Johnson, David M., Munzinger, Jérôme, Peterson, Julie A. & Murray, Nancy A., 2013, Taxonomy and biogeography of the New Caledonian species of Xylopia L. (Annonaceae), Adansonia (3) 35 (2), pp. 207-226: 209

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http://doi.org/ 10.5252/a2013n2a3

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Genus Xylopia   L.

Systema naturae, ed. 10: 1250, nom. conserv. (1759). — Type: Xylopia muricata (P. Browne) Linnaeus.  

DISTRIBUTION. — A pantropical genus of about 200 species, in the Neotropics distributed from southern Mexico and Cuba south through Central America and Jamaica to Bolivia, Paraguay, and southern Brazil. Occurs widely in sub-Saharan Africa, Madagascar, and the Mascarene Islands. In Asia distributed from southern India and Sri Lanka across southeastern Asia and into southern China, and then south and east across the Malesian region to northern Australia, New Caledonia, and Fiji.


Trees or shrubs with an indument of simple hairs; some species with two axillary branches (doublebranching). Leaves distichous, often somewhat coriaceous, simple, entire. Inflorescences axillary, occasionally from the trunk or older branches, fewflowered, axes bearing small bracts. Flowers bisexual, buds elongate; sepals 3, connate at least at the base so that a cuplike calyx shorter than the petals is formed; petals 6 in 2 whorls, free, usually much longer than wide, inner petals slightly shorter and narrower, both whorls somewhat concave at base; stamens numerous, anthers transversely septate, with a polyad of 4-16 pollen grains held in each locule; apex of connective truncate, rarely apiculate or absent; filaments connate at base to form a pyramidal or dome-shaped cone that encloses the ovaries, the free part of the filament shorter than the anther; innermost and sometimes outermost stamens slightly broader and staminodial; carpels few to numerous, seated within the staminal cone with only the stigmas emergent, ovaries pubescent with ovules laterally attached in one or two rows, stigmas filiform to lanceolate, often connivent. Monocarps free, dehiscent abaxially with a fleshy red endocarp, stipitate or not; seeds attached laterally in one or two rows, ellipsoid to oblong. Seeds have an aril or a sarcotesta, a fleshy seed coat. Arils fibrous, corky, or fleshy and colored, white, yellow, orange, or red. Sarcotesta blue-gray, orange, or lime-green. Endosperm ruminations plate-like in four rows, or irregularly spiniform.