Penthetria appendicula Hardy, 1945

Fitzgerald, Scott J., 2021, Penthetria Meigen (Diptera: Bibionidae): Revision of the New World species and world catalog, Zootaxa 4926 (4), pp. 451-500: 461-463

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4926.4.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:3ADD4A2B-A3F9-4379-A8FE-39DD867531F7

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4546076

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/A157FD05-FFB7-4B49-FF2F-F8BAFCAD2041

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Plazi

scientific name

Penthetria appendicula Hardy, 1945
status

 

Penthetria appendicula Hardy, 1945  

( Figs. 2–6 View FIGURES 2–3 View FIGURES 4–6 , 44 View FIGURES 42–45 , 46–47 View FIGURES 46–49 , Map 1 View MAP 1 )

Type Material. Holotype male (not examined): COSTA RICA: Volcan Poas , 21 April 1916, A. Alfaro ( USNM)   . Paratypes (examined): COSTA RICA: CARTAGO: San Cristobal, 5400 ft., 27 Mar ’28, F.G. Wallace, 1M ( USNM)   ; “La Carpentera” [=La Carpintera?], April, W.M. Mann, 1M ( USNM)   ; “La Carpentera” [=La Carpintera?], April 1924, H.W. Atkinson, 1F (allotype) ( USNM)   .

Material examined. COSTA RICA: El Volcan Trazee , 3080 m, 9.IX.43, P. Knight, 3M ( USNM)   ; CARTAGO: S Cerro La Muerte, 3000 m, 11.VIII.90, J. Powell, 1M ( SFC)   ; S. border, Pension La Georgina, 3000 m, Cerro de Muerte , 23–25 May 1985, J. Powell, 8M, 2F ( EMEC)   ; Catie , 3 km SE Turrialba, 600 m, 13–16 May 1985, J. Doyen, 1M ( EMEC)   ; Rio Aquiares, nr. Santa Cruz , 1500 m, 9 km NW Turrialba, 15 May 1985, J. Doyen, 1M ( EMEC)   ; HEREDIA: #6 Heredia, Vota Steinvorth Finca S. slope V. Barba , 2100 m, 8 Feb. 1965, J.B. Karren, 4M ( NHMLA)   ; Est. Barra P.N. Braulio Carrillo , Oct. 1989, 2500 m, G. Rivera, L-N-233400, 523200, 18M, 2F ( INBC)   ; Est Barra , P.N. Braulio Carrillo, July 1990, 2500 m, B. Apu & G. Varela, L-N-23200, 523100, 2M ( INBC)   ; SAN JOSÉ: Volcan Poas , 9–10.VII.63, C.L. Hogue, 1M ( NHMLA)   ; Poas N.P., 5 Feb. 1987, G.E. Bohart, 3M, 1F ( NHMLA)   ; S. Gerardo de Dota , 9°33’N, 83°48’W, 2200 m, 1M, 1F (in copula) ( CNCI) GoogleMaps   ; Cascajal de Coronado, Bajo La Rosa   , 3-V-1995, Baumann & Houseman, 6M, 9F (1 pair in copula) ( BYUC); Nubes de Coronado, La Abigail   , 5-V-1995, Baumann & Houseman, 11M, 7F ( BYUC), 1M, 1F (in copula) ( SFC); Nubes de Coronado, Rio Virilla   , 6-V-1995, R   . W. Baumann & R   . M. Houseman, 1M ( BYUC)   ; 6 March 1967, E.B. Fagan, 1M, 1F ( FSCA); La Cima de Dota , 2300 m   , 14 May 1993, M. Chavarria, LS183500 View Materials -548300   # 2154, 4M, 3F ( INBC);   MEXICO: MEXICO: 22 August 1994, Arroy at El Capulin, B. Kondratieff, R. Baumann, 1M ( CSUC);   CHIAPAS: Mt. Tzontehuitz , 9400’, 12 mi NE San Cristobal, B. V   . Peterson, 19 V 1969   , 3M, 1F ( CNCI), 1M, 1F ( SFC); Mt. Tzontehuitz , 9400’, 12 mi NE San Cristobal, B. V. Peterson, 27 V 1969   , 11M ( CNCI); 9500’, Mt. Tzontehuitz , 27 V 1969   , H.J. Teskey, 2M ( CNCI); Mt. Zontehuitz , 9500’, 27 V 1969   , Malaise trap, B. V. Peterson, 1M, 1F ( CNCI)   .

Diagnosis. Males of P. appendicula   can be distinguished from all New World congeners by the following combination of characters: tergite nine with posteromedial emargination deep (about two-thirds the length of the tergite) with a field of densely-set, short, black, spine-like setae on the posteroventral edge, which contrast the typical setae on the remainder of the tergite ( Figs. 4–5 View FIGURES 4–6 ), posterior, inner (ventral) surface of ninth tergite not developed (or at most only very weakly developed) into a pair of broad flat shelves when viewed posteriorly ( Fig. 5 View FIGURES 4–6 ), gonostylus shining, basally with long hairs, but more distally with only very minute and spare hairs, slender and apically coming to a narrowly rounded point ( Fig. 5 View FIGURES 4–6 ), ventromedial lobes of gonocoxite absent to very weakly developed, and R 2+3 often with a basal appendix ( Fig. 2 View FIGURES 2–3 , ba).

Remarks. P. appendicula   is a fairly large species with male wing 7.0–10.0 mm (n=5) and female wing 9.0–11.0 mm (n=2) and is most similar to P. distincta   . Males of these two species share the tergite nine deeply emarginate posteromedially with a field of densely-set, short, black, spine-like setae on the posteroventral edge, which contrast typical setae on the remainder of the tergite, gonostylus shining, basally with long hairs, but more distally with only very minute and sparse hairs, and the tendency to have a basal appendix on R 2+3. Additionally, in dorsal view, both species have the paramere robust and dome-like, with the dorsal surface slightly laterally-compressed into a ridge and posteriorly with a slight nubbin at the apex ( Figs. 42 & 44 View FIGURES 42–45 , p), though there is a pair of divergent lobes (whaletail-like structure) on the ventral subapical surface of the paramere, which can appear apical if the orientation of the paramere is tipped slightly (e.g., it can barely be seen in Fig. 44 View FIGURES 42–45 , dlp). The shared similarities of P. appendicula   and P. distincta   suggest they are more related to each other than to other New World species (see additional information on female characters below).

Females of P. appendicula   and P. distincta   can be differentiated from all New World congeners by the more elongate ultimate segment of the cerci, the more slender posteromedian lobes of sternite eight ( Figs. 46–48 View FIGURES 46–49 ), and the tendency to have an appendix at the base of R 2+3 ( Fig. 2 View FIGURES 2–3 , ba). Differences between females of P. appendicula   and P. distincta   are minor and, at present, not enough females (associated with males) of the two species have been studied to ensure that the few character state differences found are consistent. From material studied, sternite ten is tapered posteriorly to a rounded point in P. appendicula   ( Fig. 47 View FIGURES 46–49 , s 10 View FIGURES 9–11 ) versus not tapered and more truncate/broadly rounded posteriorly in P. distincta   (as in Fig. 49 View FIGURES 46–49 , s 10; s10 View FIGURES 9–11 not visible in Fig. 48 View FIGURES 46–49 due to segments partially telescoped within preceding segments). However, females of P. neonigrita   have sternite 10 variable (ranging from broad to more tapered posteriorly), so this character may not be useful in distinguishing species. Both P. appendicula   and P. distincta   have tergite nine medially divided, but it is more broadly represented dorsolaterally in P. appendicula   and more strap-like in P. distincta   .

Geographic & Seasonal Distribution. Mexico and Costa Rica ( Map 1 View MAP 1 ); additional Costa Rican records in Hardy (1945). Seasonal distribution summarized in Table 1.

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

SFC

Laboratory of Fishes

EMEC

Essig Museum of Entomology

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

INBC

Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio)

CNCI

Canadian National Collection Insects

FSCA

Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology

CSUC

California State University, Chico, Vertebrate Museum

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Bibionidae

Genus

Penthetria