Echinopsyllus, SARS, 1909

Wandeness, Adriane P., George, Kai H. & Santos, Paulo J. P., 2009, First record of the taxon Echinopsyllus (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Ancorabolidae) from the deep sea of Campos Basin, Brazil, with the description of three new species and their contribution to phylogenetic analysis, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 156 (1), pp. 52-78: 54-55

publication ID 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2008.00479.x


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Diagnosis: Body cylindrical, tapering slightly posteriorly, without clear demarcation between prosome and urosome; body ornate with series of produced conical processes, each bearing unmodified sensilla apically. Cephalothorax with two to three pairs of lateral and two pairs of dorsal conical processes. Second pair of dorsal cephalothoracic processes branched. Thoracic somites bearing P2–P5 each with paired dorsal conical processes; P6-bearing somite (genital half of double-somite in female) without produced processes. First abdominal somite (abdominal half of double-somite in female) and second abdominal somite with basally fused pair of divergent, conical processes. Remaining integumental sensilla modified, branched. Somatic hyaline frills weakly developed and smooth. Body somites, swimming legs, P5 and furcal rami with conspicuous tube-pores. Anal operculum rounded with fine setules. Furcal rami elongate and divergent, with seven setae; setae I and II inserted in median third of ramus, seta III sub-distal; seta IV reduced, fused basally to seta V; seta V well developed, pinnate; seta VI reduced; seta VII inserted in median third of ramus, triarticulate at base. Sexual dimorphism in body size, degree of development of cephalothoracic posterodorsal processes and dorsal processes of P2–P3 bearing somites, rostrum size, antennule, P3 endopod, P5, P6, genital segmentation and abdominal ornamentation.

Rostrum moderate in size, discernible in dorsal aspect; fused to cephalic shield; with paired bulbous membranous projections proximal to sensilla; with long distinctive midventral tube-pore subdistally. Antennule four-segmented in female, eightsegmented and subchirocer in male (with three segments distal to geniculation); aesthetasc arising from segments 3 and 4 in female, segments 5 and 8 in male; segment 2 (both sexes) with one subapical anterior seta arising from distinctive spinous projection. Antenna with allobasis showing partial suture along exopodal margin, abexopodal margin with two setae of which endopodal one reduced; exopod entirely absent; endopod with three lateral and six distal elements (two spines and three geniculate setae, longest one fused basally to tiny naked seta). Mandible with robust coxa bearing short pinnate dorsal seta; palp one-segmented, uniramous with two to four setae. Maxillule with one element on coxal endite; basis with three elements on proximal endite; exopod and endopod completely incorporated into basis, each represented by one seta. Maxillary syncoxa with two well-developed endites, each with one to two elements; allobasis drawn out into claw with three accessory elements; endopod minute with two setae. Maxilliped subchelate, slender; syncoxa without armature; endopod drawn out into long narrow, curved claw with one reduced accessory seta.

P1–P4. Intercoxal sclerites wide and narrow; praecoxae moderately developed; coxa small, quadrangular, bases extremely transversely elongate. P1 exopod three-segmented; exp 3 with three to five geniculate setae; endopod absent, original position indicated by slightly membranous area. P2–P4 exopods threesegmented; endopods absent (P2), one to twosegmented (P 3 female and P 4 male); P2–P4 exp 2 with or without inner seta. P3 endopod male threesegmented; enp 2 elongate, dorsal surface produced distally into recurved apophysis; enp 3 with two apical setae. Armature formula (based on Echinopsyllus normani   ):

Exopod 1 Exopod 2 Exopod 3 P1 I:0 I:0 II:2:0 P2 I;0 I:1 II:2:0 P3 I:0 I;1 II:2:0

I:0 I:1 II:2:0 P4 I:0 I:1 II:2:0

P5 biramous in both sexes; basal setophore elongate; endopodal lobe of variable shape and ornamentation, with enp being fused or not to basis. Female genital field located dorsally; gonopores covered by common, unarmed genital operculum derived from medially fused P6, with one seta on either side. Male P6 asymmetrical; without armature; functional member represented by small membranous flap.

Type species: Echinopsyllus normani Sars, 1909   .

Locus typicus: Korshaven, Norway ( Conroy-Dalton, 2003a).

Additional species: Echinopsyllus brasiliensis   sp. nov.., Echinopsyllus nogueirae   sp. nov., Echinopsyllus grohmannae   sp. nov.