Achrocerides theorini ( Aurivillius, 1891 )

Taberer, Tabitha R. & Giusti, Alessandro, 2022, Revision of Achrocerides Hering, 1937 (Lepidoptera: Chrysopolomidae), Ecologica Montenegrina 59, pp. 24-37 : 27-33

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Achrocerides theorini ( Aurivillius, 1891 )


Achrocerides theorini ( Aurivillius, 1891) ( Figs. 1 — 5 View Figures 1—10 , 11 — 15 View Figures 11-15 )

Lasiocampa theorini Aurivillius, 1891 , Entomologisk Tidskrift, 12; 228, pl.2, fig.3. Type locality: Gabun [ Gabon]; based on the whereabouts of Fritz Theorin in the 1880’s, “Gaboon”, as the label of the specimen reads, refers to the mouth of the “Gaboon River”, or the modern- day Gabon Estuary at Libreville.

Type material. Syntype ♂ in SMNH with the following labels: “ Lasiocampa / Theorini / Auriv. typ.” // “Gaboon” // “Theorin.” (examined).

Taxonomic note. In the original description of L. theorini , only the binomial combination and the locality were given in the legend for the plate on which a drawing of a male of this new species was figured. A male type, with labels that matches collector and locality mentioned by Aurivillius, is known from the SMNH and we consider this to be a syntype, probably the only one. Aurivillius described this species in full the year after, in 1892, in Entomologisk Tidskrift, 13: 198, noting and also describing a female from Staudinger’s collection. Moreover, Hering (1937: 241, pl. IX, fig.4) figured a “ ♂ (Type, Berlin Museum)”. However, neither the female described in 1892 by Aurivillius, nor the male figured by Hering in 1937 were mentioned in the original description and thus they cannot be considered types.

Additional material examined. Angola. 1 male, Quicolungo, 120 km N. of Lucala , 800 m, iv.1936, Braun, R. leg., unique QR code: NHMUK 014201447 View Materials , gen. slide No. : NHMUK 010317727 View Materials ( NHMUK) . Burkina Faso. 8 males, Boromo, Forêt de Sorobouli , 247m, 11°46’53”N, 2°54S, 4–5.vii.2013, Ph. Moretto leg. ( RCPB) . Cameroon. 3 males, Campo Ma’an National Park ( Lowland rainforest), 950 m, 2°16’56.4”N, 9°57’03.5”E, 10 — 22.iii.2018, Fotsing, E., Ishmael, K., Miles, W., Sáfián, Sz. leg., ANHRT GoogleMaps : 2018.3, gen. slide Nos. : TT 175, TT 176 ( ANHRT) ; 3 males, Edea-Douala , 29.vii.1992 — 24.ii.1993, Bouyer, Th. leg. ; 1 male, Eloumden , 28 — 29.x.1992, Bouyer, Th. leg. ; 1 male, Ebodje Akok , 23 — 24.xii.1992, Bouyer, Th. leg. ; 1 female, Nkolbisson , vi.1965, de Miré, B. leg. ; 1 male, Mount Cameroon, Bonenza , 180 m, 9°5.3’E, 4°2.6’N, 14.i.1989, gen. slide No.: TT 208 ( RMCA) GoogleMaps ; 1 male, Nguila , 10.iv.1977, Ph. Darge leg. ; 1 male, Mt Nkolbiyong , 1156m, 3°50’N, 11°21’E, xi.1974, Ph. Darge GoogleMaps ; 1 male, Meyo Region, 2018, G. Faravel leg. ; 1 male, Mbalmayo Region, i.2012, J. Nicat leg. ; 1 female, Mbalmayo Region, iii.2012, J. Nicat leg. ; 1 female, Mbalmayo Region, vii.2012, J. Nicat leg. ; 1 male, Ebogo , vi.2011, J. Nicat leg. ( RCBP) . Central African Republic. 2 males, Sebokele Forest , 3.xi.1980, P. Basquin leg. ; 1 male, Sebokele Forest , 15.ii.1980, P. Basquin leg., gen. slide No.: TT 222 ; 1 male, Sebokele Forest , 24.v.1979, P. Basquin leg. ; 1 male, Sebokele Forest , 26.v.1979, P. Basquin leg. ; 1 male, Loko ,, P. Basquin leg., coll. Ph. Mathias ; 1 male, Lobaye-Loko , 8.vii.1982, P. Basquin leg. ; 1 male, Lobaye-Loko , 5.ii.1978, P. Basquin leg., gen. slide No.: TT 220 ; 1 male, Lobaye-Loko , 7.ii.1978, P. Basquin leg. ; 1 male, Lobaye-Loko , 30.xii.1978, P. Basquin leg. ; 1 male, Lobaye-Molangué ,, P. Basquin leg., gen. slide No.: TT 219 ; 1 male, Bozo Savane ,, P. Basquin leg., gen. slide No.: TT 221 ( RCPB) . Cote d’Ivoire. 1 male, Taï National Park, Taï Research Station , 174 m, 5°50’00”N, 7°20’32”W, 25.iii — 17.iv.2017, Aristophanous, A., Aristophanous, M., Geiser, M., Moretto, P. leg., ANHRT:2017.25, BOLD process id.: ANLMN8499-21; GoogleMaps 1 male, Kakpin Village, Comoe, Open Forest , 259 m, 8°36’59.8”N, 3°46’37.7”W, — 02.viii.2015, Aristophanous, M., Moretto, P., Ruzzier, E. leg., ANHRT:2017.14; GoogleMaps 1 male, Gbando Village (Sudanian forest with Gallery forest ), 417 m, 9°34’17.1”N, 6°41’1.1”W, 15 —, Aristophanous, M., Miles, W., Moretto, P., Ouattara, Y. leg., ANHRT:2018.28; GoogleMaps 1 male, Comoe, Zamou , 279 m, 8°35’32.5”N, 3°46’7.0”W, Moretto, P., leg., ANHRT:2018.29, BOLD process id.: GoogleMaps ANLMN8498-21, gen. slide No.: TT 133; 1 female, Touba, Biémasso , 441 m, 8°04’19.9”N, 7°33’5.6”W, 9.vii.2014, Moretto, P. leg., ANHRT:2018.29, BOLD process id.: GoogleMaps ANLMN8500-21; 2 males, Parc National d’Azagny, entrée Sonaye ( Secondary forest ), 60 m, 5°14’32”N, 4°48’5”W, 25 — 28.xi.2021, Moretto, P., Mulvaney, L., Takano, H. leg., ANHRT:2021.8; GoogleMaps 3 males, Parc national du Mont Sângbé ( Forest /savannah mosaic), 422 m, 8°07’05”N, 7°19’09”W, 14 — 20.xi.2021, Moretto, P., Mulvaney, L., Takano, H. leg., ANHRT:2021.8; GoogleMaps 3 males, Station d’Ecologie de Lamto ( Riverine Forest ), 95 m, 6°13’2”N, 5°1’32”W, 21 — 25.xi.2021, Moretto, P., Mulvaney, L., Takano, H. leg., ANHRT:2021.8 ( ANHRT); GoogleMaps 2 males, Abidjan, vii.1966, Allard, V., leg. ( RMCA) ; 1 male, Forêt du Banco , x.1963, Piart, J., Griveaud, P. leg. ; 1 male, Azaguié , ix.1964, Griveaud, P. leg. ( MNHN) ; 1 male, Comoe, Zamou , 278m, 08°33’32”N, 3°46’07”W, 3.xi.2016, P. Moretto leg. ( RCPB) GoogleMaps . DRC. 1 male, Tshopo- Lindi, Watershed, N.E. Stanleyville [Kisangani], 1600 ft, iv.1921, Barns, T.A. leg., unique QR code: NHMUK 014201445 View Materials , gen. slide No.: NHMUK 010317724 View Materials ; 1 male, Upper Lowa Valley, North side, ix.1921, Barns, T.A. leg., unique QR code: NHMUK 0142101446 View Materials , gen. slide No. NHMUK 010317726 View Materials ( NHMUK) ; 1 male, 17 km N Kisangani, Masako Field Station , 388 m, 0°36’N, 25°15’E, 2 — 8.ii.2008, Gurkovich, Zolotuhin leg., BOLD process id.: LBEOW2049-11 ( ZSM) GoogleMaps ; 1 female, Bas-Congo, Luki-Mayumbe Nature Reserve , 320 m, 5°27’S, 13°05’E, 12.iv.2006, De Prins, J. leg., gen. slide No.: CHRY-11-79 (Kurshakov pr.), BOLD process id.: LIMBC837-11; GoogleMaps 1 female, same site, 29.xi.2008, De Prins, J., De Prins, W. leg., BOLD process id.: LIMBC836-11; 29 males, Uele, Paulis , 1.x.1955 — 30.xi.1959, Fontaine, M. leg., gen. slide Nos.: CHRY-11-74, CHRY-11-73 (Kurshakov, pr.) ; 3 males, Equateur, Bokuma , 16.ii.1952, Lootens, P. leg., gen. slide No. TT 203 ; 2 males, same site, ii.1936 — 11.ii.1952, Hulstaert, G. leg., gen. slide No.: CHRY-11-85 (Kurshakov, pr.); 1 female, Equateur, Flandria , vi.1934, Hulstaert, G. leg., gen. slide No.: TT 204 ; 1 male, Stanleyville , 19.ix.1955, Fontaine, M .; 1 male, same site, vi.1926, Colin, J. leg., gen, slide No. TT 202; 1 male, Kisangani , 19.iii.1971, Taverniers, J. leg. ; 1 male, same site, v.1972, Allard, V. leg.; 1 male, Eala , viii.1936, Ghesquière, J., gen. slide No.: CHRY-11-81 (Kurshakov pr.) ; 3 males, 1 female Sankuru, Katako- Kombe , 19.iii.1952 — 7.v.1953, Fontaine, M. leg., gen. slide Nos.: CHRY-11-82, CHRY-11-83 (Kurshakov pr.) ; 1 male, Sankuru, Komi , vi.1929, Ghesquière, J. leg. ; 4 males, Luluabourg , 2.xi.1951 — 10.v.1953, Fontaine, M. leg. ; 1 male, same site, 22.viii.1955, Seydel, Ch. leg., gen. slide No. CHRY-11-86 (Kurshakov, pr.); 1 male, Ubangi, Yakoma , 28.x.1951, Van Riel, F. leg. ; 1 male, Luena , 1.xii.1984, Bouyer, Th. leg., gen. slide No.: CHRY-11-75 (Kurshakov pr.) ; 1 male, Bambesa , 27.iv.1937, Vrydagh, J. leg. ; 2 males, Punia, Lufutu , 1937, Wauters leg. ; 1 male, Bamania , 4.viii.1964, Hulstaert, G. leg. ; 1 male, Bamange , ii.1959 ; 1 male, Ubangi, Gemena , 22.xii.1935, Henrard leg. ; 1 male, 1 female, Uele-Itimbiri , La Kulu, 1931, Branden, J. Van den leg .; 1 male, Bokela , 12.xii.1938, Hulstaert, G. leg. ; 1 female, Tshuapa, Bamanya , 30.iii.1973, Hulstaert, G. leg. ; 1 male, Sankuru, Lunzele , 12.ix.1950, Hostie, P. leg. ( RMCA) . Gabon. 1 male, Mikongo (Rougier), Monts de Cristal , 430 m, 0°29’47”N, 11°10’42”E, 28.vii — 12.viii.2019, Albert, J.-L., Aristophanous, M., Bie Mba, J., Dérozier, V., Moretto, P. leg., ANHRT GoogleMaps : 2019.17, gen. slide No.: TT 131 ( ANHRT) ; 1 male, Ntoum , x.1985, Pauly, A. leg. ( RMCA) ; 1 male, Ipassa , 31.iii.1977, Pierre, J. leg. ; 1 male, Ipassa ,, Bernardi, G. leg. ; 1 male, Belinga, Camp Central , 700m, 12.iv.1963, Bernardi, G. leg. ( MNHN) ; 1 male, Libreville , 8.iv.1977 ; 1 male, Tchimbele , iii.2014, Ph. Oremans ; 1 male, Monts de Cristal , 700m,, P. Basquin leg. ; 1 male, Kango-Ekouk , 100m, 19.x.1991, P. Basquin leg. ; 1 male, Monts de Cristal, Kinguele-Barrage , 400m, 6.iv.2019, P. Basquin leg. ; 1 male, Mitzic-Oveng , 1.iv.1991, P. Basquin leg. ; 1 male, Mvoum ,, P. Basquin leg. ; 1 male, Cap Esterias , 16.x.1990, P. Basquin leg. ; Leconi , 400m, 30.v.1992, P. Basquin leg. ( RCPB) Guinea. 1 male, Massadou campsite, Forêt Classée de Ziama , 541 m, 8°20’36.25”N, 9°26’14.70”W, 8 — 13.iii.2019, Sáfián, Sz., Simonics, G., Florczyk, K., Koivogui, S. leg., ANHRT:2019.10; GoogleMaps 1 male, 1 female, Nimba Mountains, Société des Mines de Fer de Guineé concession area, 700 m, 7°42’2.83”N, 8°23’58.60”W, 16 — 25.viii.2017, Sáfián, Sz. leg., ANHRT:2017.36; GoogleMaps 1 male Guineé Forestiére, Bossou Forest and Institut de Recherche Environmentale de Bossou (lowland forest-farmland), 690 m, 7°38’32”N, 8°30’30”W, 24 —, Dérozier, V., Suah Dore, J., Koivagui, S., Miles, W., Sáfián, Sz., Warner, R. leg., ANHRT GoogleMaps : 2019.11 ( ANHRT); 1 male, Tondon , viii– ix.1956, Labour, L. leg. ; 4 males, Nimba , vii–xii.1951, Lamotte, M., Roy, R. leg. ; 1 male, Seredou , 17.iii.1958, Pujol, R. leg. ; 1 female, Seredou , 18.ii.1958, Pujol, R. leg. ; 1 female, Seredou , 28.ii.1958, Pujol, R. leg. ( MNHN) . Ghana. 1 male, Eastern Region, Bunso Arboretum , 10 — 18.ix.2010, Dall’Asta, U., Dall’Asta, A. & Sáfián, Sz. leg., BOLD process id.: LIMBC835-11 ; 2 males, Bia Conservation Area, Bongo Camp , 15 — 16.i.2009, Dall’Asta, U. leg., BOLD process ids.: LIMBC833-11, LIMBC834-11 ; 1 male, Ashanti, Bobiri , 4 km NE Kubease, 230 m, 6°41’N, 1°20’W, 25.v.2011, De Prins, W., De Prins, J. leg., gen. slide No.: TT 197 GoogleMaps ; 1 male, Bunso , 22 — 30.x.2009, Sáfián, Sz. leg., gen. slide No.: CHRY-11-77 (Kurshakov pr.), BOLD process id.: LIMBC832-11 ( RMCA) ; 1 male, Volta, 802 m, 6°50’20.3”N, 0°25’49.9”E, 10.iii.2006, Ochse, M. leg., BOLD process id.: GWOSS371-11 ( ZSM) GoogleMaps . Kenya. 1 male, Western Province, Kakamega Forest National Reserve , primary forest, 1500 m, 11.iii.2002, 0°12’48.2”N, 34°30’50.0”E, Kühne, L. leg., BOLD process id.: LIMBC826-11 ( ZSM) GoogleMaps . Liberia. 7 males, Welezu camp, Wonegizi Nature Reserve , Lofa County, 551 m, 8°4’57.11”N, 9°34’47.86”W, 19 — 27.iii.2019, Sáfián, Sz., Koivogui, S. leg., ANHRT:2019.7; GoogleMaps 1 male, Nimba County, Yekepa residential area, 510 m, 7°34’26.78”N, 8°32’31.88”W, 10 — 31.iii.2017, Sáfián, Sz., Simonics, G. leg., ANHRT GoogleMaps : 2017.36, gen. slide No. TT 135, BOLD process id.: ANLMN8485-21 ; 1 male, 1 female, Nimba Mountains, Mount Gangra Western slope, 700 m, 7°33’29.73”N, 8°38’16.4”W, 16 — 17.iii.2017, Sáfián, Sz., Simonics, G. leg., ANHRT GoogleMaps : 2017.36, gen. slide No.: LG 5794 ( ANHRT) ; 1 male, Yekepa , 7.iv.2013, ex coll. Collet, Ph. ( MNHN) . Nigeria. 1 male, near Bonny , 11.iv.1902, Gordon, C.J.M., gen. slide No. TT 195 ( OUMNH) ; 1 male, Okomu Forest , 5.iv.1991, Knoop, A.A., gen. slide No. CHRY-11-76 (Kurshakov pr.) . Republic of the Congo. 1 male, Brazzaville, Niari , v.1981, Allard, V. leg. ( RMCA) . Sierra Leone. 4 males, Kono Province, Gori Hills, near Giehum , 375 m, 8°27’47.2”N, 10°46’17.0”W, 22 — 29.ii.2020, Sinyaev, V. Kalnoi, G. leg., ANHRT:2022.14, BOLD process ids.: ANLMN8486-21, 8488-21, 8487-21, 8489-21; GoogleMaps 1 male, Kalainkay, near Kamabai , Northern Province, 80 m, 9°10’52”N, 11°56’44”W, Smith, R., Takano, H. leg., ANHRT GoogleMaps : 2018.18, BOLD process id.: ANLMN8490-21, gen. slide No.: TT 134 ( ANHRT) ; 3 males, Kenema , ix — x.1974, Allaer, A. leg., gen. slide No.: CHRY-11-78 (P. Kurshakov pr.) ; 2 males, Sierra Leone ( RMCA) . Togo. 1 male, Akawolo , ix.2014, local collector, ANHRT:2020.5, BOLD process id.: ANLMN8484-21 ( ANHRT). Uganda. 1 male, western Kibale Forest, Chimps’ Nest , 1187 m, 0°23’47”N, 30°23’03”E, 19 — 21.iii.2013, Fiebig, R, Fiebig, S, Stadie, D. leg., gen. slide No. 31.061 ( MWW) GoogleMaps ; 1 male, Entebbe , 10.iii.1969, gen. slide No TT 196 ( OUMNH) ; 1 male, Bwindi North , Kanungu, ix.2005, J.P. Lequeux leg. ; 1 male, Semliki , Bundibugyo, x.2005, J.P. Lequeux leg. ; Rakai, Katera Forest , vii.2012, J.P. Lequeux leg. ; 1 male, Mayuge, South Busoga , viii.2012, J.P. Lequeux leg. ; 1 male, Mukono, Kerenge Island , ix.2011, J.P. Lequeux leg. ; 1 male, Sesse, Bugalla Island , x–xi.2012, J.P. Lequeux leg. ( RCBP) .

There are two dissection-confirmed male specimens of A. theorini in NHMUK from “ South Africa ” which are clearly patria falsa. Both specimens have the accession number B.M.1926-239 which refers to a large collection of Lepidoptera purchased from the natural history dealer Frederick Henry Rosenberg containing part of Colonel Charles Swinhoe’s collection. The handwriting on the labels matches that of Swinhoe, who was renowned for his work on the Asian lepidoptera fauna, and it is likely that the mislabelling event took place before the collection ended up in the hands of Rosenberg and NHMUK.


Male. Forewing length 18 — 22.5 mm. Head, collar, tegula, and thorax beige to tawny brown. Antenna bipectinate; antennae and palps ochreous yellow. Legs beige laterally with sparse dark scale spots, ochreous yellow medially. Abdomen uniformly cream to ochreous beige, sometimes with a few, irregular dark scales. Forewing. Broad, rounded; ground colour beige to tawny-brown, although slightly paler from post-medial line to outer margin; wing speckled sparsely with dark scales that are mostly concentrated along costal margin and near thorax. Post-medial line grey, with scaling extending on the veins distally; post-medial line kinked at vein M1 near outer margin. Postmedial area with a diffuse grey-brown triangular patch between veins R3 and M1; discal spot light beige, rounded, with diffuse margin. Fringe long, slightly darker than ground colour, cilia sometimes black in distal half. Hindwing. Rounded, with undulate margin at tornus. Ground-colour same as forewing or slightly paler beige; medial line dark grey-brown, wider than that of forewing. Sparse dark scales concentrated in the distal half. Outer margin with a small, diffuse, pale grey-brown triangular patch between veins M1 and M2. Fringe long, slightly darker than ground colour, cilia black in distal half. Underside of wing uniformly pale beige with some irregular clusters of grey scales concentrated mostly along the costal margin of fore- and hindwing. Forewing discal spot traceable. Outer margin with diffuse pale grey-brown triangular patch between veins R3 and M1 on forewing and between veins M1 and M2 on hindwing. Fringe darker than ground colour; cilia sometimes black in distal half.

Female. Forewing length 26 — 28 mm. Body and wing colour as in male, varying from beige to tawny brown, but with more numerous dark brown or black scales speckled on fore- and hindwing. Antennae filiform. Forewing. Broad, rounded, slightly more angular at apex than in males. Hindwing. Rounded, with undulate margin at tornus; colour and fringe as in male. Underside of wing paler than upperside, both fore- and hindwing uniformly pale beige with numerous grey scales speckled on both wing sets.

Male genitalia. Uncus elongate, triangular with truncate apex, heavily sclerotised apically. Tegumen narrow. Transtilla comprised of two long slender, apically pointed posterior processes, and two very narrow, short, apically rounded anterior processes connected medially by a thin membrane. Juxta with large, bilobate base, with small, strongly sclerotised, rectangular process antero-medially, and with two very long, thin, tapering, distally pointed lobes accompanying phallus laterally. Vinculum broad, rounded. Valve variable in length; wide at base, constricted medially, truncate distally with rounded, slightly protruding costal edge. Phallus curved in proximal third, thin, long, proximally surrounded with heavily sclerotised manica fused ventrally to caudal lobes of juxta, weakly sclerotised distally with apical split. Vesica extremely short, membranous.

Female genitalia. Papilla analis broad, lobed, medially deeply notched, very finely setose. Apophysis posterioris long, narrow, rounded apically. Eighth tergite broad, short, posterior margin evenly convex, anterior margin slightly concave, moderately sclerotised; apophysis anterioris as long as posterior one, narrow, apically hooked. Ostium small, semi-circular, with longitudinally striate, trapezoidal antevaginal plate bearing two rounded posterior protrusions. Antrum extremely broad distally, very short, funnellike, strongly sclerotised; ductus bursae very short, heavily sclerotised; cervix bursae oblong, very heavily sclerotised, corpus bursae membranous, posterior half narrow, tubular; anterior part ovoid. Signum bursae absent.

Taxonomic note. Dissection of numerous A. theorini specimens collected from West, Central, and East Africa revealed the existent of a single widespread taxon. Slight variation was noted in the male genitalia in terms of the length and shape of the distal edge of the valve, although no geographical trends were identified. For example, the majority of specimens from West Africa possess a short valve, almost rectangular in shape, although this was also seen in some specimens from central DRC (e.g. CHRY-11-83 and CHRY-11-85). Furthermore, A. theorini specimens vary widely in external morphology in terms of size and wing colouration with no obvious geographic clustering or congruence in the genitalia. Without clear geographic circumscription and in the absence of consistent differences in external and genital morphology, A. theorini is treated as a widespread species that exhibits high levels of intraspecific variation.

Diagnosis. The distinctive characters between A. theorini , A. flavoantennata comb. n., and A. smithi sp. n. are discussed under the diagnoses of the latter two species.

Distribution ( Fig. 20 View Figure 20 ). This species was previously known from Cameroon, DRC, Gabon, Ghana, Nigeria and Uganda. Through this research, it is now also known from Angola, Cote d’Ivoire, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Republic of the Congo, Sierra Leone and Togo. Based on the locality data of the examined specimens, A. theorini is a forest-dwelling species that occurs throughout the Guinean-Congolian rainforests and towards the montane forests of East Africa.


Canada, Saskatchewan, Regina, Royal Saskatchewan Museum




Belgium, Tervuren, Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale


France, Paris, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle


Germany, Muenchen [= Munich], Zoologische Staatssammlung


United Kingdom, Oxford, University Museum of Natural History


Royal Museum for Central Africa


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle


Bavarian State Collection of Zoology














Achrocerides theorini ( Aurivillius, 1891 )

Taberer, Tabitha R. & Giusti, Alessandro 2022

Lasiocampa theorini

Aurivillius 1891
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