North Carolina, Pamlico River estuary ( Dean & Bellis 1975: 5).— USA: Massachusetts, Cape Cod Bay, 8–10 m; gonothecae ribbed ( Calder 1975: 300).— USA: Massachusetts, Nonamesset Island, Sheep Pen Harbor, 41°31’N, 70°40’40”W, on slate settling panels ( Osman 1977: 48, as Clytia Johnstoni  and C. edwardsi  ).— USA: Gulf of Maine, 25–33 m ( Kuzirian 1979: 242, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— Belize: Carrie Bow Cay, on algae, Thalassia  , mangrove roots, Sargassum  , hydroids, and dead corals and gorgonians; gonothecae ribbed ( Spracklin 1982: 246, as Clytia hemisphaerica  ).—Sargasso Sea: Hydrostation “S” off Bermuda, 31 °45’N, 64°10’W, on pelagic Sargassum  ( Butler et al. 1983: 230, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— USA: South Carolina, middle (32–36 m) continental shelf + Georgia, inner (17–22 m) and outer (59–67 m) continental shelf ( Wenner et al. 1984: 39, as Clytia Johnstoni  ).— USA: New York, off Fire Island, 3 km S of Altair Lighthouse, on artificial reef, 20 m ( Woodhead & Jacobson 1985: 366).— USA: New Jersey, Delaware Bay, on oyster grounds ( Ismail 1985: 385, as Clytia edwardsi  ).—? USA: South Carolina, North Inlet area, Town Creek and tributaries ( Fox & Ruppert 1985: 61, as Clytia coronata  ).—? USA: South Carolina, North Inlet area, Baruch Plantation, oyster landing + Murrells Inlet, jetties + Folly River + Breach Inlet, jetties + Isle of Palms, marina, floating docks + Beaufort area, pilings and seawalls + Hunting Island, seawall and rubble ( Fox & Ruppert 1985: 76, 92, 162, 167, 177, 219, 226).— USA: Virginia, James River, Wreck Shoal, oyster bed, 3–4 m ( Rheinhardt & Mann 1990: 20).— Bermuda: Flatts Inlet, near bridge, 2 m, on Eudendrium  sp. + Whalebone Bay, on pelagic Sargassum  + Whalebone Bay, 1–3 m, on benthic algae and Thalassia  + Harrington Sound, in shaft connecting to Flatts Inlet, 1 m, on rock + Harrington Sound, Stream Passage Cave, 6 m from entrance, 1 m, on rock (Calder 1990 [1991a]: 58).— Belize: Twin Cays, common ( Calder 1991b: 223).— Belize: Twin Cays, on Rhizophora  , Thalassia  , benthic algae, sponges, other hydroids, mollusc shells, wooden test panels ( Calder 1991c: 2068).— Canada: Quebec, Gulf of St. Lawrence, north shore, on navigation buoys ( Ardisson & Bourget 1992: 22).— Belize: South Water Cay, South Water Cut, ca. 4 m, on Thalassia ( Kaehler & Hughes 1992: 331)  .— Bermuda: various locations, on Sargassum natans  and S. fluitans  ; gonothecae ribbed ( Calder 1995: 540).— Bermuda: Argus (=Plantagenet) + Challenger Bank ( Calder 2000: 1133).— Canada: Nova Scotia, Bay of Fundy ( Henry & Kenchington 2004: 127).— Canada: New Brunswick, Passamaquoddy Bay, Sherrod’s Beach ( Henry & Kenchington 2004: 131).— Canada: New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island, Northumberland Strait ( Calder 2004a: 559).— USA: Maine, Cobscook Bay ( Trott 2004: 272).— Panama: Bocas del Toro area, Cayo Solarte Sud, 09°18’45.3”N, 82°12’46.6”W, 2–3 m + Bocas del Toro area, near Laguna Bocatorito, 2–4 m ( Calder & Kirkendale 2005: 486).— Cuba: Miramar, playa, 12 m ( Varela et al. 2005: 178).—? Cuba: Golfo de Batabanó, wreck of La Patana, 83°13’41.5”N, 21°40’59.5”W, 9–11 m (Castellanos et al. 2011: 14).—French Lesser Antilles: Martinique, Le Diamant, 14.442310, -61.039697, on Thyroscyphus marginatus ( Galea 2013: 11)  .— USA: Connecticut, Westport ( Cunha et al. 2017: 120).— USA: Massachusetts, Salem + Bourne ( Cunha et al. 2017: 120).— USA: Rhode Island, Point Judith ( Cunha et al. 2017: 120).— Belize: Carrie Bow Cay + Twin Cays, Fisheries dock + Twin Cays, Cuda Cut ( Cunha et al. 2017: 120).— Canada: Nova Scotia, Petit Passage, S of East Ferry, extreme low tide ( Calder 2017: 79).— Canada: New Brunswick, Deer Island, Richardson, 44°59’42”N, 66°56’47”W, on Ascophyllum nodosum  on pontoon slip of public wharf, <1 m ( Calder 2017: 80).—?Caribbean Sea ( Wedler 2017b: 90, figs. 81, 82A, B).— Mexico: Alacranes Reef, on Sargassum  sp., Thalassia  , shipwreck ( Mendoza-Becerril et al. 2018b: 131).— Cuba: Havana, coral reef system west of the city (Castellanos et al. 2018: Supplementary Table S2).— Panama: Bocas del Toro area, Crawl Cay + near Bocatorito Bay ( Miglietta et al. 2018b: 108).

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Cnidaria

Class

Hydrozoa

Order

Leptothecata

Family

Campanulariidae

Genus

Clytia

Loc

Clytia cf. hemisphaerica ( Linnaeus, 1767 )

Calder, Dale R. 2019
2019
Loc

Clytia edwardsi

Joyce, E. A. Jr. 1961: 50
1961
Loc

Clytia

Shier, C. F. 1965: 36
Joyce, E. A. Jr. 1961: 55
Fraser, C. M. 1943: 88
1943
Loc

Clytia bicophora

Wallace, W. S. 1909: 37
1909
Loc

Campanularia minuta

Wallace, W. S. 1909: 37
1909
Loc

Campanularia

Wallace, W. S. 1909: 37
1909
Loc

hemisphaerica

Linnaeus, C. 1767: 1098
1767