Sadocus polyacanthus (Gervais, 1847)

Pessoa-Silva, Marilia, Hara, Marcos Ryotaro & Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo, 2021, Revision of the southern Andean genus Sadocus Sorensen, 1886 (Opiliones, Gonyleptidae, Pachylinae), ZooKeys 1025, pp. 91-137: 91

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1025.57806

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:231B6931-2787-496E-B6B4-B87D59F5AC02

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/AFF958CD-24CC-506E-A99B-418533DD4398

treatment provided by

ZooKeys by Pensoft

scientific name

Sadocus polyacanthus (Gervais, 1847)
status

 

Sadocus polyacanthus (Gervais, 1847)   Figures 2 View Figure 2 , 7A-E View Figure 7 , 8I, J View Figure 8 , 10C-F View Figure 10 , 11E, F View Figure 11 , 12J-L View Figure 12

Gonyleptes polyacanthus   Gervais, 1847: 576 [desc]; 1849: 24, pl. 1, figs 7-7c [rdesc]; Butler 1873: 114 [cat]. (Syntypes MNHN, 1 ma, 1 fe examined by detailed photographs). Transferred to Sadocus   by Sørensen 1902.

Sadocus polyacanthus   : Sørensen, 1902: 14 [syst; rdesc]; Roewer 1913: 245-246, fig 101 [key, rdesc]; 1923: 493, fig 619 [rdesc]; 1930: 381 [cit]; Canals 1934: 6 [cit]; 1936: 70 [cat]; Roewer 1938: 02, 06 [cat]; Mello-Leitão 1939: 625 [cit]; Soares and Soares 1949: 212 [cat]; Ringuelet 1955b: 113 [cit]; 1957: 13, 19 [cit]; 1959: 409, figs XVIII-1, 2 [rdesc]; Cekalovic 1968: 7 [cat]; 1976: 24 [cat]; 1985: 15 [cat]; Acosta and Maury 1998: 569 [cit]; Kury 2003: 191 [cat]; Hara et al. 2012: 38-39 [syst]; Pinto-da-Rocha et al. 2012: 61 [cit]; Pinto-da-Rocha et al. 2014: 18 [syst]; Hara 2016: 106-109 [syst]; Kury et al. 2020b [cat].

Sadocus vitellinosulcatus   Sørensen, 1886: 85, pl. 6, fig 7 [desc]. (Type depository unknown, fe). Synonymy with S. polyacanthus   established by Sørensen 1902.

Gonyleptes platei   Loman, 1899: 5, pl. 5, fig 3-3a [desc]. (Holotype ZMB 7843, 1 ma examined). Synonymy with S. polyacanthus   established by Sørensen 1902.

Araucanoleptes exceptionalis   Mello-Leitão, 1946: 5, fig 5 [desc]; Soares and Soares 1949: 160 [cat] (Syntypes - URMU 703, 1 ma, 3 fe examined). Transferred to Sadocus   by Kury 2003. syn. nov.

Arauconoleptes exceptionalis   [spelling mistake]: Cekalovic, 1968: 7 [cat]; 1985: 12 [cat].

Sadocus platei   : Moritz, 1971: 207 [cat].

Sadocus conspicillatus   Roewer, 1913: 251 - 253, pl. 1, fig 3 [desc]; 1923: 495 [rdesc]; Canals 1936: 70 [cat]; Soares and Soares 1949: 211 [cat]; Cekalovic 1968, 7 [cat]; 1985: 14 [cat]; Pinto-da-Rocha et al. 2012: 61 [cit]; Kury et al. 2020b [cat]. (Syntypes - SMF, 1 ma 1 fe examined). syn. nov.

Sadocus guttatus   Sørensen, 1902: 15 [desc]; Roewer 1913: 248 [rdesc]; 1923: 494 [rdesc]; Canals 1936: 70 [cat]; Soares and Soares 1949: 211 [cat]; Roewer 1961: 102 [cit]; Cekalovic 1968, 7 [cat]; 1985: 14 [cat]; Kury 2003: 191 [cat]; Kury et al. 2020b [cat] (Holotype - ZMUC, ma examined). syn. nov.

Sadocus exceptionalis   : Kury, 2003: 191 [cat]; Kury et al. 2020b [cat].

Material examined.

Chile, Región Metropolitana de Santiago, Santiago, date or collector unknown, 4 ma, 2 fe ( SMF 1384); Región de Valparaíso, 13.II.89, collector unknown, 1 ma ( ZMUC- holotype of S. guttatus   ); Región de Biobío, Provincia de Arauco, Parque Nacional Nahuelbuta (-37.805567, -73.03505), 30.XI.2003, I. Avila, S. Ocares & D. Silva coll. ( CAS 9055055); Same (-37.806433, -73.036333), date or collector unknown ( CAS 9055038); Same (-37.810556, -73.0575), 13.XII.2010, F. Marques, F. Cádiz & F. Carbayo coll., 4 ma, 4 fe ( MZSP 36964); Same (-37.8275, -73.009722), 9.XII.2010, F. Marques, F. Cadiz & F. Carbayo coll., 3 ma ( MZSP 36838); Same, Provincia Concepción, date or collector unknown, 2 ma ( SMF 906; holotype of S. conspicillatus   ); Región de la Araucanía, Provincia de Vilarrica, Las Ochocientas (-39.1668, -71.98755), 14.XII.2003, E. Arias & D. Silva et al. coll. ( CAS 9055047); Same, Provincia de Malleco, Lonquimay, 23-24.XII.1976, collector unknown, 1 ma, 1 fe ( AMNH); Same (Las Raices), collector unknown, 1 ma ( AMNH); Same, Contulmo Natural Monument, 23.I.1985, N.I. Platnick & O.F. Francke coll., 3 ma, 1 fe ( AMNH); Same (-40.73715, -72.31062), 12.XI.2014, G. Giribet, G. Hormiga & A. Pérez-González coll., 2 ma, 3 fe ( MCZ 138065); Same, Parque Nacional de Tolhuaca (-38.226111, -71.730833), 18.I.2008, R. Pinto-da-Rocha coll., 4 ma, 3 fe, 1 juv ( MZSP 29076); Same, 12.XII.2010, F. Marques, F. Cádiz & F. Carbayo coll., 5 ma, 2 fe ( MZSP 36966); Curacatín, Salto del Indio no Rio Cautín (-38.46125, -71.741333), 28.XII.2016, A. Anker & P.H. Martins coll., 1 ma, 1 fe ( UFMG 22632); Purén, Salto el Rayen (-38.013528, -73.162639), 04.I.2017, A. Anker & P.H. Martins coll., 1 ma ( UFMG 22637); Same, 1 fe ( UFMG 22640); Same, 1 ma ( UFMG 22641); Same, 1 ma ( UFMG 22642); Same, Provincia de Cautin, Angol, Parque Nacional Nahuelbuta (-37.829000, -73.007278), 25-27.XII.2016, A. Anker & P.H. Martins coll., 1 ma, 1 fe ( UFMG 22628); Same, 1 fe ( UFMG 22629); Same, 1 ma ( UFMG 22630); Same, 1 fe ( UFMG 22631); Same, Fundo de las Selvas, 16-20.II.1981, L.E. Peña coll., 3 ma ( AMNH); Same, Vulcão Villarrica, 15-29.XII.1982, A. Newton & M. Thayer coll., 1 ma ( AMNH); Same, Villarrica (-39.03 -72.121), 16-31.XII, L. Peña coll., 1 ma, 1 fe ( MCZ 38270 View Materials ); Same, 1-30.I.1965, 4 ma, 3 fe ( MCZ 38271 View Materials ); Same, 5 ma, 4 fe ( MCZ 38273 View Materials ); Same, 4 ma ( MCZ 38272 View Materials ); Same, 2 ma ( MCZ 31240 View Materials ); Same, Lago Conguillio, Parque Nacional Conguillio (-38.647778, -71.610278), 24-25.I.2010, R. Pinto-da-Rocha, F. Cádiz L. & D. Cádiz L. coll., 8 ma, 1 fe ( MZSP 36799); Same, 2 ma, 1 fe ( MZSP 36803); Same, Puesco, Parque Nacional Villarica (-39.565000, -71.513889), 22.I.2010, R. Pinto-da-Rocha, F. Cádiz L. & D. Cádiz L. coll., 9 ma, 6 fe ( MZSP 36802); Región de Los Lagos, Provincia de Osorno, Pucatrihue, 23.III.1963, Tha & Lep coll., ( AMNH); Same, Parque Nacional Puyehue, 12-22.II.1979, L.E. Peña coll., 2 ma, 4 fe ( AMNH); Same, 5-12.II.1978, collector unknown, 1 ma ( AMNH); Same (-40.666389, -72.171944), 15.I.2003, S.E. Lew & K.W. Will coll., 1 ma, 1 fe ( CAS 9017709); Same, 31.I.1985, N.I. Platinick & O.F. Francke coll., 2 ma, 1 fe, 1 juv ( AMNH); Same, Puyehue, 5-12.II.1978, collector unknown, 1 ma ( AMNH); Same (-40.73715 -72.31062), 16.XI.2014, G. Giribet, G. Hormiga & A. Pérez-González coll., 2 ma, 2 fe ( MCZ 138128); Same, Puyehue, Parque Nacional Puyehue (-40.665583, -72.175694), 30-31.XII.2016, A. Anker & P.H. Martins coll., 1 ma ( UFMG 22633); Same, La Picada, 15-20.I.1980, L.E. Peña coll., 1 ma ( AMNH); Same, Entre Lagos, 14-17.II.1978, collector unknown, 1 ma ( AMNH); Same, 14-17.II.1978, collector unknown, 1 ma ( AMNH); Same, Provincia de Chiloé, Ilha Chiloé, Chepu, 2.II.1985, N.I. Platnick & O.F. Francke coll., 1 ma ( AMNH); Same, 20.II.2000, T. Cekalovic coll., 2 ma ( AMNH); Same, Chepu, 14.II.2002, T. Cekalovic coll., 1 ma ( AMNH); Same, Parque Nacional Chiloé (-42.574417, -74.077350), 3.XII.2009, H. Wood, L. Almeida & C. Griswold coll., 1 ma ( CAS 9036299); Same, Termas de Puyehue (-40.7 -72.3; 250 masl), 12.III.1965, H. Levi coll., 4 ma ( MCZ 38289 View Materials ); Pucatrihue (-40.54389 -73.71778; near the coast of Osorno), 3-21.III.1967, H. Levi coll., 6 ma, 2 fe ( MCZ 38288 View Materials ); Same, XII.1967, L. Peña coll., 3 ma, 13 fe ( MCZ 34212 View Materials ); Same, 2 ma ( MCZ 38280 View Materials ); Same, 1 ma, 2 juvs ( MCZ 38268 View Materials ); Same, 1 ma, 3 fe ( MCZ 38282 View Materials ); Same, 1 ma, 2 fe ( MCZ 38284 View Materials ); Same, 2 ma ( MCZ 31244 View Materials ); Same, 1 ma ( MCZ 31242 View Materials ); Same, 2 ma ( MCZ 31245 View Materials ); Same, Parque Nacional Puyehue (-40.659722, -72.174167), 21.I.2010, R. Pinto-da-Rocha, F. Cádiz L. & D. Cádiz L. coll., 6 ma, 8 fe, 3 juv ( MZSP 36800); Same (-40.659722, -72.174167), 20.I.2010, R. Pinto-da-Rocha, F. Cádiz L. & D. Cádiz L. coll., 1 ma, 1 fe ( MZSP 36841); Same, Provincia de Llanquihue, Chamiza (-41.467 -72.85), 25.II.1976, T. Cekalovic coll., 4 ma, 6 fe ( MCZ 31261 View Materials ); Same, Puerto Montt, Parque Nacional Alerce Andino (-41.593611, -72.593889), 15.XII.2010, F. Marques, F. Cadiz & F. Carbayo coll., 1 ma ( MZSP 36842); Same (-41.59351, -72.59359), 15.XI.2014, G. Giribet, G. Hormiga & A. Pérez-González coll., 1 ma ( MCZ 138113); Same, Monumento Nacional Lahuen Nadi (-37.810556, -73.057500), 14.XII.2010, F. Marques, F. Cadiz & F. Carbayo coll., 1 ma ( MZSP 36837); Same, Los Muermos (-41.329167, -73.825278), 16.XII.2010, F. Marques, F. Cadiz & F. Carbayo coll., 1 ma, 2 fe ( MZSP 36801); Región de Los Rios, Provincia Valdivia, Parque Oncol (-39.700250, -73.000000), 10.I.2007, E. Arias coll., 1 ma ( CAS 9026268); Parque Nacional Oncol (-39.712333, -73.307278), 01.I.2017, A. Anker & P.H. Martins coll., 1 fe ( UFMG 22634); Same, 1 fe ( UFMG 22635); Same, 1 ma, 1 fe ( UFMG 22636); Same, 1 ma ( UFMG 22638); Same, 4 ma, 1 fe ( UFMG 22639); Same, Rio Bueno, II.1945, R. Vaz-Ferreira coll., ( MNHN 703; holotype of S. exceptionalis   ); Same, Neltume, I.1978, collector unknown, 1 ma, 1 fe ( AMNH); Same, Parque Oncol, 7.II.2004, T. Cekalovic coll., 2 ma, 1 juv ( AMNH); Same, 15.II.2004, T. Cekalovic coll., 2 ma, 2 fe ( AMNH); Same, 7.II.2004, T. Cekalovic coll., 2 ma ( AMNH); Same, 12.I.2006, Elizabeth Arias coll., 1 ma ( AMNH); Same, 12.I.2006, Elizabeth Arias coll., 3 ma, 1 fe ( AMNH); Same, Curiñanco, 15.II.2004, T. Cekalovic coll., 2 ma, 2 fe ( AMNH); Same, Puerto Fuy, 16-20.II.1978, collector unknown, 1 ma ( AMNH); Same (-39.81389 -73.24583), 15-20.XI.1978, E. Krahmer coll., 1 ma ( MCZ); Same, Corral (-39.867 -73.433), 30.XII.1905, R. Thaxter coll., 1 ma ( MCZ 38279 View Materials ); Same, date or collector unknown, 1 ma, 2 fe ( MCZ 38286 View Materials ).

Diagnosis.

Sadocus polyacanthus   resembles S. dilatatus   by the posterior apophysis on the lateral margin of dorsal scutum, and femur IV almost straight. It is distinguished from the latter by the lack of a long, single retro-central apophysis (present in S. dilatatus   ) on femur IV, and by the presence of prolateral and retro-lateral rows of similar sized tubercles on femur IV and coxa IV being closer to the body (instead of spread to the sides as S. dilatatus   ).

Redescription.

Male ( CAS 9055047). Measurements. Dorsal scutum maximum length 8.0; dorsal scutum maximum width 10.0; prosoma maximum length 3.3; prosoma maximum width 4.5; leg femora: I 4.9; II 9.6; III 8.2; IV 8.5. Dorsum (Fig. 7A View Figure 7 ). Dorsal scutum type gamma pyriform. Anterior margin of dorsal scutum with 15 granules, few closer to ocularium on carapace, lateral margin of carapace with a row of granules. Three scutal areas; scutal areas I-III with four, five, and eight granules, respectively. Scutal area III with one pair of spines. Lateral margin of dorsal scutum with row of granules increasing in size from the ozopore area to scutal area III, ending in a large spiniform tubercle. Posterior margin of dorsal scutum with a row of ten tubercles. Chelicerae. Segment I with a pair of retro-apical setae; fixed finger with three teeth, movable finger with four teeth. Pedipalps. Coxa with one central ventral spine. Trochanter with one ventro-apical tubercle. Femur with one ventro-basal seta and three ventro-basal granules. Patella covered with setae. Tibial setation: prolateral IiiIi/IiiiIi; retro-lateral: iIiIi. Tarsal setation: prolateral IiIii; retro-lateral IiIi. Legs (Fig. 7B-E View Figure 7 ). Trochanters I-IV granulate; trochanter II with one retro-lateral tubercle; trochanter III with one retro-apical spine; trochanter IV with one dorso-central tubercle, one retro-central tubercle, one retro-apical tubercle, one retro-dorsal apical spine; prodorsal apical apophysis with a rounded apex extending towards the dorsal region. Femur III ventral face with two rows of granules increasing in size apically. Femur IV with retro-dorsal row of spines decreasing in size towards the center; retro-lateral row of sparse spines increasing in size apically; ventro-apical face with a prolateral spine and retro-lateral granule. Patella IV with retro-lateral row of spines, the apical one curved, pointing towards tibia IV. Tibia IV with two retro-ventral apical spines. Tarsal counts: 6, 11, 7, 8. Penis (Fig. 11E, F View Figure 11 ). Ventral plate of penis with attenuated cleft on anterior margin; three pairs of MS A, two pairs of MS B, four or five pairs of MS C, two or three pairs of MS D.

Coloration. Immersed in ethanol: carapace, trochanters I-IV and femur IV dark brown. Legs with a gradient from brown to caramel. Live specimens (Fig. 10C-F View Figure 10 ): carapace, patellae, and tibiae I-IV black, except the areas of dorsal scutum that can vary (yellow, orange or red). Coxa and trochanters black. Femora I-IV varying between black and orange. Posterior margin of dorsal scutum to free tergite III arthrodial membranes green.

Variations (n = 58). Even in ethanol there is a great variation of coloration, which ranges from orange to caramel and yellow. The number of granules on the anterior margin of dorsal scutum varying from few sparsely distributed to completely covered. Measurements. Dorsal scutum maximum length 5.6-9.8; dorsal scutum maximum width 6.0-11.9; prosoma maximum length 2.2-4.0; prosoma maximum width 3.0-5.4; leg femora: I 3.5-6.9; II 6.4-13.0; III 5.3-11.4; IV 6.0-11.5.

Female ( AMNH - 11- Chile, Region de Los Lagos, Oncol Parque, 12.I.2006, Luma Arias et al. coll., Berkeley). Measurements. Dorsal scutum maximum length 9.3; dorsal scutum maximum width 9.4; prosoma maximum length 3.6; prosoma maximum width 5.0; leg femora: I 6.0; II 11.5; III 9.5; IV 11.5. Dorsum (Fig. 8I, J View Figure 8 ). Scutal areas I and II with three and five granules, respectively. Legs. Coxa IV granulate, with short prodorsal apical spiniform apophysis, not visible in ventral view. Trochanter IV with one retro-lateral spiniform tubercle. Tarsal counts: 6, 11, 7, 8. Ovipositor (Fig. 12J-L View Figure 12 ). Two main groups of lobes delimited by constriction, ovipositors peripheral setae inserted into sockets that are a mixture of dorsal and ventral sockets, left lobe with four setae and right lobe with six; each main group of lobes divided by a fissure.

Variations (n = 25). Color in dorsal scutum and femur varying between black and orange. Dorsal scutum with 10-30 granules. Measurements. Dorsal scutum maximum length 7.6-9.3; dorsal scutum maximum width 8.3-10.0; prosoma maximum length 3.0-3.6; prosoma maximum width 4.2-5.0; leg femora: I 4.5-6.0; II 7.0-13.0; III 7.0-11.4; IV 8.4-11.5.

Type locality.

Of G. polyacanthus   : Chile. Provincias del Sur. Of S. vitellinosulcatus   : either Australasia or South America. Of G. platei   : Chile. Región de Los Lagos. Provincia de Valdivia. Corral. Of A. exceptionalis   Chile. Región de Los Lagos. Osorno. Barra del Rio Bueno. Of S. conspicillatus   : Chile. Región de Biobío. Provincia de Concepción. Concepción. Of Sadocus guttatus   : Chile. Región de Biobío. Provincia de Arauco. Lebu.

Geographical distribution

(Fig. 2 View Figure 2 ). Chile, Región Metropolitana de Santiago; Región de Biobío; Región de Araucanía; Región de Los Lagos; Ilha Chiloé; Región de Los Rios.

Taxonomic notes.

After examining the holotypes of S. conspicillatus   , S. guttatus   , and S. exceptionalis   , we concluded that they were males within S. polyacanthus   size variation. The apophyses size and shape on trochanter IV and the armature of femur IV (especially the retro-dorsal and retro-lateral row of spines size pattern) of all species are the same.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Opiliones

Family

Gonyleptidae

Genus

Sadocus

Loc

Sadocus polyacanthus (Gervais, 1847)

Pessoa-Silva, Marilia, Hara, Marcos Ryotaro & Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo 2021
2021
Loc

Arauconoleptes exceptionalis

Cekalovic 1985
1985
Loc

Araucanoleptes exceptionalis

Mello-Leitão 1946
1946
Loc

Sadocus conspicillatus

Roewer 1913
1913
Loc

Gonyleptes platei

Loman 1899
1899
Loc

Sadocus

Sorensen 1886
1886
Loc

Sadocus

Sorensen 1886
1886