Petropedetes juliawurstnerae, Barej, Michael F., Rödel, Mark-Oliver, Gonwouo, Legrand Nono, Pauwels, Olivier S. G., Böhme, Wolfgang & Schmitz, Andreas, 2010

Barej, Michael F., Rödel, Mark-Oliver, Gonwouo, Legrand Nono, Pauwels, Olivier S. G., Böhme, Wolfgang & Schmitz, Andreas, 2010, Review of the genus Petropedetes Reichenow, 1874 in Central Africa with the description of three new species (Amphibia: Anura: Petropedetidae), Zootaxa 2340, pp. 1-49: 35-39

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.193288

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:E297A30A-6FC2-4DE0-8013-41BABF002F0C

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/11231684-5863-46D1-8733-26DE6E8D9D49

taxon LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:act:11231684-5863-46D1-8733-26DE6E8D9D49

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Petropedetes juliawurstnerae
status

sp. nov.

Petropedetes juliawurstnerae  sp. nov.

Figs. 4View FIGURE 4, 6View FIGURE 6 c, 7 d, 8 c, 9 c, 10 b, 14, 15

Holotype. ZFMK 67360 (adult male), Cameroon, Mt. Kupe: Nyasoso, 4 ° 49 ’ 42 N, 9 ° 40 ’ 55 E, app. 920 m a.s.l., 19.XII. 1997, coll. O. Euskirchen.

Paratypes. IRSNB-KBIN 1989 (female), IRSNB-KBIN 1990 (male), Cameroon, Mt. Kupe, Nyasoso app. 950 m a.s.l., 4 ° 49 ’ 42 N, 9 ° 40 ’ 55 E, 6.VII. 2009, coll. A Schmitz & M.F. Barej; MHNG 2713.12 (male), 5.VII. 2009, other data as IRSNB-KBIN 1989; MHNG 2713.13 (female), same data as IRSNB-KBIN 1989); ZFMK 67357 (female), 2.I. 1998, other data as holotype; ZFMK 67359 (female), 67987 -990, 68170 (4 males), Cameroon, Mt. Kupe, NW-slope, app. 910 m a.s.l., 18.XII. 1997 - 3.I. 1998, coll. A. Schmitz; ZFMK 68131 (male), 68134 - 136 (3 females), app. 950 m a.s.l., other data as ZFMK 67987; ZFMK 75590 (female), 75591 (male), Cameroon, Mt. Kupe: Nyasoso, 4 ° 49 ’ 42 N, 9 ° 40 ’ 55 E, 15.I. 2000, coll. H.-W. Herrmann & A. Schmitz; ZFMK 88866 (female), data as IRSNB-KBIN 1989; ZMB 73694View Materials (male), ZMB (73695) (female), data as IRSNB-KBIN 1989.

Additional material. ZFMK 67355 (male), Cameroon, Bakossi Mts., Meked, app. 625 m a.s.l., no date, coll. O. Euskirchen.

Diagnosis. Medium sized Petropedetes  ; slender body shape; tympanum round and distinct, smaller than eye diameter; characters of breeding males: tympanic papilla present, situated in the centre of the tympanum; forearm hypertrophy only weakly developed; carpal spike present; femoral glands long and narrow, not round; a typical dorsal marking of light spots in the form of a flower with five petals recognizable in many specimens ( Fig. 14View FIGURE 14); webbing moderate: 1 (0) 2 (0-0) 3 (1 - 1) 4 (2 - 2) 5 (0.5) ( Fig. 10View FIGURE 10 b).

Description of the holotype. The holotype is an adult male with a slender body shape; 32.7 mm SUL; snout in lateral view rounded; head width 13.8 mm; eye diameter 4.8 mm; interorbital distance 3.2 mm; naris closer to snout (1.9 mm) than to eye (3.2 mm); canthus rostralis distinct but rounded; loreal region deeply concave; throat without spinosities ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 c); femur length 18.1 mm; tibia length 19.8 mm; foot (incl. longest toe) 24.4 mm; femoral glands large, long and narrow (length x width: 6.8 x 1.9 mm / 6.6 x 2.0 mm); relation femoral gland length to femur length 0.37; spinosity hardly developed on upper forearms; webbing of feet: 1 (0) 2 (0-0) 3 (1 - 0.5) 4 (2 - 2) 5 (0.5); coloration in preservation: overall colour brown-grey; white marking in shape of a 5 -petal flower (indistinct); white warts on flanks, hind limbs and abdomen; upper hind limbs with white transversal bars, continuing on lower legs; ventral side whitish and pale, throat of same coloration with minuscule darker pigmented points; ventral surfaces of femora whitish with darker marbling, which covers in parts the femoral glands; lower leg ventrally with little marbling.

Variation. Medium sized Petropedetes  with slender body; females being slightly larger (SUL in males: 29.5–38.9 mm, in females: 39.1–42.6 mm); mean head width in males 40 % of SUL in females 39 %; snout in lateral view rounded; canthus rostralis distinct but rounded; loreal region deeply concave; eye diameter about 1.8 times eye-narial distance; nose closer to snout tip than eye; distinct round tympanum, smaller than eye in both sexes (tympanum / eye in males: 0.66–0.8 %, in females: 0.47–0.60); slender tympanic papilla situated in centre of tympanum ( Fig. 8View FIGURE 8 c); supratympanic fold distinct; fingers slender, with typically T-shaped fingertips; relative length of fingers: III> IV> II> I; manual subarticular tubercles single; manual webbing absent; palmar tubercle and thenar tubercle present, palmar tubercle sometimes indistinct; forearm hypertrophy weakly developed in males; carpal spike present in males (well visible on X-rays; Fig. 15View FIGURE 15); spinosities in males weakly developed on upper forearms; dorsal skin heterogeneous with larger warts on flanks; dorsum with prolonged warts, less distinctly developed than in other species; ventral skin smooth; mean femur length in males 54 % of SUL, in females 52 %, mean tibia length in males 60 % of SUL, in females 57 %; mean foot length in males 76 % of SUL, in females 75 %; upper hind limbs of moderate size, lower hind limbs slender; femoral glands line-shaped, long and narrow, of almost similar length in both sexes (femoral gland / femur length in males: 0.36–0.51, in females: 0.32–0.41); relative length of toes: IV> III> V> II> I; half-webbed species, different webbing usually 3 (1 - 1), sometimes 3 (0.5 -0) running along the 3 rd toe, 4 (1.5 - 1.5) up to 4 (2 - 2) and 5 (0) or 5 (0.5); webbing of ZFMK 68170 (paratype) 1 (0) 2 (0-0) 3 (1 -0) 4 (2 - 2) 5 (0).

Females of P. juliawurstnerae  sp. nov. possess long femoral glands, which may make sex determination difficult. Females are best recognizable by their smaller tympana and more slender femoral glands ( Fig. 9View FIGURE 9 c).

Coloration. Dorsum brown with large greenish spots on head, or back dark brown without lighter spots, only light warts ( Fig. 8View FIGURE 8 c); iris golden; flanks with white warts; legs coloured as dorsum with greenish transversal bars; femoral glands pale orange or brownish; coloration in preservation: dorsum predominantly uniform grey or brown with few light, small spots; typical pattern of pale spots, resembling a flower with five petals, in most specimens recognizable; legs with thin white transverse lines.

Natural history. The species has been found at a water reservoir and close to small, fast flowing creeks at Mt. Kupe. The streambed was stony and the surrounding vegetation was a transition between primary and secondary rainforest. The frogs were sitting on slippery stones, overgrown by algae, or in the riverine vegetation at heights of 10–20 cm. On Mt. Kupe P. juliawurstnerae  sp. nov. occurs in syntopy with P. euskircheni  sp. nov.

Distribution. At present the species is only known from its type locality at Mt. Kupe and Meked on the adjacent Bakossi Mountains ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4).

Genetics. The genetic comparison for the uncorrected p-distances of the mitochondrial 16 S rRNAfragment (Table 4) gave the following results for Petropedetes juliawurstnerae  sp. nov.: interspecific comparison between P. juliawurstnerae  sp. nov. and all other Central African Petropedetes  taxa ranged between 2.84 %- 12.39 %, while the intraspecific variation within P. juliawurstnerae  sp. nov. was much lower at 0.00%- 0.90 % (N= 5). The lowest interspecific difference has been detected between P. p e r re t i and P. juliawurstnerae  sp. nov. ranging between 2.84 %- 3.59 %, but species can be clearly differentiated on the morphological basis alone (see below).

Systematic remarks. Mostly closely P. juliawurstnerae  sp. nov. resembles P. p e r re t i and P. cameronensis  . It shares a tympanic papilla in the centre of the tympanum and a similar shape with P. perreti  ( Figs. 8View FIGURE 8 a, 8 c), and similar webbing with P. cameronensis  ( Figs. 10View FIGURE 10 b, 10 c). From the other species P. juliawurstnerae  sp. nov. is distinctly different by its half-webbed toes; i.e. fully webbed in P. palmipes  (additionally lacking the tympanal papilla) and rudimentary-webbed in P. euskircheni  sp. nov., P. johnstoni  , P. parkeri  , and P. vulpiae  sp. nov. Breeding males of P. juliawurstnerae  sp. nov. can be distinguished from other species with a tympanic papilla by the position of the papilla. Only P. juliawurstnerae  sp. nov. and P. perreti  have papillae in the centre of the tympanum. In all other species this papilla is positioned closer to the dorsal edge of the tympanum. The papilla of P. juliawurstnerae  sp. nov. is broad at the end, when not shrivelled after preservation.

From the most similar two species, P. p e r re t i and P. cameronensis  , P. juliawurstnerae  sp. nov. can be distinguished by the following characters: P. juliawurstnerae  sp. nov. is smaller than P. p e r re t i (SUL in males: N juliawurstnerae  = 12, N perreti  = 13, p <0.001; in females: N juliawurstnerae  = 10, N perreti  = 15, p <0.01). The tympanum diameter / eye diameter ratio is smaller in male P. juliawurstnerae  sp. nov. (tympanum diameter / eye diameter in males: N juliawurstnerae  = 12, N perreti  = 13, p <0.001), but does not differ significantly in females (p = 0.23). The webbing is less developed than in P. p e r re t i ( Figs. 10View FIGURE 10 a, 10 b): 1) webbing deeper notched in P. juliawurstnerae  sp. nov., 2) webbing always less developed on the fourth toe, where it usually leaves 1.5–2 phalanges free in P. juliawurstnerae  sp. nov.; but only 0 or 1 free phalange in P. perreti  . The femoral gland of P. juliawurstnerae  sp. nov. is long and narrow (stripe-like) in males and females. The femoral glands of P. perreti  are more oval. The gland length / gland width ratio in P. juliawurstnerae  sp. nov. is significantly larger (gland length / gland width in males: N juliawurstnerae  = 12, N perreti  = 13, p <0.001; in females: N juliawurstnerae  = 10, N perreti  = 15, p <0.001).

In contrast, P. c a m e ro n e n s i s and P. juliawurstnerae  sp. nov. do not differ in their size (males p= 0.19; females p = 0.29). Petropedetes juliawurstnerae  sp. nov. can be distinguished from P. cameronensis  by the size of the tympanum which is distinct in P. juliawurstnerae  sp. nov., but only rudimentary or even indistinctly developed in P. cameronensis  (tympanum diameter / eye diameter in males: N juliawurstnerae  = 12, N cameronensis  = 16, p <0.001; in females: N juliawurstnerae  = 10, N cameronensis  = 17, p <0.001). P. c a m e ro n e n s i s males lack the tympanic papillae present in breeding P. juliawurstnerae  sp. nov. males. Especially in females, which do not carry a tympanic papilla, the similar webbing makes it difficult distinguishing the new species from P. cameronensis  . In this case the shape of the femoral gland is the character best suited for species identification. The femoral glands are oval shaped in P. cameronensis  ; the gland length / gland width ratio in P. juliawurstnerae  sp. nov. is significantly larger (gland length / gland width in males: N juliawurstnerae  = 12, N cameronensis  = 16, p <0.001; in females: N juliawurstnerae  = 10, N cameronensis  = 17, p <0.001).

Spinosities in examined specimens of P. juliawurstnerae  sp. nov. seem not to be fully developed, therefore spines could be developed on the throat and more developed on upper forelimbs as well, as in other species ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 c).

Etymology. The specific epithet juliawurstnerae  is a matronym. The name is dedicated to Mrs. Julia Anna Maria Wurstner (Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Germany), who accompanied the senior author during fieldwork in 2007 and supported his work from the beginning.

ZFMK

Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig

MHNG

Museum d'Histoire Naturelle

ZMB

Museum für Naturkunde Berlin (Zoological Collections)