Globotrichus harti Lord and Ivie

Lord, Nathan P. & Ivie, Michael A., 2016, Several New Genera and Species of New World Synchitini (Coleoptera: Zopheridae: Colydiinae), The Coleopterists Bulletin 70 (4), pp. 715-753: 715-753

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1649/0010-065X-70.4.715

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:801E2B78-F440-44A3-9643-15B5210FCA98

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/A24E87E5-FFEE-FF8C-FD6E-FA48FB7FFE84

treatment provided by

Diego

scientific name

Globotrichus harti Lord and Ivie
status

new species

Globotrichus harti Lord and Ivie   , new species ( Figs. 1 View Fig , 5 View Figs , 21 View Figs )

Description. Globotrichus harti   is the only described member of this genus and shares the diagnostic features given in the generic description above. It is likely that species-level diagnostic features may include the shape of the antennal club, presence and shape of the pronotal and elytral tubercles ( Fig. 5 View Figs ), and shape of the male genitalia ( Fig. 1k–l View Fig ).

Distribution. Panama and Costa Rica ( Fig. 21 View Figs ).

Biology. Little is known about the biology of this species. Specimens were collected on fungusy logs, ex. Xylariaceae   , at UV/MV lights, and in flight intercept traps.

Etymology. Named in honor of Charles Hart (Montana State University), who assisted the authors greatly in the preparation of this manuscript.

Comments. A single specimen with the same label as the holotype was disarticulated for study.

Type Material. 10 specimens. Holotype (1 pointed, KSEM): PANAMA: Darién, Cana; Biological Station; Serranía de Pirre , 1100 m; 7°45′18″N, 77°41′6″W; 07 Jun 1996; J.Ashe,; R.Brooks PAN1AB96 097; ex: Xylariaceae   / [label with barcode] SM0038749; KUNHM-ENT GoogleMaps   . Paratype (1 pointed, KSEM) same labels as above, but with barcode number: SM0038762   . Paratype (1 disarticulated, in glycerine, KSEM) same labels as above, but with barcode number: SM0038741   . Paratype (1 pointed, KSEM): PANAMA: Panama; 09°05′N, 79°40′W; Old Plantation Rd. 6.9km; S. Gamboa, 80m, 22 VI; 1995, J.Ashe, R.Brooks; #268 ex: fungusy log GoogleMaps   . Paratype (1 pointed, KSEM): PANAMA: Panama; Cerro Campana; nr. Capira , 790m; 08°44′N, 79°57′W; 18 V 1995, J.&A. Ashe; #018 ex: fungusy log GoogleMaps   . Paratype (1 pointed, KSEM): PANAMA: Colon; Parque Nac. Soberania; Pipeline Rd. ; 09°07′N, 79°45′W; 23 May 1995 Jolly,; Chaboo, fungus GoogleMaps   . Paratype (1 pointed, MAIC): CANAL ZONE, Pipe; Line Road ; VI-30- 1974 C.W.&L.; O’ Brien & Marshall   . Paratype (1 pointed, FMNH): Cerro Campana, Panama; Prov. , PANAMA; Feb. 12 1959; alt. 2400 ft. / Coll. by; Henry S. Dybas   . Paratype (1 pointed, MAIC): PAN. Panama; Las Cumbres; UV trap May 24; 1976 H. Wolda   . Paratype (1 pointed, USNM): COSTA RICA; F. NEVERMANN; 22 IX 37 / [label 1 underside] HAMBURGFARM; REVENTAZON; ESENE LIMON / [handwritten] nachts an mulmigem Holz   .

Additional Material Examined. 4 specimens (non-types, not included on map). 1 pointed, FSCA: BOLIVIA: Santa Cruz, 3.7km; SSEBuena Vista, Hotel Flora; & Fauna 405m   ., 5-15-XI-2001; 17°29.949′S; 63°33.152′W; M.C. Thomas & B.K. Dozier; tropical transition forest / [in R. Schuh’ s hand]: probably new; genus near; Neotrichus   ; det. Schuh 2003. 1 carded, BMNH): BOLIVIA: Santa Cruz; Amboro National Park; Los Volcanes , c. 1000m GoogleMaps   ; S18°06′: W63°36′; 20/xi-12/xii/2004 / MV Light Sheet; by tree fall; Barclay, M.V.L.; & Mendel, H.; BMNH(E)2004-280. 1 carded, BMNH: BOLIVIA: Santa Cruz; Amboro National Park; Los Volcanes ,c. 1000m   ; S18°06′: W63°36′; 20/xi-12/ xii/2004 / Flight Intercept Trap; Mendel, H. &; Barclay, M.V.L.; BMNH(E)2004-280.1 carded, IZPN: Itoupavazinha; Coll. Kessel [Itoupavazinha is near Blumenau in the Brazilian State of Santa Catarina ]   .

Helonoton Lord and Ivie   , new genus ( Figs. 2 View Fig , 6–17 View Figs View Figs View Figs View Figs , 23–24 View Figs )

Type Species. Helonoton costaricense Lord and Ivie   , new species.

Etymology. From Greek meaning “studded back.” This name refers to the tuberculate dorsal sculpture of members of the genus. Neuter.

Diagnosis. This genus uperficially resembles the North American genus Denophoelus Stephan, 1989   and the Australo-Pacific genus Ablabus Broun, 1880   . Helonoton   can be distinguished from Denophoelus   by the lack of a well-developed supra-ocular carina, vestiture consisting of sparse, fine setae, smaller size, and a Central American distribution. Helonoton   can be distinguished from Ablabus   by the presence of labial palpi and a Central American distribution.

Description. Size small (TL = 2.2–4.4 mm) body convex-oval to elongate, subparallel (TL/ EW = 1.8–2.5); dark to light brown or bicolored (dark brown with light brown/golden patches - difficult to see if specimen is encrusted); habitus as in Figs. 6–17 View Figs View Figs View Figs View Figs . Dorsal surface rugose, with complex gibbosities, tubercles, and carinae; vestiture consisting of short, hair-like, golden setae. Ventral surface granulose; vestiture consisting of short, sparse, hair-like, golden setae. Surfaces often encrusted with dirt and debris, concealing sculpture and coloration. Head: Transverse to elongate (HW: 0.4–0.7 mm), broadest at eyes ( Fig. 2a View Fig ), with or without distinct temples, head not or abruptly constricted behind eyes, apical margin straight to slightly sinuate. With transverse groove at level of apical ⅓ of eye, joined with 2 apicolateral sulci continuing nearly to margin, less distinct apically, and with 2 postero-lateral sulci continuing beneath posterior margin of eye; grooves result in swollen antero-medial portion, swollen posteriormedial portion, and swollen lateral portion (frontal ridge) anteriad eyes. Dorsal surface covered with evenly spaced, subequal round to ovoid granules, each bearing an apically or medio-apically-directed seta. Eyes entire, convex, facets large, interfacetal setae absent. Antennal groove shallow, present only near base of insertion. Gena slightly inflexed anteriad gular sutures. Subgenal brace weakly developed, barely extending past anterior margin of eye. Antennae: Short, slightly longer than total length of head, not extending past apical ⅓ of pronotum. Antennae 11-segmented, ending in an abrupt, 2–3-segmented club ( Fig. 2d View Fig ). Scape barrel-shaped, slightly longer than wide, longer than pedicel, about as or slightly longer than 3; pedicel subspherical, shorter than 3; antennomere 3 elongate, slightly and gradually expanding apically, about as long as or slightly longer than 4+5; antennomeres 4–8 short, increasingly shorter and wider; antennomere 9 transverse, distinctly larger than 8 but distinctly smaller than 10; antennomeres 9–11 or 10–11 forming distinct club, antennomere 10 transverse, trapezoidal to slightly asymmetrical, narrowest at base; antennomere 11 truncate at base, transverse, rounded apically. Scape and pedicel with irregularly placed setae in apical half; antennomeres 4–9 each with ring of fine, long setae, setae longer than length of segment; antennomere 10 with longer, fine setae, apical margin fringed with short, dense setae; antennomere 11 with short, dense setae, pubescence denser apically, and few longer, fine setae intermittently. Mouthparts: Labrum subquadrate, anterior margin arcuate, fringed with few sparse setae. Mandibles symmetrical, with distinct mola and membranous prostheca ( Fig. 2f View Fig ); mandibular apex bidentate, with third, broader subapical tooth at apical margin of prostheca; maxillary palpi 4-segmented, terminal palpomere conical ( Fig. 2c View Fig ); galea and lacinia of normal form, bearing numerous stout setae apically; mentum subquadrate, truncate apically ( Fig. 2b View Fig ); ligula transverse, antero-lateral angles somewhat swollen and expanded, anterior margin slightly concave, fringed with row of short, dense setae; labial palpi 3-segmented, terminal palpomere conical to slightly fusiform ( Fig. 2b View Fig ), labial palpi inserted ventrally. Prothorax: Subquadrate to elongate (PW = 0.8–1.5 mm, PL = 0.70–1.2 mm, PL/PW = 0.7–0.9), widest at apical ⅓, narrowest at base ( Fig. 2h View Fig ). Lateral margins sinuate to lyriform, widening apically, posterior ⅔ of lateral margin straight to strongly narrowed basally, with or without small denticle or lobe; anterior angles distinct, slightly projecting forward to about level of anterior margin. Anterior margin sinuate, concave medially, depressed/notched/excavated just inside of anterior angles. Anterior margin fringed with row of short, fine setae, directed internally. Posterior margin evenly curved, fringed with row of short, fine setae, directed posterior-medially; posterior angles indistinct or distinct, small. Disc with complex patterns of ridges and depressed areas; central portion with strongly depressed area, bordered laterally by paired, sinuate ridges that are entire or interrupted, sometimes separated anterior carinae that become confluent with anterior pronotal margin, distinct medial tubercles, and posterior, baso-laterally directed ridges that end before posterior margin; disc with 1–2 pairs of ovoid, mid-lateral tubercles or short carinae between lateral pronotal margin and basal half of central sinuate tuberculate ridge; presence of these tubercles and ridges creates variously raised and depressed areas on disc. Surface granulose, covered with evenly spaced, subequal round to ovoid granules, each bearing a short seta; interspaces between granules often filled with waxy exudate, dirt, and/ or debris. Prosternal hypomeron without antennal cavities. Prosternal process nearly parallel-sided, slightly narrowing anteriorly, truncate at apex, slightly raised; procoxal cavities broadly open to narrowly closed externally, procoxae countersunk, prosternal process extending ventrad and concealing inner ⅓ of procoxae from view. Procoxae round, externally separated by greater than width of visible portion of procoxa, internally very narrowly separated. Mesothorax: Scutellum well-developed, visible, small, ovoid to subquadrate to pentagonal. Mesoventrite: Apical margin truncate ( Fig. 2i View Fig ). Mesoventral process slightly narrowed apically, apex strongly notched medially, articulating with well-developed “nipple” at apex of metaventral process, forming locking mechanism. Mesocoxal cavities broadly closed, mesocoxal separation moderate, about as long as half coxal diameter (visible coxa, not accounting for countersunk portion). Elytra: Elongate, parallel-sided, to elongate-oval, to ovoid, widest at middle (EL = 1.4–3.1 mm, EW = 1.1–1.8 mm, EL/EW = 1.2–1.9). Humeral angles weakly produced. Anterior margin evenly concave; lateral margins not explanate, weakly granulate, each granule bearing short, curved seta. Elytral apex rounded, elytra slightly separated at apex. Surface with complex carinae and tubercles, ranging from vermiculate carina to short, well-defined tubercles and carinae, to more or less evenly spaced, round to ovoid tubercles. In general, only odd elytral interstrial intervals (3, 5, 7, and 9) bear tubercles/carinae. Placement and length of elytral carinae and tubercles diagnostic for delimiting species. With 9 puncture rows, difficult to discern (best observed by viewing ventral elytral surface in cleared specimens), sutural stria raised, beaded, diverging antero-laterally to form subtle scutellary striole (striole interrupted by small tubercle or not apparent in some). Surface granulose, covered with evenly spaced, subequal round to ovoid granules, each bearing a short seta; interspaces between granules often filled with waxy exudate, dirt, and/or debris. Epipleuron present, weakly defined, incomplete to apex, ending between ventrite IV and V. Metaventrite: Shorter than or about as long as length of abdominal ventrite I, or distinctly longer than ventrite I; with paired sinuate grooves directly posteriad and bordering mesocoxae, also with paired, slightly curved grooves directly anteriad and bordering metacoxae ( Fig. 2i View Fig ). Discrimen short and reduced to an ovoid impression anteriad metacoxae, to moderately long and narrow. Metendosternite of 2 forms in fully winged vs. brachypterous or apterous species. Fully winged species ( Fig. 2g View Fig ): Furca of moderate width, parallel-sided; laminae short, rounded; lateral furcal arms long, narrowing apically; anterior tendons moderately separated; metafurcal ventral flange present, not strongly projecting ventrally. Apterous or brachypterous species: Furca short, wide; laminae reduced; lateral furcal arms long, narrowing apically; anterior tendons narrowly separated, arising from short, rounded projections near furcal midline; metafurcal ventral flange present, not strongly projecting ventrally. Abdomen: Intercoxal process of abdominal ventrite I narrow, acute ( Fig 2j View Fig ). Ventrites I–II appearing weakly connate to free, ventrites III–V free. Ventrites I and II subequal in length (length of VI excluding intercoxal process); ventrites III–V slightly progressively shorter. Ventrites with short, thin setae, setation of ventrite V slightly longer and denser. In females, surface of ventrites with similar sculpture and setation. In males, ventrites III and IV with smooth, transverse-oval patches in lateral or baso-lateral areas; males of some species with basal half of ventrite IV smooth. In cleared specimens under high magnification, smooth patches appear as areas of dense micropores, while remain- der of ventrites often encrusted with waxy exudate (often concealing sculpturing). Abdominal ventrite V with weak, U-shaped groove that parallels apical margin (difficult to see if encrusted). Legs: Trochanters present, visible, trochantero-femoral attachment strongly oblique ( Fig. 2e View Fig ). Femora simple, rugose, narrow at base and gradually expanding apically, with sparse, short setae. Tibiae simple, slender, very slightly expanded apically, with sparse, short setae, setation denser at apex. Tibial apex with paired, dark, thick spines ventrally. Tarsomeres 1–3 subequal in size, with long, dense, thin setae; tarsomere 4 elongate, longer than 1–3 combined, slightly expanded apically, with similar setation; tarsal claws simple. Metathoracic wing: Absent, or present and reduced to fully developed. Aedeagus: Typical tenebrionoid form ( Fig. 2k– l View Fig ), with phallobase articulating with fused parameres, and median lobe resting ventrad phallobase + parameres, not enclosed by phallobase. Ovipositor: Elongate, with weakly sclerotized segments. Tergite IX completely divided into 2 lateral paraprocts. Paraproct with long baculus, about 1.25X as long as gonocoxite. Tergite X weakly sclerotized, situated between paraprocts. Proximal and distal lobes of gonocoxite weakly separated; proximal lobe with weakly indicated transverse basal baculi; basal lobe short, cylindrical, ⅓ as long as proximal lobe, with well-developed, palpiform gonostylus attached apically; gonostylus with few setae at apex.

Distribution. This genus is Central American, ranging from Mexico to Panama ( Figs. 23–24 View Figs ). It has not been collected in Belize or Nicaragua. It appears to be restricted to higher elevations.

Biology. Given the collection methods (see species accounts below), it is likely members of Helonoton   are generalist detritovores and fungivores like many other members of the Synchitini   . It is interesting to note that none were taken at light, a method that often yields fully winged Synchitini   .

FMNH

Field Museum of Natural History

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History