Galaxias olidus Günther, 1866, Gunther, 1866

Raadik, Tarmo A., 2014, Fifteen from one: a revision of the Galaxias olidus Günther, 1866 complex (Teleostei, Galaxiidae) in south-eastern Australia recognises three previously described taxa and describes 12 new species, Zootaxa 3898 (1), pp. 1-198: 92-111

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3898.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:11B5F959-3AB3-41C0-9B6C-E066AADD2593

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/B44587A4-FFB3-1613-FF32-FF3BFEADF9F1

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Galaxias olidus Günther, 1866
status

 

Galaxias olidus Günther, 1866  

Mountain Galaxias  

Tables 4 to 9, 12, 29 & 30; Figures 21 View FIGURE 21 to 24

Galaxias olidus Günther, 1866: 209   (holotype: BMNH.2.13.24; type locality:? Queensland) [see Appendix 1 for text of original description];— Krefft, 1871: 768; Macleay, 1880: 46; Macleay, 1881: 230; 1885; Ogilby, 1886: 54; Helms, 1890: 12 (partim); Ogilby, 1896: 66 (partim); Regan, 1906: 381; Zeitz, 1908: 297 (partim); Waite, 1921: 41 (partim); Waite, 1923; 62 (partim); McCulloch, 1922: 18; Waite, 1924: 483 (partim); McCulloch & Whitley, 1925: 133; McCulloch, 1927: 18; Hale, 1928: 25 (partim); McCulloch, 1929: 48; Johnson & Mawson, 1940; 1944; Stokell, 1947: 671; Whitley, 1956b: 39; 1956c: 34; Frankenberg, 1966: 23; Greenham, 1967; Morrissy, 1967; Greenham, 1968; Frankenberg, 1969: 170 (partim); Harasymiw, 1970; Andrews, 1973: 105; Pollard, 1974: 117; Dixon, 1976: 111; Grant, 1975: 564; Andrews, 1976: 318: Jackson, 1976: 14; Tilzey, 1976; Bishop, 1977: 53; Bishop & Tilzey, 1978: 14; Cadwallader, 1978; Lake, 1978: 24, image p. 105; Bishop, 1979; Cadwallader, 1979 (partim); Fletcher, 1979 (partim); Cadwallader et al., 1980: 257 (partim); McDowall, 1980: 57 (partim); McDowall & Frankenberg, 1981: 469 (partim); Cadwallader & Backhouse, 1983: 69 (partim); Ealey et al., 1983: 44 (partim); Llewellyn, 1983: 11 (partim); Merrick & Schmida, 1984: 85 (partim); Rimmer & Merrick, 1984; Blyth & Jackson (1985) (partim); Campbell et al., 1986: 95 (partim); Lloyd & Walker, 1986 (partim); Rich, 1986 (partim); Terzis, 1986 (partim); Leggett & Merrick, 1987: 92 (partim); Morison & Anderson, 1987: 7 (partim); Allen, 1988: 3; Cowden, 1988; Allen, 1989: 39, plate 18 (partim); Drayson, 1989; Marshall, 1989: image p. 223; Jones et al., 1990; Lintermans & Rutzou, 1990; Lintermans et al., 1990: 11; Morison & Anderson (1991) (partim); Wager, 1993: 6, 16; Green & Osbourne, 1994: 124 (partim); Rutzou et al., 1994; Close, 1995; Brinkley, 1996; McDowall & Fulton, 1996: 55 (partim); Schiller et al., 1997: 75 (partim); Turvey & Merrick, 1997: 134; Cashner et al. (1999); Laws, 1999; Bromhead et al., 2000: 732; Lintermans, 2000a,b; McDowall, 2001: 396 (partim); O’Connor et al., 2001; Raadik, 2001: 785 (partim), bottom and two uppermost images p. 785, second bottom image p. 786, bottom and top two images p. 787, lower two images p. 788; Raadik et al., 2001 (partim); Koehn (2002) (partim); Lintermans, 2002: 24; Raadik & Kuiter, 2002: 830 (partim); Waters et al., 2002b; 51 (partim); Allen et al., 2003: 103 (partim); Lintermans & Osbourne, 2002; 26; McDowall, 2003a: 364 (partim); Kuiter 2004; Pollino et al. 2004 (partim); Coughran, 2005: 43; Raadik, 2005; 104, 105 (partim): Green, 2006: 14; Lintermans, 2007: 44 (partim); Davies et al., 2008: 338; Green, 2008: (partim); Hammer et al., 2009; 93 (partim); Howell & Creese, 2010: 14; Kuiter, 2011: 618; Lieschke et al. 2013a,b.

Galaxias schomburgkii Peters, 1868: 455   (syntypes: (2) ZMB 6788; type locality: Adelaide district, South Australia) [see Appendix 1 for text of original description];— Macleay, 1880: 47; Ogilby, 1896: 69; Regan, 1906: 382; McCulloch, 1929: 49; Stokell, 1947: 671; Whitley, 1956b: 39; Whitley, 1956c: 34; Munro, 1957: 16; Whitley, 1957a: 7; 1964: 35; Lake, 1971: 20; Scott et al., 1974: 78; McDowall & Frankenberg, 1981: 469.

Galaxias bongbong Macleay, 1881: 233   (original syntypes: (10) MAMU F.82; now lectotype: (1) AMS I.16258-002; paralectotypes: (6) AMS I.16258-001, 3 missing; type locality: Moss Vale and rivers at Bong-bong, New South Wales) [see Appendix 1 for text of original description];— Tenison-Woods, 1882: 22; Ogilby, 1886: 55; Ogilby,1896: 60; Waite, 1904: 17; Regan, 1906: 382: McCulloch, 1921: 28; McCulloch, 1922: 18; McCulloch, 1927: 18; McCulloch & Whitley, 1927: 18; McCulloch, 1929: 49; Whitley, 1934: 668; Whitely, 1939: 268 (partim); Whitley, 1941: 4, plate i, fig. 4; Whitley, 1954: 29; 1956b: 39; 1956c: 34; Munro, 1957: 16; Whitley, 1957a: 7; 1964: 35; Greenham, 1967, Lake, 1967a: 14; Lake, 1967b: 196; Greenham, 1968: 846; Stanbury, 1968: 205; Llewellyn, 1969: 16; Dick, 1971; Lake, 1971: 20; Llewellyn, 1971: 3; Berra, 1973: 363; McDowall & Frankenberg, 1981: 472.

Galaxias findlayi Macleay, 1882: 107   (syntypes: (2) MAMU (unregistered) lost; type locality: Mount Kosciuszko, New South Wales) [see Appendix 1 for text of original description];— Tenison-Woods, 1882: 107; Ogilby, 1886: 55; 1896: 66 (partim); Waite, 1904: 17; Regan, 1906: 382; Stead, 1906: 50; McCulloch, 1914: 328; Gale, 1915: 16; McCulloch, 1921: 28; McCulloch, 1922: 18; McCulloch, 1927: 18; McCulloch, 1929: 49; Walford, 1940: 234; Stokell, 1945: 124; Costin, 1954: 97; Whitley, 1956b: 39; McCulloch, 1956c: 34; Munro, 1957: 17; Whitley, 1957a: 7; 1964: 35; Frankenberg, 1969: 329; Tilzey, 1970: 13; Lake, 1971: 20; Thomson, 1974: 151; Baker, 1978: 822; McDowall & Frankenberg, 1981: 472; Raadik & Kuiter, 2002: 830 (partim).

Galaxias kayi Ramsay & Ogilby, 1886: 6   (syntypes: (6) AMS I.5–7; (2) BMNH 1905.7.29.31 (originally AMS I.3); (1—originally 2, 1 now lost) MCZ.27560 (originally AMS I.4); type locality: Fifth Creek, South Australia) [see Appendix 1 for text of original description];— Ogilby, 1896: 70; Regan, 1906: 381, plate XI fig. 3; McCulloch, 1929: 48; Stokell, 1945: 25; 1947: 671; Whitley, 1956b: 34; Whitley, 1957b: 57, 58 fig. 2; Whitley, 1957a: 7; Munro, 1957: 17; Scott, 1962: 68; Whitley, 1964: 35; Lake, 1971: 20; Scott et al., 1974: 77; McDowall & Frankenberg, 1981: 472.

Galaxias findlayi   (non G. findlayi Macleay, 1882   )— Ogilby, 1896: 66 (partim) [see Appendix 1 for text of revision]; Regan, 1906: 382, plate XIII fig. 3 (partim); Tadgell, 1930; 230; Whitley, 1959: 136; Littlejohn, 1962: 311.

Galaxias oconnori Ogilby, 1912: 33   (holotype: QM I.321; type locality: Lyra, near Stanthorpe, Queensland) [see Appendix 1 for text of original description];— McCulloch & Whitley, 1925: 133; McCulloch, 1929: 49; Duhig, 1930: xvi; Whitley, 1933: 61, plate xii, fig. 3; Whitley, 1955: 154, fig. 2; Whitley, 1956b: 39; Whitley, 1956c: 7; Whitley, 1957a: 34; Munro, 1957: 17; Lake, 1971: 20; McDowall & Frankenberg, 1981: 472; Raadik & Kuiter, 2002: 830 (partim).

Galaxias coxii   (non Galaxias coxii Macleay, 1881   )— Walford, 1928: 274; Gray, 1929: 140; Whitley, 1935: 51; Walford, 1941: 234; 1942: 56; Whitley 1957c: 10; Garnet, 1959: 213; Littlejohn, 1962; Breder & Rosen, 1966: 132; Tilzey, 1974: 7.

Galaxias ornatus   (non G. ornatus Castelnau, 1873   )— Butcher, 1946: 9 (partim).

Lyragalaxias oconnori   — Whitley, 1935: plate III fig. 5; Scott, 1966: 250.

Galaxias olidus findlayi ( Macleay, 1882)   — Frankenberg, 1969: 171 (partim).

Galaxias schomburghii   — Lake, 1971: 20 (mis-spelling of Galaxias schomburgkii Peters, 1868   ).

Galaxias brevipinnis   (non G. brevipinnis Günther, 1866   )— Lake, 1978: image p. 106; Green, 1979: 230. Galaxias sp.   — Kuiter, 2004: 70 (images).

Galaxias sp. 4   — Kuiter, 2013: 48.

Galaxias sp. 5   — Kuiter, 2013: 52.

Galaxias sp. 6   — Kuiter, 2013: 54.

Galaxias sp. 7   — Kuiter, 2013: 56.

Galaxias sp. 8   — Kuiter, 2013: 58.

Galaxias   form G– Raadik, 2005; 104.

Galaxias   form H– Raadik, 2005; 104.

Conforms to the allozymically defined and morphologically diagnosed taxon ‘OL’ of Adams et al. (2014), and ‘olidus’ of Raadik (2011).

Material Examined.

Holotype. BMNH 1866.2.13.24 (1), 101.6 mm LCF (88.5 mm SL), sex undetermined,? Queensland, G. Krefft, ca. 1866.  

Other type material. AMS I.5–7 (6), BMNH 1905.7.29.31 (3) (digital image seen), and MCZ.27560 (1) (digital image seen), syntypes of Galaxias kayi, Fifth Creek, SA   ; AMS I.16258-002 (1), lectotype, and AMS I.16258-001 (6), paralectotype, of Galaxias bongbong, Moss Vale   and rivers at Bong Bong, NSW; QM I.321 (1) [disintegrated], holotype of Galaxias oconnori, Lyra   , near Stanthorpe, QLD; ZMB 6788 (2), syntypes of Galaxias schomburgkii   (digital images seen), Adelaide district, SA;

Non-type material. ACT: NMV A.30088-1 (15), 78.7–100.0 mm LCF (70.1–89.1 mm SL), Gibralter Creek , just above Gibralter Falls, off Corin Dam Road, 35° 29' 16”S 148° 56' 04”E, TAR and M. Lintermans, 12 March 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30159-1 (16), 69.8–96.2 mm LCF (61.2–85.0 mm SL), Kangaroo Creek , Corin Dam Road, Namadgi National Park, upstream of reservoir, 35° 32' 18”S 148° 52' 10”E, TAR and M. Lintermans, 11 March 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30115-1 (15), 67.9–99.3 mm LCF (60.0– 88.5 mm SL), Naas Creek , Mount Clear campsite, downstream of Boboyan Road, Namadgi National Park, 35° 51' 51”S 149° 00' 41”E, TAR and M. Lintermans, 11 March 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30073-1 (16), 46.5–74.1 mm LCF (40.5–65.5 mm SL), Pierces Creek , Concrete Crossing, Vanity's Crossing Road, 35° 20' 21”S 148° 54' 54”E, TAR and M. Lintermans, 12 March 2002 GoogleMaps   . NSW: (II, 03) NMV A.30097-1 (15), 49.5–71.7 mm LCF (43.8–63.8 mm SL), Brindle Creek , Brindle Creek Road , Border Ranges N.P., World Heritage Area, 28° 22' 40”S 153° 04' 08”E, TAR, 9 December 2001; (II, 04) GoogleMaps   NMV A.30092- 2 (6), 59.7–70.9 mm LCF (53.1–63.1 mm SL), Aberfoyle River , Wards Mistake Road, E of Guyra, 30° 11' 25”S 151° 46' 37”E, TAR, 5 December 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30052-1 (4), 63.1–74.7 mm LCF (55.5–66.3 mm SL), Backwater Creek , Backwater Road, NE of Guyra, 30° 03' 59”S 151° 53' 02”E, TAR, 6 December 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30147-1 (6), 71.9–78.4 mm LCF (63.8–69.6 mm SL), Barney Downs Creek , Billarimba Road, E of Tenterfield, 29° 05' 26”S 152° 05' 34”E, TAR, 7 December 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30114-1 (6), 50.8–56.8 mm LCF (45.1–50.3 mm SL), Basket Swamp Creek , Basket Swamp Falls, Boonoo State Forest, 28° 54' 40”S 152° 10' 32”E, TAR, 5 October 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30155-1 (4), 52.0– 55.4 mm LCF (46.3–49.6 mm SL), Bielsdown River , off Billings Road, at junction with Matthews Creek, 30° 18' 11”S 152° 42' 42”E, TAR, 27 June 2005 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30068-1 (3), 52.2–55.1 mm LCF (46.3–49.0 mm SL), Bielsdown River , Coramba / Dorrigo Road, E of Dorrigo, d/s of Dangar Falls, 30° 18' 22”S 152° 42' 53”E, TAR, 9 December 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30041-1 (10), 64.8–79.2 mm LCF (57.0– 70.6 mm SL), Bielsdown River , Shepherds Road, SW of Dorrigo, 30° 21' 27”S 152°309' 27”E, TAR, 13/9/2003   ; NMV A.30117- 1 (5), 63.3–89.8 mm LCF (56.2–80.3 mm SL), Bielsdown River , same loc. as NMV A.30041-1, TAR, 28 June 2005   ; NMV A.30070-1 (13), 58.2–71.9 mm LCF (51.6–64.3 mm SL), Blicks River , Armidale / Grafton Road, Dundurrabin, 30° 11' 39”S 152° 32' 42”E, 10 October 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30072-1 (1), 64.0 mm LCF (56.2 mm SL), Boonoo Boonoo River , Mount Lindsay Highway, N of Tenterfield, 28° 52' 46”S 152° 06' 14”E, TAR, 5 October 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30036-1 (6), 55.1–68.4 mm LCF (49.7–60.4 mm SL), Borra Creek , off track off Borra Creek Road, S of Bostobrick, 30° 18' 50”S 152° 36' 60”E, TAR, 11 September 2003 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30096-1 (12), 69.3–82.6 mm LCF (61.4–73.6 mm SL), Borra Creek , McInodes Road, NE of Deer Vale, 30° 19' 57”S 152° 33' 54”E, TAR, 11 September 2003 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30098-1 (5), 54.2–56.0 mm LCF (47.2–49.7 mm SL), Charon Creek , Sheep Station Road, W of Dundurrabin, 30° 11' 37”S 152° 32' 13”E, TAR, 10 October 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30009-1 (1), 46.8 mm LCF (41.4 mm SL), Chinamans Creek , Sheep Station Creek Road, W of Dundurrabin, 30° 11' 40”S 152° 32' 21”E, I. Wooden, 2000; NMV A.30045-1 (4), 46.1–56.2 mm LCF (40.5–49.4 mm SL), Coopernook Creek , Dorrigo / Coramba Road, W of Megan, Dorrigo N.P., 30° 17' 33”S 152° 49' 44”E, TAR, 16 September 2004 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30007- 1 (5), 50.2–64.0 mm LCF (44.0– 56.9 mm SL), Coopernook Creek , same loc. as NMV A.30045-1, 28 June 2005   ; NMV A.30577-1 (1), 48.8 mm LCF (42.6 mm SL), Eve Creek , Coramba Road , W of Brooklana, 30° 16' 34”S 152° 50' 20”E, TAR, 12 September, 2003; NMV A.30102-1 (18), 74.3–103.9 mm LCF (65.8–93.1 mm SL), Guy Fawkes River , Armidale / Grafton Road , Ebor, u/s of Ebor Falls, 30° 24' 15”S 152° 20' 51”E, TAR, 10 October 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30051-1 (5), 56.7–64.9 mm LCF (50.1–57.2 mm SL), Little Murray River , Deer Vale Road, W of Dorrigo, 30° 19' 29”S 152° 38' 07”E, TAR, 11 September 2003 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30008-1 (2), 49.6–57.3 mm LCF (43.4–49.3 mm SL), Little Nymboida River , Lowanna Road, Lowanna, 30° 12' 46”S 152° 54' 07”E, TAR, 12 September 2003 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30193-1 (3), 56.4–66.2 mm LCF (50.0– 58.6 mm SL), Little Plain Creek , Dorrigo / North Dorrigo Road, North Dorrigo, 30° 17' 41”S 152° 41' 07”E, TAR, 17 September 2004 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30066-1 (3), 63.5–69.4 mm LCF (56.4–61.3 mm SL), Mann River , Streeter Road, E of Ben Lomond, d/s of Lake Llanglothlin, 30° 02' 03”S 151° 44' 16”E, TAR, 6 December 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30153-1 (1), 58.1 mm LCF (51.8 mm SL), Oban River , Backwater Road, Oban, 30° 07' 10”S 151° 51' 24”E, TAR, 6 December 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30044-1 (7), 47.4–53.0 mm LCF (42.2–46.8 mm SL), Rocky Creek , road past rubbish tip, Dorrigo, 30° 20' 19”S 152° 44' 01”E, TAR, 17 September 2004 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30075-1 (15), 51.4–63.9 mm LCF (45.4–54.9 mm SL), Rocky Creek , Dorrigo / Bellingen Road, S of Dorrigo, 30° 21' 56”S 152° 43' 16”E, TAR, 9 October 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30152-1 (1), 55.8 mm LCF (49.8 mm SL), Ropers Gully , road to Boonoo Boonoo Falls, Boonoo Boonoo N.P., 28° 51' 54”S 152° 08' 35”E, TAR, 7 December 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30229-1 (15), 48.0– 57.5 mm LCF (42.9–50.8 mm SL), Snowy Creek , trib., off Round Mountain Road, Cathedral Rock N.P., 30° 26' 17”S 152° 17' 09”E, TAR, 17 September 2004 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30154-1 (2), 60.9–62.6 mm LCF (54.0– 55.9 mm SL), Swamp Oak Creek , Billarimba Road, E of Tenterfield, 29° 05' 41”S 152° 07' 21”E, TAR, 7 December 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30144-1 (13), 63.9–74.8 mm LCF (56.5–66.7 mm SL), Wallaby Creek , border with Tooloom N.P., off Wallaby Creek fire trail, 28° 28' 33”S 152° 26' 06”E, TAR, 4 October 2001; (II, 06) GoogleMaps   NMV A.30166-1 (8), 66.2–86.8 mm LCF (59.1–77.0 mm SL), Apsley River , off Walcha / Brackendale Road, S of Walcha, 31° 09' 59”S 151° 37' 35”E, TAR, 14 September 2003 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30219-1 (5), 68.9–81.5 mm LCF (61.4–71.7 mm SL), Gara River , Herbert Park Road, Herbert Park, 30° 24' 32”S 151° 49' 21”E, TAR, 10 October 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30156-1 (1), 63.4 mm LCF (56.2 mm SL), Gara River , Ebor / Guyra Road, E of Guyra, upstream of Malpas Dam, 30° 12' 41”S 151° 43' 40”E, TAR, 11 October 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30223-1 (15), 69.6–83.9 mm LCF (61.9–74.8 mm SL), Oaky River , road in Cathedral N.P., SW of Ebor, 30° 26' 40”S 152° 16' 09”E, TAR, 10 December 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30027-1 (1), 60.7 mm LCF (53.5 mm SL), Oaky River , same loc. as NMV A.30223-1, TAR, 17 September 2004   ; NMV A.30576-1 (1), 55.9 mm LCF (50.8 mm SL), Styx River , Jeogla stream gauge, Lower Creek Road, 30° 35' 42”S 152° 09' 48”E, C. Gallen and M. Rogers, 27 May 2003 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30217-1 (15), 49.5–81.8 mm LCF (43.8–72.7 mm SL), Styx River , bridge on walking track at ' Tom's Cabin' , on road to Point Lookout, New England N.P., 30° 29' 48”S 152° 23' 53”E, TAR, 27 June 2005 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30211-1 (11), 58.1–73.6 mm LCF (51.3–64.6 mm SL), Warnes River , Kangaroo Flat Road, E of Yarrowitch, 31° 13' 05”S 152° 05' 27”E, TAR, 11 December 2001; (II, 07) GoogleMaps   NMV A.30157-1 (5), 58.1–61.4 mm LCF (51.1–54.7 mm SL), Fenwicks Creek , Oxley Highway, SE of Yarrowitch, 31° 17' 56”S 151° 58' 44”E, TAR, 11 December 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30150-1 (1), 77.0 mm LCF (68.4 mm SL), Mooraback Creek , track past Mooraback Field Study Centre, Werrikimbe N.P., 31° 08' 45”S 152° 13' 12”E, TAR, 11 December 2001; (II, 12) GoogleMaps   NMV A.30203-1 (8), 64.3–85.0 mm LCF (56.6–75.9 mm SL), Coxs River , Coxs River Road, S of Lithgow, 33° 37' 05”S 150° 09' 42”E, TAR, 6 September 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30202-1 (14), 59.6–100.8 mm LCF (52.3–89.8 mm SL), Govetts Creek , off Mount Street , Leura, Blue Mountains, 33° 41' 56”S 150° 20' 02”E, TAR, 5 September 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30216-1 (15), 44.2–72.2 mm LCF (38.5–63.9 mm SL), Jamieson Creek , off end of William Avenue, Wentworth Falls, upstream of the falls, 33° 42' 47”S 150° 22' 27”E, 5 September 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30213-1 (17), 65.1–82.7 mm LCF (57.3–73.1 mm SL), Katoomba Creek , u/s of the cascades, in Katoomba Park, Katoomba, 33° 43' 28”S 150° 18' 17”E, TAR, 5 September 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30192-1 (1), 76.5 mm LCF (67.8 mm SL), Leura Falls Creek , Leura Cascades , off Cliff Drive, Leura, 33° 43' 09”S 150°19' 23”E, TAR, 5 September 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30212-1 (12), 31.9–77.6 mm LCF (27.8–68.2 mm SL), Little River, Tourist Road, Mount Murray, 34° 32' 42”S 150° 37' 09”E, TAR, 4 September 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30208-1 (7), 56.5–63.0 mm LCF (50.1–55.6 mm SL), Nepean River , Moresby Hill Road, 34° 32' 35”S 150° 34' 57”E, TAR, 18 September 2003 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30201-1 (16), 61.3–100.0 mm LCF (54.5–90.4 mm SL), Pulpit Hill Creek , Blackheath Glen Reserve , off Megalong Valley Road, upstream of Megalong, 33° 40' 31”S 150° 16' 08”E, TAR, 6 September 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30204-1 (4), 63.7–78.2 mm LCF (55.7–68.9 mm SL), Reedy Creek , Ferndale Road, W of Bundanoon, 34° 38' 52”S 150° 16' 51”E, TAR, 4 September 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30205-1 (11), 42.9–67.2 mm LCF (37.5–58.9 mm SL), Wingecarribee River ( Caalang Crk ), off end of Burrawang Street, Robertson, 34° 35' 13”S 150° 35' 25”E, TAR, 18 September 2003 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30200-1 (7), 61.3–80.7 mm LCF (53.7–71.7 mm SL), Wollondilly Rive , Roslyn Road, SE of Crookwell, 34° 27' 51”S 149° 33' 25”E, TAR, 4 September 2002; (II, 14) GoogleMaps   NMV A.30148-1 (14), 41.1–80.1 mm LCF (35.9–71.3 mm SL), Macquarie Rivulet , Illawarra Highway, S of Mount Murray, Illawarra Range, 34° 34' 45”S 150° 37' 44”E, TAR, 4 September 2002; (II, 15) GoogleMaps   NMV A.30215-1 (9), 53.2–94.1 mm LCF (46.5–83.8 mm SL), Barrengarry Creek , Belmore Falls Road, u/ s of Belmore Falls, S of Robertson, 34° 36' 14”S 150° 35' 06”E, TAR, 4 September 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30132-1 (15), 43.2–73.5 mm LCF (37.7–65.1 mm SL), Gillamatong Creek , Boppings Crossing Road, Braidwood, 34° 26' 30”S 149° 46' 46”E, TAR, 13 March 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30194-1 (1), 55.2mm LCF (49.4 mm SL), Jerrabattgulla Creek , Hereford Hall Road, Kain, 35° 43' 56”S 149° 34' 15”E, 13 March 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30207-1 (1), 59.5 mm LCF (51.6 mm SL), Sandy Creek , Meryla Road, Morton N.P., S of Moss Vale, 34° 40' 14”S 150° 22' 57”E, TAR, 4 September 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30130-1 (11), 43.0– 53.3 mm LCF (38.6–47.7 mm SL), Shoalhaven River , Warri Bridge, Kings Highway, NW of Braidwood, 35° 20' 33”S 149° 44' 17”E, TAR, 13 March 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30214-1 (12), 56.2–63.9 mm LCF (50.3–56.6 mm SL), Witts Creek , Krawarree Road, N of Toggannaggra, 35° 36' 34”S 149° 37' 02”E, P. Close and G. Aland, 20 June 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30133-1 (7), 54.0– 66.7 mm LCF (47.5–59.0 mm SL), Witts Creek , same loc. as NMV A.3021401, TAR, 13 March 2002; (II, 17)   NMV A.30209-1 (10), 51.0– 74.8 mm LCF (45.2–67.0 mm SL), Majors Creek , Braidwood / Majors Creek Road, just N of Majors Creek, 35° 33' 27”S 149° 45' 09”E, TAR, 13 March 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30134-1 (15), 51.7–82.7 mm LCF (45.6–72.7 mm SL), Stony Creek , Araluen North / Braidwood Road, SE of Majors Creek, 35° 35' 05”S 149° 48' 14”E, TAR, 13 March 2002; (IV, 01) GoogleMaps   NMV A.30026-1 (2), 75.7–90.9 mm LCF (67.3–80.3 mm SL), Bogong Creek , d/s of diversion weir, at end of Bourkes Gorge Road, Kosciuszko N.P., 36° 15' 11”S 148° 15' 33”E, G. Gillespie, 12 February 1994 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.29978-1 (15), 69.5–98.7 mm LCF (61.0– 86.9 mm SL), Bogong Creek , same loc. as NMV A.30026-1, TAR, 17 March 2002   ; NMV A.30010-1 (2), 62.8–92.6 mm LCF (54.7–80.2 mm SL), Cootapatamba Lake , outlet from lake, Mt. Kosciuszko N.P., 36° 27' 59”S 148° 15' 50”E, K. Green, 9 January 2006 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30164-1 (20), 65.5–105.7 mm LCF (58.1–95.0 mm SL), Deep Creek , end of track off Khancoban / Cabramurra Road , at Snowy Mountains Hydroelectric Scheme adit, Kosciuszko N.P., 36° 00' 34”S 148° 20' 34”E, TAR, 16 March 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30025-1 (5), 45.7–91.3 mm LCF (39.7–80.6 mm SL), Murray River , Cowombat Flat Track , Cowombat Flat, Alpine N.P., 36° 47' 42”S 148° 10' 18”E, TAR, 23 March 2005 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.29960-1 (21), 58.4–126.1 mm LCF (51.3–113.7 mm SL), Three Rocks Creek , Three Rocks Creek diversion weir, Kosciuszko N.P., 36° 20' 18”S 148° 19' 06”E, TAR, 17 March 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30221-1 (4), 88.2–104.2 mm LCF (77.8–92.4 mm SL), Two Mile Creek , Yarara / Coppabella Road, W of Coppabella, 35° 44' 07”S 147° 42' 28”E, TAR, 2 September 2002; (IV, 10) GoogleMaps   NMV A.30118-1 (6), 66.0– 97.3 mm LCF (58.7–86.8 mm SL), Bombowlee Creek , tributary, Billo Road, 35° 14' 60”S 148° 23' 49”E, TAR, 2 September 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30065-1 (15), 46.0– 54.8 mm LCF (40.9–48.9 mm SL), Bredbo River , Capperwidgee Road, E of Bredbo, 35° 59' 43”S 149° 12' 30”E, TAR, 15 March 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30120-1 (20), 66.5–93.0 mm LCF (59.2–82.5 mm SL), Burns Creek , Khancoban / Cabramurra Road , near Bradley's Hut, Kosciuszko National Park, 36° 00' 49”S 148° 22' 50”E, TAR, 16 March 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30040-1 (17), 51.3–93.0 mm LCF (45.3–82.2 mm SL), Flea Creek, Powerline Road, Brindabella National Park, 35° 17' 15”S 148° 47' 27”E, TAR, 2 September 2002 GoogleMaps   ; AMS I.43384-001 (3), 49.2–61.2 mm LCF (42.7–54.5 mm SL), Kybeyan River , "The Avenue", SE from Cooma, 36° 19' 26”S 149° 24' 19”E, K. Pogonoski and R. Farragher, 22 June 2004 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.29984-2 (11), 57.6–110.7 mm LCF (50.2–98.8 mm SL), Morris Creek , Snowy Mountains Highway, N of Talbingo, 35° 31' 52”S 148° 17' 35”E, TAR, 16 March 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.29981-2 (13), 51.9–76.7 mm LCF (46.1–67.6 mm SL), Mountain Creek , Sawyers Gully Road, E of Wee Jasper, 35° 04' 44”S 148° 48' 16”E, TAR, 2 September 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30064-1 (5), 60.4–82.1 mm LCF (52.7–72.3 mm SL), Murrumbateman Creek , Kiers Road, E of Murrumbateman, 34° 57' 23”S 149° 04' 38”E, TAR, 3 September 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.10385 (20), 56.6–71.3 mm LCF (50.7–63.9 mm SL), Tibeaudo Creek ( Happy Jacks Creek ), Happy Jacks Road, 1.3 km NW of McKeahnies Creek, Kosciuszko National Park, 36° 03' 21”S 148° 29' 45”E, R.J. Frankenberg, 9 March 1966 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30043-1 (9), 62.3–76.9 mm LCF (54.0– 67.8 mm SL), Yass River , Yass River Road, W of Bellmount Forest, 34° 55' 15”S 149° 10' 21”E, TAR, 3 September 2002; (IV, 11) GoogleMaps   NMV A.30063-1 (16), 41.2–97.0 mm LCF (36.0– 85.2 mm SL), Butmaroo Creek (Deep Creek), Kings Highway, E of Bungendore, 35° 15' 24”S 149° 32' 11”E, TAR, 12 March 2002; (IV, 12) GoogleMaps   NMV A.30034-1 (17), 52.5–78.1 mm LCF (45.8–68.3 mm SL), Abercrombie River , Oberon / Goulburn Road, S of Paling Yards, 34° 11' 38”S 149° 44' 15”E, TAR, 3 September 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30091-1 (3), 70.6–78.6 mm LCF (61.6–68.8 mm SL), Belubula River , off track at Carcoar, downstream of Lake Carcoar, 33° 36' 44”S 149° 08' 24”E, TAR, 10 September 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30042-1 (17), 54.3–70.9 mm LCF (47.9–62.1 mm SL), Bolong Creek , Golspie Road, NE of Laggan, 34° 17' 50”S 149° 37' 35”E, TAR, 3 September 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30112-1 (1), 87.2 mm LCF (77.2 mm SL), Burrangong Creek , Lirambenda Lane, NNW of Young, 34° 05' 13”S 148° 09' 51”E, TAR, 10 September 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30067-1 (5), 60.8–74.1 mm LCF (54.0– 74.1 mm SL), Cadiangullong Creek , Panuara Road, 33° 30' 39”S 148° 58' 48”E, TAR, 9 September 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30109-1 (17), 53.2–96.3 mm LCF (46.0– 85.6 mm SL), Mandagery Creek , Sullivans Road, N of Manildra, 33° 08' 21”S 148° 43' 16”E, TAR, 9 September 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30101-1 (1), 72.1 mm LCF (62.9 mm SL), Murringo Creek , Fishers Lane , off Chews Lane, Murringo Gap, 34° 13' 47”S 148° 28' 43”E, TAR, 10 September 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30053-1 (13), 53.1–85.7 mm LCF (44.9–75.5 mm SL), Terarra Creek , 1.0 km downstream from Dripping Rock , on Terarra Creek Track, Nangar N.P., 33° 25' 08”S 148° 30' 11”E, TAR, 9 September 2002; (IV, 16) GoogleMaps   NMV A.30033-1 (15), 49.0– 72.8 mm LCF (43.0– 64.8 mm SL), Deepwater River , Ten Mile Road, E of Deepwater, 29° 26' 28”S 152° 00' 38”E, TAR, 7 December 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30069-1 (10), 66.4–89.6 mm LCF (58.6–79.6 mm SL); Five Mile Creek , Spiraby Road, Copoompeta N.P., S of Sandy Flat, 29° 20' 41”S 152° 02' 25”E, TAR, 7 December 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30035-1 (6), 84.2–92.2 mm LCF (75.4–82.5 mm SL); Macintyre River , Elsmore Road, near Paradise Creek, SE of Inverell, 29° 53' 60”S 151° 24' 09”E, TAR, 6 December 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30055-1 (7), 66.3–79.9 mm LCF (58.4–70.7 mm SL); MacIntyre River , same loc. as NMV A.30035-1,, TAR, 10 September 2003   ; NMV A.30106-1 (11), Mayboll Creek , Glen Innes / Maybole Road, N of Ben Lomond, 29° 53' 25”S 151° 37' 36”E, TAR, 11 October 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30095-1 (2), 79.1–83.9 mm LCF (70.8–75.4 mm SL), Mayboll Creek , same loc. as NMV A.30106-1, TAR, 10 September 2003   ; NMV A.30105-1 (2), 74.9–78.5 mm LCF (66.6–70.3 mm SL), Severn River , Morvern Road, E of Dundee, 29° 35' 19”S 151° 58' 01”E, TAR, 11 October 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30090-2 (6), 61.9–80.6 mm LCF (55.2–72.9 mm SL), Tenterfield Creek , Scrub Road, upstream of Tenterfield, 29° 05' 44”S 152° 02' 07”E, TAR, 5 October 2001; (IV, 18) GoogleMaps   NMV A.30093-1 (10), 65.7–94.5 mm LCF (58.9–84.5 mm SL), Abington Creek , Boorlong Road, W of Guyra, 30° 20' 00”S 151° 26' 31”E, TAR, 5 December 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30082-1 (3), 77.7–86.5 mm LCF (69.7–77.9 mm SL), Forest Creek , Gulf Creek Road, SW of Gulf Creek, 30° 13' 23”S 150° 43' 06”E, TAR, 10 September 2003 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30058-2 (15), 72.8–94.0 mm LCF (64.8–83.4 mm SL), Georges Creek , Guyra / Tingha Road, S of Wandsworth, 30° 06' 15”S 151° 31' 44”E, TAR, 5 December 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30039-1 (7), 69.5–86.6 mm LCF (61.1–76.2 mm SL), Horton River , off Cotswald Road , upstream of Horton Falls, Nandewar Range, 30° 19' 37”S 150° 16' 49”E, TAR, 10 September 2003 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30047-1 (6), 48.8–67.3 mm LCF (42.6–59.6 mm SL), Molong Creek , Balala / Bendemeer Road, W of Uralla, 30° 39' 56”S 151° 16' 59”E, TAR, 4 December 2001; (IV, 19) GoogleMaps   NMV A.30038-1 (6), 54.5–76.6 mm LCF (48.1–67.3 mm SL), Borah Creek , Major Road, W of Upper Manilla, 30° 37' 08”S 150° 30' 54”E, TAR, 3 December 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30094-1 (2), 73.4–74.0 mm LCF (65.4–66.0 mm SL), Corbrabald Creek , Walcha / Nowendoc Road, S of Walcha, 31° 10' 06”S 151° 34' 49”E, TAR, 14 September 2003 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30084-1 (14), 56.3–94.1 mm LCF (52.1–84.2 mm SL), Halls Creek , off Manilla / Bendemeer Road, W of Bendemeer, 30° 50' 56”S 151° 01' 59”E, TAR, 4 December 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30061-1 (14), 61.5–93.4 mm LCF (55.1–83.8 mm SL), MacDonald River , Walcha / Nowendoc Road, S of Walcha, 31° 20' 57”S 151° 32' 03”E, TAR, 14 September 2003 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30122-1 (2), 54.4–101.8 mm LCF (48.0– 91.4 mm SL), Peel River , Wallabadah / Nundle Road, SW of Nundle, 31° 29' 53”S 151° 05' 36”E, TAR, 14 September 2003 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30086-1 (13), 54.4–101.8 mm LCF (48.0– 91.4 mm SL), Peel River , Head of Peel Road, S of Nundle, 31° 35' 12”S 151° 07' 43”E, TAR, 19 September 2004; (IV, 20) GoogleMaps   NMV A.30031-1 (1), 47.2 mm LCF (40.9 mm SL), Castlereagh River , John Renshaw Parkway, W of Coonabarabran, 31° 16' 37”S 149° 05' 54”E, TAR, 12 October 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30059-1 (9), 53.7–78,6 mm LCF (47.5–69.1 mm SL), Castlereagh River , off John Renshaw Parkway, W of Coonabarabran, 31° 16' 51”S 149° 05' 28”E, 3 December 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30056-1 (11), 44.4–52.0 mm LCF (38.7–45.5 mm SL), Shawns Creek , off track off John Renshaw Parkway, W of Coonabarabran, 31° 15' 35”S 149° 06' 39”E, TAR, 3 December 2001; (IV, 21) GoogleMaps   NMV A.30104-1 (1), 58.8 mm LCF (52.6 mm SL), Clear Creek , Clear Creek Road, NE of Bathurst, 33° 19' 37”S 149° 43' 10”E, TAR, 17 September 2003 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30143-1 (11), 52.5–76.2 mm LCF (46.8–68.4 mm SL), Duckmaloi River , Burroughs Crossing, NW of Edith, 33° 46' 14”S 149° 54' 06”E, TAR, 6 September 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30085-1 (12), 58.1–77.8 mm LCF (51.5–68.2 mm SL), Fish River , off Tarana Road, W of Tarana, 33° 31' 09”S 149° 51' 36”E, TAR, 6 September 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30081-1 (10), 48.2–97.3 mm LCF (42.6–86.2 mm SL), Frying Pan Creek , Porters Lane, Yetholme, 33° 26' 51”S 149° 48' 59”E, TAR, 17 September 2003 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30087-1 (2), 68.7–88.7 mm LCF (60.0– 77.5 mm SL), Gulf Stream , u/s of Winburndale Dam, Winburndale Nature Reserve, 33° 23' 18”S 149° 47' 01”E, TAR and I.B. McArtney, 17 September 2003 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30149-1 (2), 62.5–85.6 mm LCF (54.7–76.0 mm SL), Meadow Flat Creek , old Bathurst Road, next to Great Western Highway, W of Meadow Flat, 33° 25' 56”S 149° 55' 16”E, TAR, 17 September 2003 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30060-1 (13), 48.2–107.7 mm LCF (42.0– 96.7 mm SL), Mitchells Creek , junction with Kirconnell Creek, Sunny Corner State Forest, N of Kirconnell, 33° 23' 23”S 149° 50' 21”E, TAR, 17 September 2003 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30145-1 (1), 95.9 mm LCF (83.9 mm SL), Molong Creek , road to Mount Canobolas , upstream of Canobolas Lake, Orange, 33° 06' 33”S 149° 09' 40”E, TAR, 10 September 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30139-1 (7), 72.8–89.2 mm LCF (64.3–78.7 mm SL), Native Dog Creek , Sewells Creek Road, W of Oberon, 33° 43' 24”S 149° 41' 25”E, TAR, 6 September 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30141-1 (7), 64.4–80.0 mm LCF (56.5–71.6 mm SL), Norah Creek , Cumnock / Molong Road, NW of Molong, 33° 00' 46”S 148° 47' 42”E, TAR, 14 December 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV (un reg.) (20), 35.2–90.2 mm LCF (30.5–79.8 mm SL), Norfolk Island Creek , Hildegrad Road, Coolah Tops N.P., 31° 44' 54”S 150° 01' 26”E, TAR, 13 December 2001 GoogleMaps   ; AMS IB.7571 (4), 52.6–77.4 mm LCF (45.4–68.0 mm SL), Saint Anthonys Creek , Napoleans Reef, E of Bathurst, 33° 24' 52”S 149° 44' 51”E, I.B. McCartney, 1966; NMV A.30146-1 (2), 52.6–77.4 mm LCF (45.4–68.0 mm SL), Saint Anthonys Creek, same loc. as AMS IB.7571, TAR, 17 September 2003 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30029-1 (3), 68.7–79.0 mm LCF (59.4–69.2 mm SL), Tindales Flat Creek , Sunny Corner Road, Sunny Corner State Forest, 33° 22' 35”S 149° 51' 56”E, TAR, 17 September 2003 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.25253-2 (3), 55.0– 60.8 mm LCF (47.6–52.0 mm SL), Turon River , Sofala Road, Sofala, 33° 04' 49”S 149° 41' 17”E, PJU, 4 December 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30080-1 (1), 75.6 mm LCF (66.6 mm SL), Winburndale Rivulet , just below Winburndale Dam wall, Winburndale Nature Reserve, 33° 23' 25”S 149° 46' 33”E, TAR and I.B. McArtney, 17 September 2003 GoogleMaps   . QLD: (IV, 16) NMV A.30119-1 (1), 78.8 mm LCF (70.1 mm SL), Accommodation Creek , Pyramids Road , near Girraween N.P, Wyberba, 28° 51' 29”S 151° 52' 26”E, TAR, 4 October 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30054- 1 (3), 66.4–73.6 mm LCF (59.8–65.3 mm SL), Paling Yard Creek , track in Girraween N.P., E of Lyra, 28° 50' 38”S 151° 59' 45”E, TAR, 7 December 2001; (IV, 22) GoogleMaps   NMV A.30100-1 (13), 57.0– 93.3 mm LCF (50.7–82.9 mm SL), Browns Creek , on road to Queen Mary Falls, u/s of Killarney, 28° 21' 12”S 152° 20' 44”E, TAR, 2 October 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30083-1 (9), 59.2–83.7 mm LCF (52.3–74.2 mm SL), Condamine R, eighth crossing on Condamine River Road, u/s of Killarney, 28° 17' 42”S 152° 21' 27”E, TAR, 2 October 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30099-1 (7), 57.1–78.4 mm LCF (50.6–69.2 mm SL), Condamine River , tenth crossing upstream on Condamine River Road, u/s of Killarney, 28° 17' 36”S 152° 22' 18”E, TAR, 2 October 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30077-1 (16), Dalrymple Creek , end of track in Goomburra State Forest Park, 27° 58' 49”S 152° 20' 51”E, TAR, 3 October 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30049-1 (15), 66.1–95.1 mm LCF (59.0– 84.3 mm SL), Farm Creek, Bakers Road, Mount Colliery, 28° 16' 54”S 152° 17' 12”E, TAR, 2 October 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30103-1 (5), 38.3–82.5 mm LCF (33.1–72.8 mm SL), Gap Creek , off Cunningham Highway, u/s of Tregany, near rest area, 28° 03' 41”S 152° 21' 91”E, TAR, 2 October 2001   ; NMV A.30079-1 (7), 64.7–73.6 mm LCF (57.2–65.6 mm SL), Spring Creek , near Wilsons Peak, off Spring Creek Road, 28° 14' 32”S 152° 28' 28”E, TAR, 3 October 2001 GoogleMaps   . SA: (IV, 26) NMV A.30057-1 (15), 58.5–70.1 mm LCF (51.0– 61.8 mm SL), Meadows Creek , Wickhams Hill Road, Prospect Hill, 35° 12' 38”S 138° 41' 44”E, TAR and MH, 17 May 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30032-1 (6), 69.2–87.1 mm LCF (60.2–76.8 mm SL), Nangkita Creek , off Nangkita Road, 35° 20' 37”S 138° 39' 49”E, TAR and MH, 17 May 2002; (V, 01) GoogleMaps   NMV A.30178-1 (7), 69.7–97.0 mm LCF (61.3–86.2 mm SL), Yankalilla River, S branch, Parawa Road , 35° 22' 22”S 138° 22' 47”E, TAR and MH, 17 May 2002; (V, 02) GoogleMaps   NMV A.30179-1 (4), 63.7–75.8 mm LCF (56.0– 66.9 mm SL), Glenshera Swamp , tributary, off Lawless Road, in reserve, SW of Mount Compass, 35° 22' 13”S 138° 32' 49”E, TAR and MH, 27 November 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30222-1 (15), 45.9–102.9 mm LCF (39.6–92.2 mm SL), (V, 03) Aldgate Creek , Euston Road, Aldgate, 35° 00' 52”S 138° 44' 03”E, TAR and MH, 16 May 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30182-1 (16), 65.4–104.4 mm LCF (57.4–93.1 mm SL), Cox Creek , Mount Barker Road, Bridgewater, 35° 00' 35”S 138° 45' 30”E, TAR and MH, 16 May 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30237-1 (10), 65.2–77.5 mm LCF (57.9–67.8 mm SL), Onkaparinga River , W branch, Western Branch Road, SSW of Lobethal, 34° 55' 52”S 138° 51' 45”E, TAR and MH, 14 May 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30176-1 (1), 61.5 mm LCF (53.7 mm SL), Onkaparinga River , tributary, Ableside Road, Handorf, 35° 01' 17”S 138° 48' 21”E, TAR and MH, 16 May 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30225-1 (5), 63.9–77.5 mm LCF (56.2–68.1 mm SL), Scott Creek , tributary, Allamanda Mine , Dorset Vale Road , Scott Creek Conservation Park, Dorset Vale, 35° 05' 02”S 138° 40' 29”E, TAR and MH, 16 May 2002; (V, 04) GoogleMaps   NMV A.30078-1 (11), 61.2–80.2 mm LCF (58.8–71.4 mm SL), Brownhill Creek , end of Brownhill Creek Road, Brownhill Creek Recreation Reserve, 34° 59' 36”S 138° 39' 17”E, TAR and MH, 18 May 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30233-1 (15), 49.5–66.5 mm LCF (42.7–58.6 mm SL), First Creek , off Waterfall Gully Road, Waterfall Gully, 34° 56' 55”S 138° 40' 06”E, TAR and MH, 14 May 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30172-1 (2), 73.8–86.8 mm LCF (64.8–76.7 mm SL), Millers Creek , Checker Hill Road, N of Gumeracha, 34° 48' 05”S 138° 53' 41”E, TAR and MH, 14 May 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30174-1 (15), 65.1–97.7 mm LCF (56.8–86.3 mm SL), Second Creek , Michael Perry Reserve, Stonyfell, 34° 56' 08”S 138° 40' 10”E, TAR and MH, 14 May 2002; (V, 05) GoogleMaps   NMV A.30184-1 (10), 65.0– 99.4 mm LCF (57.1–88.9 mm SL), Jacobs Creek , Barossa Valley Highway, Moorooroo, 34° 33' 53”S 138° 56' 26”E, TAR and MH, 15 May 2002 GoogleMaps   . VIC: (II, 23) NMV A.30107-1 (1), 99.8 mm LCF (91.8 mm SL), Bluestone Creek , Nunniong Plains Track, Emu Plains, 37° 07' 36”S 147° 56' 18”E, TAR, 17 April 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.10414 (1), 102.9 mm LCF (91.8 mm SL), Wild Dog Creek , Bentley Plain Road, 37° 16' 54”S 147° 53' 29”E, G.A. Apps, 10 November 1975 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30108-1 (1), Wild Dog Creek , same loc. as NMV A.10414, TAR, 17 April 2002, (II, 24)   NMV A.489 (1), 59.5 mm LCF (50.6 mm SL), Twenty Five Mile Creek , White Timber Spur Track , Gow Plain , Dargo High Plains, off Dargo High Plains Road, 37° 07' 53”S 147° 10' 52”E, P. Menkhorst, 10 November 1974; (IV, 01) GoogleMaps   NMV A.29967-1 (5), 88.9–100.7 mm LCF (78.3–88.9 mm SL), Bluff Creek , below Bluff Creek falls, Burrowa-Pine N.P., 36° 07' 19”S 147° 45' 32”E, TAR, 17 March 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.29980-1 (21), 62.1–105.6 mm LCF (64.7–94.4 mm SL), Bulley Creek , Cowombat Flat Track, W of Moscow Peak, Alpine N.P., 36° 51' 13”S 148° 06' 34”E, TAR, 16 April 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30006-1 (9), 60.0– 84.7 mm LCF (52.3–74.8 mm SL), Cottontree Creek , Webb Lane , on border of Mt. Granya State Park, Granya, 36° 06' 54”S 147° 18' 23”E, TAR, 24 June 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.29959-1 (5), 63.2–85.0 mm LCF (54.9–74.2 mm SL), Middle Creek , tributary, on Bogong High Plains, Alpine N.P., S of Falls Creek, 36° 55' 49”S 147° 18' 09”E, TAR, 20 March 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.29961-1 (1), 71.0 LCF (62.0 mm SL), Mitta Mitta River , 400 m d/s of Hinnomunjie Bridge, W of Benambra, 36° 56' 38”S 147° 36' 40”E, TAR, 19 March 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30173-1 (10), 48.4–90.7 mm LCF (42.6–80.8 mm SL), Morass Creek , Tableland Road, d/s of Uplands, 36° 51' 33”S 147° 42' 14”E, D.J. Harrington, 27 February 1993 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30022-1 (1), 56.0 mm LCF (49.2 mm SL), Morass Creek , same loc. as NMV A.30173-1, TAR, 19 March 2002   ; NMV A.482 (3), 65.0– 80.8 mm LCF (57.2–70.4 mm SL), Mount Murphy Creek , 1.6 km from mining huts, NE from Benambra, 36° 43' 09”S 147° 59' 35”E, G. Stroud, 10 January 1975 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.480 (2), 68.7–76.0 mm LCF (60.1–67.2 mm SL), Mount Murphy Creek , same loc. as NMV A.482, G. Stroud, 1 September 1975   ; NMV A.29979-1 (24), 51.2–98.7 mm LCF (44.5–87.4 mm SL), Nine Mile Creek , The Knockers Track, W of Benambra, 36° 54' 54”S 147° 33' 42”E, TAR, 19 March 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30183-1 (9), 49.1–97.4 mm LCF (43.2–87.2 mm SL), Reedy Creek , off Mount Battery Track, u/s of junction with Cobungra River, 37° 03' 11”S 147° 23' 33”E, D.J. Harrington, 3 March 1993 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30019-1 (27), 61.5–96.0 mm LCF (53.0– 85.8 mm SL), Swindlers Creek , u/s of weir at end of Davenport Access Track , Mount Hotham, Alpine N.P., 36° 58' 33”S 147° 08' 59”E, TAR, 20 March 2002; (IV, 02) GoogleMaps   NMV A.30180-1 (4), 67.8–96.4 mm LCF (59.2–84.5 mm SL), 3 McKay Creek , off track, Aine N.P., 36° 52' 15”S 147° 15' 50”E, J. Reed, 19 January 1994 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30062-1 (15), 71.5–111.0 mm LCF (62.6–98.3 mm SL), McKay Creek , off track running along McKay Creek , Falls Creek, Alpine N.P., 36° 52' 15”S 147° 15' 50”E, TAR, 17 April 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30030-1 (13), 75.0–114.0 mm LCF (65.1–101.2 mm SL), Pretty Valley Creek , tributary, on Fainter Fire Track, E of Pretty Valley Pondage, Alpine National Park, 36° 53' 44”S 147° 14' 52”E, TAR, 17 April 2002; (IV, 03) GoogleMaps   NMV A.30170-1 (8), 84.2–114.7 mm LCF (73.6–101.5 mm SL), Bakers Gully Creek , off Bakers Gully Road at junction with Walkers Mine Road, 36° 45' 20”S 146 57' 19”E, TAR, 20 September 1995 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30076-1 (15), 74.3–95.8 mm LCF (64.9–83.9 mm SL), Bakers Gully Creek , same loc. as NMV A.30170-1, TAR, 21 March 2002   ; NMV A.30017-1 (15), 72.5–110.3 mm LCF (63.6–98.2 mm SL), Buffalo Creek , above Rollasons Falls , off Mount Buffalo Road, Mount Buffalo N.P., 36° 41' 29”S 146° 49' 12”E, TAR, 21 March 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.29972-1 (2), 84.6–89.3 mm LCF (74.5–76.9 mm SL), Buffalo River , off Dandongadale / Abbeyard Road, near junction with Four Mile Creek, 36° 51' 24”S 146° 40' 54”E, D.J. Harrington, 1 April 1992 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30181-1 (11), 62.2–94.8 mm LCF (54.3–83.0 mm SL), Four Mile Creek , at junction with Buffalo River , on Abbeyards Road, Buffalo State Forest, 36° 51' 24”S 146° 40' 54”E, TAR, 26 June 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30020-1 (17), 63.7–102.6 mm LCF (56.3–90.1 mm SL), King River , west branch, DSM Road, upstream of King Falls, 36° 57' 45”S 146° 20' 02”E, TAR, 16 May 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30162-1 (7), 61.8–103.6 mm LCF (53.5–91.5 mm SL), Mine Creek , Mine Creek Road, 37° 04' 00”S 146° 25' 39”E, TAR, 14 May 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30004-1 (10), 59.0– 88.1 mm LCF (51.1–78.0 mm SL), Running Jump Creek , Mount Buffalo Road , u/s of Dicksons Falls, Mount Buffalo N.P., 36° 46' 06”S 146° 46' 32”E, TAR, 21 March 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.29962-1 (19), 58.3–114.0 mm LCF (51.2–101.4 mm SL), Stony Creek , tributary, Paradise Falls Road, 36° 52' 14”S 146° 27' 51”E, TAR, 17 May 2001; (IV, 04) GoogleMaps   NMV A.29971-1 (1), 84.2 mm LCF (75.3 mm SL), Broken River , behind tennis courts, Lima South, 36° 48' 47”S 146° 00' 51”E, J. Douglas, 3 October 1995 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.29964-1 (17), 64.2–113.3 mm LCF (56.1–101.5 mm SL), Five Mile Creek , Chapmans Road, E of Boho South, Strathbogie Ranges State Park, 36° 46' 46”S 145° 49' 12”E, TAR, 27 June 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30023-1 (19), 66.5–118.7 mm LCF (58.1–106.7 mm SL), Middle Creek , Madhouse Road, N of Tolmie, 36° 50' 27”S 146° 15' 04”E, TAR, 18 May 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30013-1 (12), 64.0– 89.5 mm LCF (55.7–78.5 mm SL), Parlours Creek , Lima East Road, Strathbogie Ranges, 36° 50' 58”S 145° 54' 46”E, TAR, 27 June 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.29963-1 (15), 65.8–96.7 mm LCF (57.1–85.8 mm SL), Watchbox Creek , Watchbox Creek Track, Toombullup State Forest, 36° 43' 49”S 146° 11' 47”E, TAR, 27 June 2002; (IV, 05) GoogleMaps   NMV A.30790-1 (17), 63.6–111.8 mm LCF (54.6–98.9 mm SL), Bakers Creek , Buttercup Jeep Track, 37° 03' 19”S 146° 17' 40”E, TAR, 15 May 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.29977-1 (5), 70.9–93.7 mm LCF (62.5–83.0 mm SL), Cerberus Creek , South Cathedral Lane, 37° 24' 14”S 145° 43' 31”E, TAR, 25 May 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30125-1 (3), 64.7–73.6 mm LCF (56.9–64.4 mm SL), Cerberus Creek , same loc. as NMV A.29977-1, TAR, 15 August 2002   ; NMV A.30249-2 (1), 82.5 mm LCF (72.3mm SL), Gaffneys Creek , Woods Point / Jamieson Road, Knockwood, 37° 25' 42”S 146° 13' 55”E, D.J. Harrington and J. McKenzie, 12 June 1985 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.29958-1 (9), 71.1–96.6 mm LCF (61.4–85.3 mm SL), Glen Creek, Ferraris Track, Strathbogie Ranges State Forest, 36° 56' 45”S 145° 56' 29”E, TAR, 27 June 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.29973-5 (10), 72.3–99.0 mm LCF (63.6–87.9 mm SL), Godfrey Creek , u/s of weir, u/s of Woods Point / Jamieson Road, 37° 30' 30”S 146° 12' 43”E, TAR, 6 February 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.29973-1 to 4 (4), 93.9–105.9 mm LCF (82.6–94.0 mm SL), Godfrey Creek , same loc. as for NMV A.29973-5, TAR, 4 February 2002   ; NMV A.30137-1 (1), 76.1 mm LCF (67.7 mm SL), Godfrey Creek , same loc. as for NMV A.29973-5, TAR, 4 February 2002   ; NMV A.30160-1 (9), 56.1–91.8 mm LCF (48.8–81.0 mm SL), Harpers Creek , Engine Camp Road, Mt. Disappointment State Forest, 37° 23' 38”S 145° 08' 05”E, TAR and P.S. Fairbrother, 7 December 2005 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30015-1 (12), 66.9–108.2 mm LCF (58.3–96.3 mm SL), Howqua River , tributary, off unnamed track, Alpine N.P., 37° 10' 40”S 146° 34' 00”E, TAR, 14 December 1994 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30016-1 (3), 74.3–86.8 mm LCF (66.9–77.5 mm SL), Little River , Blue Range Road, Cathedral Range State Park, 37° 23' 27”S 145° 48' 32”E, 4 May 1989 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30014-1 (2), 85.7–93.5 mm LCF (77.1–83.2 mm SL), Little River , same loc. as NMV A.30016-1, TAR, 6 December 2002   ; NMV A.29970-1 (2), 90.5–93.7 mm LCF (80.2–83.2 mm SL), Little River , Ruoaks Road, 37° 25' 02”S 145° 49' 09”E, TAR, 7 September 1994 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30021-1 (14), 69.2–112.0 mm LCF (60.5–99.3 mm SL), Piccanini Creek , u/s from old water supply weir, u/s from Gaffneys Creek, 37° 28' 36”S 146° 11' 50”E, TAR, 9 April 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30123-1 (10), 60.1–85.6 mm LCF (53.0– 75.8 mm SL), Ponkeen Creek , off Longwood / Tarcombe Road, 1.5 km N of Tarcombe, 36° 57' 51”S 145° 24' 37”E, TAR, 14 August 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.29969-1 (2), 76.3–96.0 mm LCF (67.0–85.0 mm SL), Raspberry Creek , 600 m d/s from Godfrey Creek, 37° 30' 15”S 146° 12' 40”E, TAR, 1 February 1995 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30011-1 (13), 65.9–102.9 mm LCF (58.1–90.6 mm SL), Raspberry Creek , same loc. as NMV A.29969-1, TAR, 28 March 1995   ; NMV A.30012-1 (11), 53.3–117.1 mm LCF (45.5–103.7 mm SL), Raspberry Creek , just d/s of Godfrey Creek, 37° 30' 28”S 146° 12' 46”E, TAR, 2 May 2000 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.29974-5 (9), 55.7–95.3 mm LCF (47.5–83.7 mm SL), Raspberry Creek , off Woods Point / Jamieson Road u/s to junction with south and east branches, 37° 30' 52”S 146° 12' 57”E, TAR, 6 February 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.29974-4 (1), 113.3 mm LCF (99.6 mm SL), and NMV A.29974-1 (1), 97.4 mm LCF (85.6 mm SL), Raspberry Creek , same loc. as NMV A.29974-5, TAR, 6 February 2002   ; NMV A.12601 (1), 64.3 mm LCF (56.6 mm SL), Snobs Creek , off Snobs Creek Road, u/s of falls, 37° 18' 21”S 145° 53' 21”E, R.S. Frankenberg, 2 April 1962 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.11490 (2), 65.4–66.2 mm LCF (58.1–58.3 mm SL), Snobs Creek , same loc. as NMV A.12601, L. Ashburner, 7 March 1966   ; NMV A.30089-1 (9), 60.0– 87.3 mm LCF (52.6–76.8 mm SL), South Creek , dam u/s of Granton Road, Granton, 37° 32' 22”S 145° 42' 28”E, TAR, 14 October 1999 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30161-1 (15), 50.3–93.1 mm LCF (43.7–82.4 mm SL), Springs Creek , fire dam off Yelland Track, 37° 37' 30”S 146° 08' 30”E, TAR, 4 May 2000 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30136-1 (7), 62.2–105.8 mm LCF (57.6–95.0 mm SL), Steavenson River , tributary, d/s of Yellow Dog Road, u/s of Steavensons Falls 37° 31' 53”S 145° 48' 32”E, TAR and PJU, 5 February 1991 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.13902 (3), 93.9–112.1 mm LCF (82.4–99.5 mm SL), Steavenson River , 30 m u/s of Steavenson Falls, 37° 32' 00”S 145° 46' 29”E, PJU and T. Messerle, 14 January 1994 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30127-1 (8), 68.7–88.0 mm LCF (59.6–78.1 mm SL), Steavenson River , Olsens Road, u/s of Steavensons Falls, 37° 32' 49”S 145° 48' 05”E, TAR, 14 October 1999 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.29976-1 (2), 62.5–68.3 mm LCF (54.4–60.2 mm SL), Steavenson River , same loc. as NMV A.30127-1, TAR, 21 May 2001   ; NMV A.29975-1 (2), 66.9–94.9 mm LCF (58.2–84.8 mm SL), Steavenson River , same loc. as NMV A.30127-1, TAR, 6 December 2002   ; NMV A.30037-1 (15), 57.6–109.2 mm LCF (50.5–98.0 mm SL), Strath Creek, Flowerdale Road, Mt. Disappointment State Forest, u/s of Strath Falls , 37° 19' 27”S 145° 11' 27”E, TAR, 19 February 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30028-1 (4), 84.5–94.8 mm LCF (78.8–83.8 mm SL), Trawool Creek , below Trawool Reservoir, u/s of Granite, 37° 07' 17”S 145° 11' 41”E, TAR, 20 February 2002 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30129-1 (7), 67.6–94.9 mm LCF (59.2–84.4 mm SL), Watch Box Creek , Euroa / Mansfield Road, E of Gooram, Strathbogie Ranges, 36° 54' 30”S 145° 38' 17”E, TAR, 13 August 2002. (IV, 06) GoogleMaps   NMV A.30138-1 (19), 45.7–109.9 mm LCF (39.8–97.7 mm SL), Campaspe River , Ashbourne Road, Ashbourne, 37° 23' 12”S 144° 27' 04”E, TAR, 27 July 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30116-1 (6), 67.6–86.3 mm LCF (59.5–75.8 mm SL), Five Mile Creek , Calder Highway, Woodend, 37° 21' 16”S 144° 31' 51”E, TAR, 27 July 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30071-1 (10), Little Coliban River , Tylden / Woodend Road, Tylden, 51.0– 82.5 mm LCF (44.8–71.9 mm SL), 37° 19' 48”S 144° 24' 60”E, TAR, 27 July 2001; (IV, 07) GoogleMaps   NMV A.30195- 1 (4), 64.5–72.2 mm LCF (57.6–64.1 mm SL), Loddon River, Bridge Road, Wombat State Forest, 37° 20' 27”S 144° 15' 31”E, JPC, 5 March 1999 GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.30158-1 (16), 59.7–90.2 mm LCF (53.0– 80.3 mm SL), Loddon River , same loc. as NMV A.30195-1, TAR, 3 June 2002   .

Additional non-type material examined (not measured): see Appendix 5.

Diagnosis. Galaxias olidus   is the least morphologically specialised species in the complex. It is generally intermediate to all other species in the complex with respect to morphometric and meristic values, however, also displays the highest amount of morphological variation in some characters. It can be distinguished by a combination of the following characters and careful comparison with the diagnoses, descriptions and geographical distributions of the other species. Some populations, or individuals within a population, with a series of small, closely-spaced and short, distinct mid-lateral black bars, usually extending from near the pectoral fin base posteriorly to past the pelvic fin base, though equally as often, absent; body depth at vent moderately shallow (8.3–16.9 % SL); caudal peduncle length similar to that of caudal fin, relatively shortish, but moderately deep; dorsal midline usually partly flattened anteriorly from above pelvic fins; trunk with dorsal and ventral profiles relatively gently and evenly arched; interorbital usually relatively flat though sometimes slightly to strongly convex; nostrils short to moderately long, usually not visible from ventral view; mouth generally terminal, occasionally slightly sub-terminal; lower jaw shorter than upper; caudal peduncle flanges usually low and long, generally reaching to, or near, anal fin base; anal fin origin usually under 0.68 (0.21–1.14) distance posteriorly along dorsal fin base; 1, more often 2, pyloric caecae of moderate length (mean length of 3.1 % SL); gill rakers variable, short to moderately long and stout to moderately thin; expanded caudal fin rays usually equal to body depth through pectoral fin base, occasionally wider or narrower; lamina of paired fins oriented anterio-ventrally to ventrally; and, raised lamellae can be present on ventral surface of rays, and if so, weakly to strongly developed.

Galaxias olidus   is morphologically most similar to Galaxias ornatus   , but can be distinguished from it by the characters listed in the diagnosis for that species, and the geographical ranges of the two species are separated by the Great Dividing Range, except for an anomalous population of G. ornatus   in the southern Goulburn River system. Galaxias olidus   can also be confused with Galaxias oliros   sp. nov., with which it can be found sympatrically, but can be distinguished from it by characters listed in the diagnosis of that species.

Description. As for the genus and members of the Galaxias olidus   complex, except as indicated below, based on 467 specimens, 43.8–106.7 mm SL, and 1396 additional specimens for meristics. Holotype examined. See Tables 4 to 9 for frequencies of meristic values and Table 29 for a summary of meristic variation. Segmented dorsal fin rays 10 (8–11; [9*]), of these 8 (7–9) branched and 2 (1*–2) unbranched; segmented anal fin rays 11 (9–12), of these 9 (8–10) branched and 2 (1–3) unbranched; caudal fin rays 16 (15–16); segmented pectoral fin rays 15 (13–16), of these 13 (11–14) branched and 2 (1–3) unbranched; pelvic fin rays 7 (7–8), of these 6 (6–7) branched and one unbranched; gill raker total count (lower limb and upper limb) 12 (11–14; [10*]), lower arch with 9 (8–10; [7*]) and 3 (2–4) on upper, variation on first gill arch 7+1 (4), 7+2 (3), 7+3 (13*), 8+1 (1), 8+2 (29), 8+3 (201), 8+4 (67), 8+5 (1), 9+1 (2), 9+2 (67), 9+3 (647), 9+4 (421), 9+5 (13), 9+6 (1), 10+2 (13), 10+3 (149), 10+4 (180), 10+5 (16), 10+6 (2), 11+3 (10), 11+4 (20), 11+5 (3); vertebrae 52 (50–56); usually two, less often one* pyloric caecae on stomach.

See Table 30 for comparative value ranges of morphometric characters. Body relatively morphologically variable, usually elongate and moderately shallow though shallow or moderately long and deep, dorsal midline usually partly flattened anteriorly from above pelvic fins, depth through pectoral base usually 1.3 that through vent, trunk with dorsal and ventral profiles relatively gently and evenly arched from snout to caudal peduncle or ventral slightly less so, belly a little deepened and laterally expanded in maturing individuals, body tapering back to a shortish, 7.8 (6.2–10.4) in SL, caudal peduncle of moderate depth, 12.2 (9.9–15.9) in SL, the peduncle depth 1.5–1.6 in its length; accessory lateral line present. Head of moderate length, 4.5 (3.8–5.3) in SL, and usually slightly shorter than PelAn distance, 0.9 (0.8–1.2) in PelAn, of moderate depth and width, 2.3 (1.9–2.8) and 1.6 (1.3–1.8) in HL respectively, distinctly wider than deep (depth 1.4–1.5 in HW), profile weakly wedge-shaped to obtuse and generally straight dorsally, sometimes bulbous, becoming quite fleshy in older individuals; eyes of moderate size, 5.2 (3.8–7.0) in HL, situated moderately high on head near dorsal head profile, interorbital usually relatively flat though sometimes slightly to strongly convex, of moderate width, 2.5 (2.1–3.1) in HL and 2.1 (1.8–2.3) times ED; cheeks usually expanded slightly below eyes and eye profiles usually obscured or just visible laterally from ventral view; snout moderate, 3.5 (2.9–4.7) in HL and 1.5 (1.3–1.5) times ED, lateral profile moderately deep and rounded to bluntly pointed; post-orbital head length of moderate length, 1.8 (1.6–2.1) in HL; nostrils short to moderate length and not visible anterio-laterally from ventral view; mouth terminal, occasionally slightly subterminal, of moderate length, 2.7 (2.2–3.2) in HL, posterior extent usually reaching to under anterior 0.3–0.5 of eyes, or farther, and usually 0.6 (0.4–0.9) ED below ventral margin of eye, anterior tip of upper lip level with about middle of eye, gape of moderate width, 2.5 (1.7–3.6) in HL, usually wider than length of upper jaw though sometimes shorter, and about 1.6–1.9 in HW. Jaws subequal, lower 0.9 times length of upper. Pyloric caecae of moderate length, longest usually 3.1 % of SL (0.4–7.2 %); gill rakers variable, short to moderately long, stout to moderately thin, and bluntly rounded to sharply pointed.

Median fins usually moderately to heavily fleshy at bases, paired fins less so, with thickening extending distally over 0.5 of fin area, extending farther between fin rays; anal fin base of moderate length, that of dorsal fin shortish and 0.9 times anal fin base length, fins rounded and moderately long, anal fin slightly longer than dorsal, middle rays longest, anal fin origin usually under 0.68 (0.21–1.14) distance posteriorly along dorsal fin base. Pelvic fins of moderate length, 9.2 (7.6–11.5) in SL, 0.9 (0.7–1.2) of pectoral fin length, inserted just posterior to midpoint of standard length and extending about 0.5 distance to anal fin base; pectoral fin of moderate length and rounded to paddle-shaped, 8.1 (6.4–10.7) in SL, extending about 0.4 distance to pelvic fin base, low on body with dorsal end of fin base level with posterior extent of mouth, lamina of paired fins oriented anterio-ventrally to ventrally, raised lamellae can be present on ventral surface of rays, and if so, weakly to strongly developed. Caudal fin of moderate length, 7.7 (5.6–9.8) in SL, emarginate, as long or slightly longer than caudal peduncle (1.0–1.1times LCP), vertical width of expanded rays usually equal to body depth through pectoral fin base, occasionally wider or narrower, flanges low and moderately to well-developed along caudal peduncle, variable in length though usually reaching anal fin base, sometimes as a low, long ridge, or reaching 0.5 distance anteriorly along length of rays in adpressed anal fin: occasionally just reaching distal end of adpressed anal fin.

Also see line drawing in McDowall & Frankenberg (1981) for general body shape.

Size. Recorded to 126 mm LCF and 25 g; commonly to 55–80 mm LCF.

Colour in life. Extremely variable in base colouration and body pattern between populations across its geographic range ( Fig. 23 View FIGURE 23 ), less so within populations. Body predominantly tan, light brown to brown or olive, sometimes orange-brown, on back and sides, extending over head and snout, becoming lighter below lateral line, belly usually cream, occasionally almost white. Overlain by extremely variable pattern consisting of dark brown or grey, grey-brown or almost black spots, irregularly shaped blotches, patches, flecks and bands, and reticulations, or various combinations of these, with blotches, patches and large spots often coalescing to form irregularly shaped vertical bands. Trunk pattern usually most dense on dorsal surface, also extending down sides past lateral line, sometimes to ventro-lateral margin, also extending onto top of head and often down sides and onto snout. Body pattern sometimes quite pale or almost absent in some individuals or populations, or pattern also overlain by shading formed by profuse tiny grey spots. Typically, a series of small to moderately large, usually thin and elongate, sometimes ovoid to almost circular, closely-spaced black to very dark brown bars present along the lateral line, extending posteriorly from just above the pectoral fin base, often to the caudal peduncle, with posterior bars often paler or grading into diffuse blotches; bars may be very pale or absent in some populations. When present, bars always narrower, more closely-spaced, variable in shape and numerous than those in Galaxias fuscus   , and also extend farther posteriorly, usually to at least origin of anal fin or farther.

Mid-dorsal surface of trunk often with a moderately thick single or double row of gold spots extending from nape to dorsal fin base; top of head and snout sometimes with diffuse scattering of small gold flecks; trunk often with broad diffuse band of golden to coppery spots or flecks usually extending from near base of pectoral fin onto caudal peduncle, usually centred along lateral line. Gill cover translucent, often with a small to moderately large golden patch; iris golden to coppery gold. Fins usually translucent light grey, olive or pale yellow. Gravid females with fine black to dark grey stippling along ventro-lateral surface of trunk between the pectoral fin base and vent. See below for more detailed comments on body pattern.

Occasionally, snout and anterior portion of head including, the nape, noticeably an almost transparent pale lime-green (also found sporadically in Galaxias oliros   sp. nov. and Galaxias ornatus   ), though the reason is unknown.

Colour of preserved material. Base colour of head and body pale yellowish brown. Configuration, degree and extent of body patterning highly variable, with some populations lacking any pattern. Generally, dorsal surface of trunk with dense pattern of small to moderately sized, closely-spaced, brown to dark brown, single or coalescing, irregularly shaped blotches or spots, sometimes vermiculations, often extending onto head to tip of snout, and laterally onto head. Dorsal pattern usually extending onto lateral surface of trunk, posteriorly from pectoral fin base, as more discrete and widely spaced, irregularly shaped, thin to moderately wide, vertical to nearvertical stripes and blotches, some coalescing, reaching ventrally past lateral line to about level with pectoral fin base, sometimes farther, extending almost to ventral-lateral margin posteriorly from pelvic fin base, also extending over entire caudal peduncle area; ventral surface of trunk pale yellowish brown to cream. Bars, stripes and blotches usually distinctive and bold on sides, usually darker than dorsally, often darkest, almost black, on and around lateral line; pattern sometimes light brown or very faded and indistinct, though usually only on a few individuals within a population. Fine, dark brown stippling usually present on sides and ventral surface of lower jaw, and along posterior fleshy extension of operculum. Usually brown to black spots at base of, and along gill filaments, also on gill rakers, and brown spotting inside gill cover.

Eye usually dark grey to black, pupil translucent pale orange or yellow. Teeth translucent yellow to pale orange–yellow, tips orange to orange–red; gill rakers pale yellowish brown. Fins pale brown or yellow, becoming translucent at about 0.5 to 0.7 distance along fin length, fleshy bases of dorsal, anal and pectoral fins sometimes with fine brown stippling, sometimes also extending onto base of caudal fin and caudal peduncle flanges. Fin rays opaque to translucent, external edges of rays highlighted with fine brown spots forming thin lines.

Etymology. Whilst not elaborated upon in the original description ( Günther 1867), the specific epithet is derived from the Latin, olida, olid or olidum, meaning to smell or foul smelling, stinking. The reason for the name remains unclear as live or freshly preserved Galaxias olidus   are not known to impart a distinctive odour, and the holotype currently smells only of preservative. Possibly the liquid the holotype was originally preserved in, or later transferred to, may have had a distinctive odour at the time the description was made, but this is purely conjecture.

Genetics. Allozyme and mtDNA analysis of this species can be found in Adams et al. (2014; taxon code OL). Diagnostic allozyme loci (2–12) between this taxon and the other species in the Galaxias olidus   complex are provided in Table 12.

Distribution: see Fig. 22 View FIGURE 22 . Widespread in south-eastern Australia, found on both sides of the GDR from southern QLD, southward through NSW and the ACT, south-west across northern VIC, with a disjunct population straddling the Mont Lofty Ranges in SA. Within this distribution, occupy an extensive elevational range from near sea level in SA, up to over 2000 m asl on Mount Kosciuszko. Specifically, found in coastal southern Queensland from about Canungra Creek in the MacPherson Range (Logan-Albert system), to the Moruya catchment in southern NSW though appear to be absent from the small South Coast catchment in southern QLD, and from the Tweed, Brunswick, Manning, Karuah, Macquarie Lakes, St Georges, and Tuross catchments in NSW. Also found in the upland portion of the Snowy River catchment in southern NSW, and in the Tambo and Mitchell river catchments in southern coastal VIC.

Inland (Murray-Darling drainage division) distribution extends from Dalrymple Creek in the upper Condamine catchment in southern QLD, southward along the GDR through the Border Rivers, Gwydir, Namoi, Castlereagh, Macquarie and Lachlan catchments to the Murrumbidgee and Murray catchments in southern NSW, and westward in VIC tributaries of the Murray River from the Upper Murray catchment to the Loddon River catchment. Typical distribution in inland NSW considered confined generally to east of the Newell Highway, with previous records from Balranald (AMS IB.3676), Condobolin (AMS IB.2892 and IB.2893), Berringaga (?=Bringagee; AMS IB.754), Walgett (AMS IB.575 and IB.755) and downstream of Narrandera (AMS I.17993-001 and I.19315-001) considered to represent individuals washed downstream during wetter periods from more permanent populations at higher elevations.

In SA, found in two tributaries of the lower Murray River system draining the eastern Mt. Lofty Ranges (Finnis and Tookayerta), and in the Yankalilla, Carrickalinga, Myponga, Onkaparinga, Torrens and Gawler catchments draining the west of the Mt. Lofty Ranges (South Australian Gulf drainage division). Previously also known from Kangaroo Island, and possibly the Yorke Peninsula, but now considered extinct.

The minimum elevational range in northern parts of its distribution (northward from mid-NSW) is higher than farther south, with most populations confined to more cooler, upland areas along the GDR or other mountain ranges, usually above 400–500 m asl   .

Sympatry. Only species in the Galaxias olidus   complex found within its range in the Murray–Darling Basin northwards from the Murrumbidgee River system, and in coastal catchments northward from the Moruya River catchment in NSW. Possibly historically sympatric with Galaxias mungadhan   sp. nov. in the Mitchell River catchment in coastal Victoria. Found in sympatry with Galaxias oliros   sp. nov. and Galaxias arcanus   sp. nov. in the Murray River and tributaries in north-eastern Victoria and southern NSW (Upper Murray, Kiewa, Ovens, Broken and Goulburn River basins), and with Galaxias fuscus   in the Goulburn River system; in sympatry to parapatry with G. oliros   sp. nov. in the very upper Campaspe and Loddon River systems; and, in broad sympatry (separate catchments) with G. oliros   sp. nov. in the Eastern Mount Lofty Ranges in SA. Recorded from river systems with Galaxias brevipinnis   , Galaxias maculatus   and Galaxias truttaceus   in coastal catchments, and with G. brevipinnis   and Galaxias rostratus   in north-east Victoria and the Murray River; also historically with G.rostratus   from tributaries of the Murray and Darling rivers in inland NSW and possibly in swamps of the lower Murray River in SA.

Habitat. Found in a wide range of freshwater aquatic habitats at low to high elevations (lowland to montane reaches), ranging from slow to moderately flowing, clear to turbid, medium to larger rivers (4–20 m average width), and moderately to fast flowing, small to medium sized creeks, (0.5–5 m average width). Also found in some lowland wetlands and billabongs in VIC to central and northern NSW, onstream farm dams, upland wetlands (e.g. alpine bogs), and occasionally in upland lakes (e.g. Lake Cootapatamba) and disconnected pools in drying water courses. Usually found in shallow riffle areas or moderately deep runs, particularly when instream predators are present, to deeper (0.3–> 1.2 m average depth), habitats in pools. Usually found near the substrate or amongst dense aquatic vegetation, rocks, large and small timber debris and within undercut banks, though also occasionally found in the open in midwater, particularly in the absence of instream predators. Can survive in refuge pools in ephemeral creeks, but often only those with a small but sustained freshwater inflow (e.g. freshwater spring).

General Biology. Confined to freshwater and considered to not undertake migration as part of its life cycle. General biology covered by Harasymiw (1970), Cowden (1988), Drayson (1989), O’Connor et al. (2001), Close (1995), Brinkley (1996), though all but one study were conducted in a few tributaries of the Murrumbidgee River in the ACT. Consequently many aspects of biology and ecology may not be applicable to populations in other areas of their range, and this knowledge is therefore considered poor for this species. Some additional information is presented below.

Usually recorded at densities up to 0.5–1.5 fish/m 2, though can be abundant in isolated pools (> 2.0 fish/m 2) in the absence of instream predators. Often the only fish species present in upland streams, but in lower to mid reaches collected with a diverse range of fish and decapod crustacea (shrimp, prawns and crayfish). Some populations at higher elevations along the GDR in VIC, NSW and southern QLD in streams within catchments which are usually covered by snow for varying periods of time during winter. In particular, found in VIC and southern NSW well above the winter snowline in streams which may freeze over and are covered by snow for 2–3 months. Whitley (1959) incorrectly commented that ‘… Galaxias findlayi   [? = probably Galaxias olidus   and Galaxias supremus   sp. nov. —see below] enjoys life above the snowline but swims to lower warmer levels during the winter.’ (p. 136).

Spawning period poorly defined across its broad geographical range but appears to extend from about early May to June in SA, May to August in VIC and very southern NSW, and August to October in northern NSW and southern QLD. Unshed, mature oocytes are from 1.0– 1.3 mm in diameter, roughly spherical, and orange to pale orange. Fecundity is moderate, with 560 to 1275 mature oocytes recorded from two females 62.0 and 84.7 mm LCF respectively. Juveniles reach a length of about 35–40 mm LCF in their first year.

Found to be infected with the parasitic copepod Lernaea cyprinoides   (?), and can be lightly to heavily infected with small red, brown, grey or black cysts, possibly trematode metacercariae, embedded in the skin of the head or trunk, or in fins (e.g. see Fig. 21 View FIGURE 21 ). Some individuals recorded with one to two short, thin, white worms, coiled and pointed at both ends, from amongst fat deposits around the stomach in the body cavity. Also recorded with deformities of fins (dorsal, pectoral, pelvic), complete absence of pelvic fins, deformities/damage of the jaws, bulging eyes, large, single cyst embedded under the skin on the head or body, some with curvature of the spine, and also being attacked by a leech ( Cadwallader 1978).

Variation. Has the highest range in variation in morphological characters, particularly meristic values and colour pattern, in the species complex. Consequently many populations, including those that are close or adjacent to each other, can look superficially different. Body pattern can vary greatly ( Fig. 23 View FIGURE 23 ), ranging from densely and boldly marked to almost plain, and with distinct mid lateral bars or without. Putative hybridisation with Galaxias fuscus   , Galaxias oliros   sp. nov. and Galaxias supremus   sp. nov., can add further to difficulties in taxon discrimination.

Remarks. The holotype was examined in detail. Its condition is good for its age (145+ years), though the head, including the jaws, are bent, possibly from having previously been squeezed into a smaller jar, and the viscera are soft and partially degraded. Of particular note, and which was not detailed by Günther (1866) in his original description, or by Regan (1906) in his revision of the Galaxiidae   , is that the body is very deep for its length and the fish therefore appears to be slightly stunted (i.e. should be longer for its depth). This is supported by Stokell (1947) who examined the vertebrae and found that the specimen had a low vertebral count with many fused vertebrae (also confirmed in this study).

Also not previously noted ( Günther 1866, Ogilby 1896, Regan 1906, Stokell 1947, McDowall & Frankenberg 1981) is that the holotype has a single pyloric caecum, the anal fin origin commences under the 7th (third last) segmented dorsal fin ray, the mouth is deformed, extending posteriorly to under about the middle of the eye on the right side and to past the posterior margin of the eye on the left side, and that sex could not be confidently determine as gonads were difficult to locate due to the poor condition of the viscera, either being in a very early stage of development, or having been removed. Further, the body, head, fins and gill arches are covered in small, reddish brown, embedded metacercarial cysts which Günther (1866) erroneously referred to as “…thick black dots…” (p. 209).

The body depth at the vent (as a proportion of its standard length) of the holotype is greater than recorded elsewhere across the range of Galaxias olidus   or within all other taxa in the complex (compare morphometric variation between taxa—this study). The abdominal cavity appears distended, yet the stomach, which is large and full, does not fill the cavity, and fat deposits or large gonads are not present, possibly having been previously removed, though it is difficult to tell.

The validity of Galaxias olidus Günther, 1866   as an Australian species, was raised by Ogilby (1896) who stated it was from New Zealand but did not provide evidence for his decision. Later, Stokell (1947) upheld this view, but was also confused by a headless second specimen in the same jar as the holotype (not noted by Günther (1866) or Regan (1906)). The headless specimen was examined during this study, along with its head which was also in the jar, and found to conform in colour pattern, morphometric and meristic characters to Galaxias brevipinnis   (e.g. distinctive colouration, head broad and flat, two long pyloric caecae, much shorter lower jaw, large paired fins, short but deep caudal peduncle and anal fin origin is only slightly rearward from that of the dorsal fin origin). Despite having vertebral abnormalities, which was also noted amongst other specimens of Galaxias olidus   during this study, the morphology of the holotype was found to conform to that of other samples collected across the range of the taxon in south-eastern Australia and is therefore considered an Australian species.

Galaxias findlayi Macleay, 1882   was described from Mount Kosciuszko, from where Galaxias olidus   and Galaxias supremus   sp. nov. are also known. The type specimens of G. findlayi   have been lost, but, based on comparison with the published description (see Appendix 1), significant differences exist in the morphology between G. findlayi   and Galaxias supremus   sp. nov., particularly the pelvic fin ray count. Less differences exists between G. findlayi   and G. olidus   , though detailed comparison is hampered by the loss of type specimens and lack of fresh comparative material. The taxonomic status of G. findlayi   could therefore not be resolved and its current placement as a junior synonym of Galaxias olidus   is upheld.

Ogilby (1896) redescribed Galaxias findlayi   from a series of specimens collected from Mount Kosciuszko ( Raadik and Kuiter 2002), which cannot be located with certainty (see Appendix 1). Comparison of his redescription with Macleay’s original description, and with material from Galaxias olidus   and Galaxias supremus   sp. nov., strongly suggests that Ogilby’s redescription is based on individuals representing multiple species, and consequently is of little taxonomic value. Of additional note is the reference by Frankenberg (1969) and McDowall & Frankenberg (1981) to a distinctive colour pattern in G. findlayi   , typified as dark, irregular blotches, grading into a speckled or vermiculated pattern. This pattern differs to that in Macleay’s (1882) original description and is based on collection of presumed topotypical material ( Frankenberg 1969) and possibly on the (inaccurate) revised description of Galaxias findlayi   by Ogilby (1896) (see above). Given the taxonomic confusion regarding the genus Galaxias   in the upper Snowy River system, it is difficult to determine to which species the description of colour pattern by Ogilby (1896) and Frankenberg (1969) refer.

The revision of Galaxias findlayi   by Regan (1906) is far more confusing and should be disregarded. He studied two specimens collected by Ogilby and five provided from the Australian Museum from the Australian Alps (see issues above, plus also multiple or different species), and included specimens from the Richmond River and near Colo Vale which are now known to be Galaxias olidus  

Further, as the identity and distribution of galaxiids in the upper Snowy River are poorly known, historical records should be treated with caution (e.g. Helms 1890, etc.), particularly where voucher specimens are unavailable or collection locality information is imprecise. These records may be referable to Galaxias olidus   , Galaxias supremus   sp. nov., to additional undescribed species, or combinations of species. Additional, detailed assessment of the genetic and morphological variation of galaxiids is therefore urgently required, based on systematic collection of fresh material, to resolve the systematics of the genus in the upper Snowy River system, upstream of Dalgety, and to define distributions.

The name Galaxias guttatus   , attached to one specimen lot ( NMW 78274 View Materials ), has no validity as it is an unpublished name. The specimens were examined and found to conform to G. olidus   (Appendix 6). Further, a large number of Galaxias   , weighing approximately 101.6 kg (224 lbs), were mistakenly sent to London in 25 wool bales from Midgeon Station near Narrandera (NSW) in about 1888–9 ( Neill 1890). These fish came from Lake Midgeon or nearby and inadvertently entered the bales via water which was used to wash the wool. Eighty-five fish were returned to Australia and exhibited at a meeting of the Royal Linnean Society of New South Wales ( Neill 1890), but their current location is unknown. The fish may have been Galaxias olidus   or Galaxias rostratus   , or a mix of both, as both have been recorded from the area. A further novelty report of what is presumed to be referrable to G. olidus   is of a specimen found coming through a tap in Katoomba, NSW ( Frankenberg 1966). The identity of the Galaxias sp.   from the upper Murrumbidgee River, purported to be a new species ( Macleay 1885), could not be defined as no specimens could be located. Based on the area of collection, this record may be attributable to G. olidus  

Within the known range of Galaxias olidus   , as defined by McDowall & Frankenberg (1981), the species has now been recorded from previously defined datagap areas in the Hastings and Tuross river systems in northern and southern coastal NSW respectively, from the Broken and Avoca river systems in northern VIC, and from the Castlereagh River system in inland NSW. McDowall & Frankenberg (1981) also implied the species was not present in the Hunter River system in coastal NSW as they stated that the taxon was absent from “...between the Macleay and Hawkesbury Rivers...” (p. 489), but this was in error as they were aware of a record from the Hunter River system (Omadale Brook, AMS IB.743). Galaxias olidus   was sampled during this study from an additional seven sites in the Hunter River system, confirming its presence in that catchment. Of note is that two distinct mtDNA lineages were identified amongst these samples ( Adams et al. 2014), one conforming to G. olidus   , and the other possibly representing an additional new candidate taxon. Allozymic and detailed morphological study of additional material is required to resolve species boundaries within this catchment.

Other significant changes in the previously known distribution of Galaxias olidus   s.l. is its absence from coastal catchments south of the Great Dividing Range in southern NSW and VIC (between the Tuross River system, NSW, and the eastern Mount Lofty Ranges in SA), except for the upper reaches of the Snowy River system (upstream of about Eucumbene), and the Tambo and Mitchell River systems draining to the Gippsland Lakes in VIC. Previous records of G. olidus   s.l. in this region (besides those areas listed above) are referrable to other species defined in this study in the G. olidus   complex (see under the separate species treatments). Further, previous records of G. olidus   s.l. in the Red River in East Gippsland (VIC) are considered erroneous, and referrable to Galaxias brevipinnis   ( Tunbridge 1983, Raadik 1992a: 29, 38, 1992b fig. 16 partim).

The highest recorded population is in Lake Cootapatamba (at approx. 2030 m asl) ( Green 2006) and makes Galaxias olidus   , along with Galaxias supremus   sp. nov., the highest occurring galaxiids in the family Galaxiidae   . They are found 600+ m higher than Galaxias brevipinnis   , the second highest occurring galaxiid, which has been recorded to 1390 m asl in New Zealand ( NZ Freshwater Fish Database, NIWA, accessed 2010).

The most northern record in coastal catchments for Galaxias olidus   appears to be from the upper Canungra Creek near O’Reilly’s Guest House in the MacPhearson Ranges, south-eastern QLD. One specimen was collected by Terzis (1986) but is now in very poor condition (AMS I.29429-001). The exact collecting locality is unknown, and there was confusion for a while regarding the stream of capture (Canungra Creek or the adjacent Morans Creek immediately to the south) (Themo Terzis, pers. comm. 2001, 2003), though the specimen was dipnetted, with difficulty, from a pool from amongst overhanging vegetation. Additional, though anecdotal, evidence for the species being in Canungra Creek exists, with the species being previously noted in the system (Woo O’Reilly pers. comm. 2004), and on fish observed in February 1990 in a pool downstream of Elebana Falls, swimming through a splash of light (Martyn Robinson pers. comm. 2004). The species may also have been observed by Peter O’Reilly a long time ago in Morans Creek, before a trout introduction event about 40 years ago (Woo O’Reilly pers. comm. 2004). Repeat visits to these systems in 2001 and 2004 failed to locate the species and additional sampling in the headwaters of the streams in Lamington National Park, between Canungra Creek and the NSW/QLD border to the south, is required to define the distribution of G. olidus   in this area.

Paired fin ray lamellae, which aid climbing out of water over damp rocks in Galaxias brevipinnis   and some other Galaxias spp.   ( McDowall 2003b), are quite frequently present on Galaxias olidus   throughout their range. Climbing in G. olidus   has been recorded in Dicky Cooper Creek on Mount Kosciuszko ( Green 1979; incorrectly identified as G. brevipinnis   ), regularly during late November/early December to early January up a 20 m high wall on Winburndale Dam (near Bathurst, NSW), anecdotally extending back to 1938 (Ian McCartney, pers. comm. 2004–2006), up a waterfall in Dalrymple Creek, QLD (Harry Hines, pers. comm. 2001), and up a moist rock wall in the upper Bogong Creek, VIC (Graeme Gillespie, pers. comm. 2002). This climbing ability infers a greater capacity and propensity for movement, particularly within the steep gradient streams in which this species is often found. It also provides a mechanism for broader dispersal, particularly between adjacent catchments, via low catchment divides during extended wet periods.

Specimens of Galaxias   , belonging to the Galaxias olidus   complex, and superficially similar to Galaxias olidus   , have been recorded at lower elevation in the lower to mid western portion of the Snowy River catchment in Victoria, farther upstream from the distribution of Galaxias mcdowalli   sp. nov. and downstream of Galaxias terenasus   sp. nov. and Galaxias supremus   sp. nov.: Suggan Buggan River (NMV A.12415 and A.30615-1); and, headwaters of the Buchan River (AMS I.17994-001 and I.19262-001; NMV A.9920) which includes Native Dog Creek (NMV A.10419). These specimens superficially differ morphologically from G. olidus   and Galaxias mcdowalli   sp. nov. (see above) but their identity has not been determined due to a lack of suitably preserved fresh material for morphological and genetic analysis, hampered in part by their rarity and the recent possible extinction of the population in the Buchan River headwaters following upstream invasion and colonisation of alien Brown Trout post 2003.

Potentially hybridise with Galaxias fuscus   , Galaxias oliros   sp. nov. and Galaxias supremus   sp. nov. (see under specific species treatments) with putative hybrid fish identified from a small number of systems.

Five collection localities, based on seven specimen lots at the Australian Museum, Sydney, are found west of the main distribution of Galaxias olidus: Murrumbidgee   system near Balranald (AMS IB.3676), Beringaga (? = Bringagee) (AMS IB.754) and Narrandera (AMS I.19315-001 and I.17993-001); Lachlan system near Condobolin (AMS IB.2892 and IB.2893); and Namoi system at Walgett (AMS IB.755 and IB.575). These specimen lots were reviewed by McDowall & Frankenberg (1981) and confirmed as Galaxias olidus   s.l. but only four of these lots could be located and verified as Galaxias olidus in   the current study (AMS IB.3676, IB.2892, IB.2893 and I.19315-001). AMS IB.754 was destroyed in 1976 and the others could not be found in the collection. If the identification of the missing specimen lots by McDowall & Frankenberg (1981) is presumed correct, then these five western locations for G. olidus   in inland NSW are valid. Due to the paucity of collection records west of the Newell Highway, these locality records may represent atypical occurrences for the species, of individuals washed downstream during wetter periods from more typical population centres at higher elevations. This is supported by the lack of additional or recent collection records ( Llewellyn 1983, Swales and Curran 1995, Roberts and Sainty 1996, Harris and Gehrke 1997, Schiller et al. 1997, Copeland et al. 2003, Baumgartner 2005, Gilligan 2005a, b, Kerezsy 2005, Baumgartner 2007, Davies et al. 2008, Unmack unpubl. data.). Consequently, due to time and budget restrictions and logistical constraints (large geographic area, low probability of relocating transitory populations), sampling for specimens in the G. olidus   complex was not undertaken in this area.

Similarly, Galaxias olidus   has also not been recorded from Kangaroo Island in SA (SAG, basin 13) since its original collection from one site in 1883 (SAMA F.1115—specimen seen and identification confirmed; Glover 1979), despite intensive sampling of approximately 80 sites during 2002–2007 ( Hammer et al. 2009, M. Hammer, pers. comm. 2010). Therefore this area was also not resampled. A further outlying record from SA, of one specimen collected from the ‘southern Yorke Peninsula’ in 1934 (SAMA F.1791) (SAG, basin 07), could not be verified as it was noted as destroyed by the South Australian Museum in 1973. Based on verified records, only Galaxias brevipinnis   and Galaxias maculatus   have been recorded from the Yorke Peninsula or farther westward ( Hammer et al. 2009, SAMA F.1098). Further, the listing of Galaxias olidus   from two sites in the Broughton River (SAG, basin 07) is considered to be invalid ( Hicks & Sheldon 1999). These records are considered misidentifications, most probably referrable to G. maculatus   , which is abundant in the system, yet was not recorded during their survey.

MH

Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Actinopterygii

Order

Osmeriformes

Family

Galaxiidae

Genus

Galaxias

Loc

Galaxias olidus Günther, 1866

Raadik, Tarmo A. 2014
2014
Loc

Galaxias sp. 4

Kuiter, R. H. 2013: 48
2013
Loc

Galaxias sp. 5

Kuiter, R. H. 2013: 52
2013
Loc

Galaxias sp. 6

Kuiter, R. H. 2013: 54
2013
Loc

Galaxias sp. 7

Kuiter, R. H. 2013: 56
2013
Loc

Galaxias sp. 8

Kuiter, R. H. 2013: 58
2013
Loc

Galaxias brevipinnis

Kuiter, R. H. 2004: 70
Green, K. 1979: 230
1979
Loc

Galaxias schomburghii

Lake, J. S. 1971: 20
1971
Loc

Galaxias olidus findlayi ( Macleay, 1882 )

Frankenberg, R. S. 1969: 171
1969
Loc

Lyragalaxias oconnori

Scott, E. O. G. 1966: 250
1966
Loc

Galaxias ornatus

Butcher, A. D. 1946: 9
1946
Loc

Galaxias coxii

Tilzey, R. D. J. 1974: 7
Breder, C. M. & Rosen, D. E. 1966: 132
Whitley, G. P. 1957: 10
Walford, F. 1942: 56
Walford, F. 1941: 234
Whitley, G. P. 1935: 51
Gray, M. E. 1929: 140
Walford, F. 1928: 274
1928
Loc

Galaxias oconnori

Raadik, T. A. & Kuiter, R. H. 2002: 830
McDowall, R. M. & Frankenberg, R. S. 1981: 472
Lake, J. S. 1971: 20
Whitley, G. P. 1957: 34
Munro, I. S. R. 1957: 17
Whitley, G. P. 1956: 39
Whitley, G. P. 1956: 7
Whitley, G. P. 1955: 154
Whitley, G. P. 1933: 61
McCulloch, A. R. 1929: 49
McCulloch, A. R. & Whitley, G. P. 1925: 133
Ogilby, J. D. 1912: 33
1912
Loc

Galaxias findlayi

Littlejohn, M. J. 1962: 311
Whitley, G. P. 1959: 136
Regan, C. T. 1906: 382
Ogilby, J. D. 1896: 66
1896
Loc

Galaxias kayi

McDowall, R. M. & Frankenberg, R. S. 1981: 472
Scott, T. D. & Glover, C. J. M. & Southcott, R. V. 1974: 77
Lake, J. S. 1971: 20
Whitley, G. P. 1964: 35
Scott, T. D. 1962: 68
Whitley, G. P. 1957: 57
Whitley, G. P. 1957: 7
Munro, I. S. R. 1957: 17
Whitley, G. P. 1956: 34
Stokell, G. 1947: 671
Stokell, G. 1945: 25
McCulloch, A. R. 1929: 48
Regan, C. T. 1906: 381
Ogilby, J. D. 1896: 70
Ramsay, E. P. & Ogilby, J. D. 1886: 6
1886
Loc

Galaxias findlayi

Raadik, T. A. & Kuiter, R. H. 2002: 830
McDowall, R. M. & Frankenberg, R. S. 1981: 472
Baker, R. R. 1978: 822
Thomson, J. M. 1974: 151
Lake, J. S. 1971: 20
Tilzey, R. D. J. 1970: 13
Frankenberg, R. S. 1969: 329
Whitley, G. P. 1964: 35
Munro, I. S. R. 1957: 17
Whitley, G. P. 1957: 7
Whitley, G. P. 1956: 39
Costin, A. B. 1954: 97
Stokell, G. 1945: 124
McCulloch, A. R. 1929: 49
McCulloch, A. R. 1927: 18
McCulloch, A. R. 1922: 18
McCulloch, A. R. 1921: 28
Gale, A. 1915: 16
McCulloch, A. R. 1914: 328
Regan, C. T. 1906: 382
Stead, D. G. 1906: 50
Waite, E. R. 1904: 17
Ogilby, J. D. 1896: 66
Ogilby, J. D. 1886: 55
Macleay, W. 1882: 107
Tenison-Woods, J. E. 1882: 107
1882
Loc

Galaxias bongbong

McDowall, R. M. & Frankenberg, R. S. 1981: 472
Berra, T. M. 1973: 363
Lake, J. S. 1971: 20
Greenham, P. M. 1968: 846
Stanbury, P. J. 1968: 205
Whitley, G. P. 1964: 35
Munro, I. S. R. 1957: 16
Whitley, G. P. 1957: 7
Whitley, G. P. 1956: 39
Whitley, G. P. 1956: 34
Whitley, G. P. 1954: 29
Whitley, G. P. 1941: 4
McCulloch, A. R. 1929: 49
McCulloch, A. R. 1927: 18
McCulloch, A. R. 1922: 18
McCulloch, A. R. 1921: 28
Regan, C. T. 1906: 382
Waite, E. R. 1904: 17
Ogilby, J. D. 1896: 60
Ogilby, J. D. 1886: 55
Tenison-Woods, J. E. 1882: 22
Macleay, W. 1881: 233
1881
Loc

Galaxias schomburgkii

McDowall, R. M. & Frankenberg, R. S. 1981: 469
Scott, T. D. & Glover, C. J. M. & Southcott, R. V. 1974: 78
Lake, J. S. 1971: 20
Whitley, G. P. 1964: 35
Munro, I. S. R. 1957: 16
Whitley, G. P. 1957: 7
Whitley, G. P. 1956: 39
Whitley, G. P. 1956: 34
Stokell, G. 1947: 671
McCulloch, A. R. 1929: 49
Regan, C. T. 1906: 382
Ogilby, J. D. 1896: 69
Macleay, W. 1880: 47
Peters, W. C. H. 1868: 455
1868
Loc

Galaxias olidus Günther, 1866: 209

Kuiter, R. H. 2011: 618
Howell, T. & Creese, R. 2010: 14
Davies, P. E. & Harris, J. H. & Hillman, T. J. & Walker, K. F. 2008: 338
Lintermans, M. 2007: 44
Green, K. 2006: 14
Coughran, J. 2005: 43
Allen, G. R. & Midgley, S. H. & Allen, M. 2003: 103
McDowall, R. M. 2003: 364
Raadik, T. A. & Kuiter, R. H. 2002: 830
McDowall, R. M. 2001: 396
Bromhead, D. & Kalish, J. & Waring, P. 2000: 732
Schiller, C. B. & Bruce, A. M. & Gehrke, P. C. 1997: 75
Turvey, P. & Merrick, J. R. 1997: 134
McDowall, R. M. & Fulton, W. 1996: 55
Green, K. & Osbourne, W. 1994: 124
Allen, G. R. 1989: 39
Allen, G. R. 1988: 3
Leggett, R. & Merrick, J. R. 1987: 92
Morison, A. K. & Anderson, J. R. 1987: 7
Campbell, I. C. & McKaige, M. E. & Lake, P. S. 1986: 95
Merrick, J. R. & Schmida, G. E. 1984: 85
Cadwallader, P. L. & Backhouse, G. N. 1983: 69
Ealey, E. H. M. & Deacon, G. B. & Coller, B. A. W. & Bird, G. J. & Bos-van & der Zalm, C. H. & Raper, W. G. C. & Rusden, S. C. V. 1983: 44
Llewellyn, L. C. 1983: 11
McDowall, R. M. & Frankenberg, R. S. 1981: 469
Cadwallader, P. L. & Eden, A. K. & Hook, R. A. 1980: 257
McDowall, R. M. 1980: 57
Bishop, K. A. & Tilzey, R. 1978: 14
Lake, J. S. 1978: 24
Bishop, K. A. 1977: 53
Dixon, J. M. 1976: 111
Andrews, A. P. 1976: 318
Grant, E. M. 1975: 564
Pollard, D. A. 1974: 117
Andrews, A. P. 1973: 105
Frankenberg, R. S. 1969: 170
Frankenberg, R. 1966: 23
Whitley, G. P. 1956: 39
Whitley, G. P. 1956: 34
Stokell, G. 1947: 671
McCulloch, A. R. 1929: 48
Hale, H. M. 1928: 25
McCulloch, A. R. 1927: 18
McCulloch, A. R. & Whitley, G. P. 1925: 133
Waite, E. R. 1924: 483
McCulloch, A. R. 1922: 18
Waite, E. R. 1921: 41
Zeitz, A. H. C. 1908: 297
Regan, C. T. 1906: 381
Ogilby, J. D. 1896: 66
Helms, R. 1890: 12
Ogilby, J. D. 1886: 54
Macleay, W. 1881: 230
Macleay, W. 1880: 46
Krefft, G. 1871: 768
Gunther, A. 1866: 209
1866