Paramiopsalis eduardoi, Murienne & Giribet, 2009, Murienne & Giribet, 2009

Murienne, Jérôme & Giribet, Gonzalo, 2009, The Iberian Peninsula: ancient history of a hot spot of mite harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones: Cyphophthalmi: Sironidae) diversity, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 156 (4), pp. 785-800: 791-796

publication ID 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2008.00512.x

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scientific name

Paramiopsalis eduardoi



Type material: Male holotype ( Museum of Comparative Zoology , Harvard University, MCZ, ex MCZ DNA101878 View Materials ; Fig. 3) from Fragas do Eume , A Coruña Province (Galicia, Spain), collected 12 April 2006 by E. Mateos. One male paratype ( MCZ DNA101878 View Materials ; two legs used for DNA extraction), same collecting data as the holotype. One male, in SEM stubs, and one female ( Fig. 4 View Figure 4 ) paratypes ( MCZ, ex MCZ DNA101878 View Materials ), same collecting data as the holotype. Four male and four female paratypes ( MCZ DNA102080 View Materials ) from Fragas do Eume, A Coruña Province (Galicia, Spain), collected 10 November 2006 by E. Mateos   .

Additional material: Three juveniles ( MCZ DNA102080 View Materials ; one specimen used for DNA extraction) from Fragas do Eume , A Coruña Province (Galicia, Spain), collected 10 November 2006 by E. Mateos   .

Diagnosis: As for the genus. Adenostyle lamelliform, as opposed to the plumose type found in Paramiopsalis ramulosus   . Anal plate with a longitudinal ridge, thinner than that of Paramiopsalis ramulosus   .

Description: Total length of male holotype (in mm), 1.40; largest body width in prosoma behind ozophores, 0.72; width across ozophores, 0.67; body length/width ratio, 1.94. Body orange-brown when preserved in 96% ethanol. Anterior margin of dorsal scutum straight without lateral projections; prosomal region trapezoidal ( Figs 3A, 4A View Figure 4 ). Eyes absent ( Figs 3C, 4C View Figure 4 ). Ozophores conical (slightly round; Figs 3A, 4A View Figure 4 , 5B View Figure 5 ), of type II (facing laterally slightly above edge of carapace; Figs 3C, 4C View Figure 4 ), with subtermi- nal ozopore (‘plugged’, as in de Bivort & Giribet, 2004); ornamentation uniform and non-directional ( Fig. 5B View Figure 5 ). Transverse prosomal sulcus inconspicuous; transverse opisthosomal sulci inconspicuous ( Figs 3A, 4A View Figure 4 ). Dorsal scutum convex; maximum width in prosomal area, behind ozophores ( Figs 3A, 4A View Figure 4 ). Opisthosomal part of dorsal shield wider than ventral side ( Figs 3B, 4B View Figure 4 ).

Ventral prosomal complex of males with coxae I, II, and IV meeting in the midline, the latter for a distance longer than the gonostome length; coxae III not meeting in the midline ( Fig. 5A, C View Figure 5 ). Coxae I, II, and IV with broad endites; coxal pore between coxae III and IV not observed ( Fig. 5A, C View Figure 5 ). Coxae II and III with small processes running along their sutures; coxae III and IV with conspicuous processes running along their sutures ( Fig. 5A, C View Figure 5 ). Small projections of coxae IV endite present in the anterior portion of the gonostome wall ( Fig. 5C View Figure 5 ). Coxa I free, coxa II fused to coxae III and IV. Sternum absent ( Fig. 5C View Figure 5 ). Male gonostome pentagonal, almost triangular, wider than long (99 ¥ 69 Mm), with an almost straight (slightly concave) posterior margin, and delimited laterally and anterolaterally by the elevated endites of coxa IV ( Fig. 5A, C View Figure 5 ).

Spiracles oval in shape, closed, with a maximum diameter of 51 Mm ( Fig. 5E View Figure 5 ). Ventral opisthosomal region without conspicuous modifications or gland openings ( Fig. 5A View Figure 5 ). Opisthosomal tergite IX free, and sternites 8 and 9 medially fused for most of their length, not forming a corona analis ( Fig. 5A, D View Figure 5 ). Anal plate slightly oval (180 ¥ 144 Mm), with a thin medial ridge; ridge with conspicuous setae ( Fig. 5D View Figure 5 ). Anal glands not observed with SEM because of the putative secretion accumulated on the dorsal part of tergite VIII. Cuticle ornamented (with a tuberculatemicrogranular surface; Murphree, 1988) in all ventral areas, except on the spiracle and coxal endites; anal plate without tuberculate-microgranular ornamentation, but with a honeycomb pattern ( Fig. 5A, C, D View Figure 5 ).

Chelicerae ( Fig. 6A, B View Figure 6 ) relatively short and robust; basal article 362-Mm long, 157-Mm wide, without conspicuous ventral processes, and without a dorsal crest; second article 379-Mm long, 123-Mm wide; movable finger 182-Mm long; widest part of cheliceral distal article near articulation with mobile digit; all articles with few setae; proximal article almost entirely granulated. Second cheliceral segment only partly and slightly ornamented. Cheliceral denticles of the uniform type ( Fig. 6B View Figure 6 ).

Palp 1.026-mm long, smooth, slightly covered with scale-like processes on all articles ( Fig. 6C View Figure 6 ). Measurements of palpal articles, length/width (L/W ratio) in Mm: trochanter 123/65 (1.89), femur 284/70 (4.06), patella 173/67 (2.58), tibia 225/63 (3.57), tarsus 221/57 (3.88); claw 30-Mm long ( Fig. 6D View Figure 6 ). Palp trochanter with a conspicuous ventral process. Ornamentation present in trochanter; absent on second palp article.

Legs relatively long and robust; see measurements in Table 2. Leg I longer than leg II. Solea in tarsus I absent ( Fig. 7A View Figure 7 ). Tarsus and metatarsus smooth in legs I ( Fig. 7A View Figure 7 ) and II ( Fig. 7C View Figure 7 ); metatarsus almost completely ornamented in leg III ( Fig. 7E View Figure 7 ), and entirely ornamented in leg IV ( Fig. 7G View Figure 7 ); all other articles ornamented on legs I– IV. Tarsus IV of male entire ( Fig. 7G View Figure 7 ); with a broad lamelliform adenostyle (102/93 Mm), not plumose, subcylindrical at the base, with a lateral pore; distal margin at 44% of the tarsal length (not in the most basal region of the tarsus; Fig. 7G, H View Figure 7 ). Claws hooked, smooth, and without dentition or lateral pegs ( Fig. 7B, D, F, I View Figure 7 ).

Spermatopositor ( Fig. 8 View Figure 8 ) small (180-Mm long), with 3/3 dorsal long bifurcating microtrichia with enlarged bases, and shorter ventral microtrichia without enlarged bases. Pars apicalis with hooked mobile digits. Ventral part with four pairs of shorter microtrichia; ventral plate clearly surpasses the pars distalis, only visible from the dorsal side. Ovipositor not studied.

Etymology: The species is named after our colleague Eduardo Mateos from the Departament de Biologia Animal, Universitat de Barcelona, who collected the specimens of the new species.

Phylogentics: Our molecular phylogenetic analysis resulted in a well-resolved and stable phylogeny. We show the single most parsimonious tree of 2914 steps obtained under equal weighting ( Fig. 9 View Figure 9 ), and represent the nodal stability using sensitivity plots. Except for Suzukielus sauteri (Roewer, 1916)   , which appears as sister to the genus Siro   under alternative parameter sets, all nodes appear highly stable. The two specimens of Paramiopsalis eduardoi   sp. nov. form a clade (100% jackknife proportion), and group with Paramiopsalis ramulosus   (100% bootstrap). The genus Paramiopsalis   appears as sister to the genus Cyphophthalmus   with strong support (93% jackknife proportion), and under all of the parameter sets examined.


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