Macrophyes pacoti Brescovit, Oliveira, Sobczak & Sobczak

Brescovit, Antonio D., Villanueva-Bonilla, German A., Sobczak, Jullyana Cristina M. S. M., De Sousa Nóbrega, Francisco A., Oliveira, Luiz Fernando M., Arruda, Italo Diego Paiva & Sobczak, Jober F., 2019, Macrophyes pacoti n. sp. (Araneae: Anyphaenidae) from Brazilian Atlantic Forest, with notes on an araneopathogenic fungus, Zootaxa 4629 (2), pp. 294-300: 295-297

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4629.2.12

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:2ABB4332-91D5-49F2-B50B-3B361E274B5C

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/B746677B-DA55-0926-FF3C-16A5FD4DFE23

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Macrophyes pacoti Brescovit, Oliveira, Sobczak & Sobczak
status

new species

Macrophyes pacoti Brescovit, Oliveira, Sobczak & Sobczak   , new species

( Figures. 1 View FIGURE 1 A−F, 2A−D, 3A−B, 4)

Types. Male holotype from Reserva Florestal Particular Empresa Arvoredo Floricultura (4°18’40’’S, 38º58’05’’W, 840 m alt.), Pacoti, Ceará, Brazil, V-VI/2017, J.F. Sobzak leg., sample 9.13, deposited in IBSP 213909; female paratype from same locality, sample 9.19, deposited in IBSP 213910   .

Other material examined. Brazil. Ceará: Pacoti (04°13’03”S; 38°55’22”W), Reserva Florestal Particular Empresa Arvoredo Floricultura, fungus covering spider’s body GoogleMaps   , 1♀ ( IBSP 213905 View Materials )   , 1♀ ( IBSP 213908 View Materials )   , 1♀ ( IBSP 213904 View Materials , photo)   , 1♀ j ( IBSP 213907 View Materials )   , 1♀ j ( IBSP 213906 View Materials )   , V-VI/2017, J.F. Sobzak leg.; not covered by fungus: 1♀, V–VI.2017, sample 9.20, J.F. Sobczak leg. ( IBSP 213913 View Materials , draw internal epigynum)   ; 1♀, sample 9.15 ( IBSP 213913 View Materials )   ; 1♀, sample 3.5 ( IBSP 213914 View Materials )   ; 1♀, sample 5.9 ( IBSP 213911 View Materials , photo)   ; 1♂, sample 9.16 ( IBSP 213915 View Materials ; photo); V-VI/2017, J.F. Sobzak leg.   ; Paraíba: Areia (06°57’46”S; 35°41’31”W), Mata do Guarim GoogleMaps   , 1♂, 12/IV/1997, A.D. Brescovit leg. ( IBSP 10280 View Materials )   ; Areia, Reserva da Mata do Pau Ferro , (06°57’28”S; 35°44’4”W) GoogleMaps   , 1♂, 23-29/IX/1999, A.D. Brescovit et al. leg. ( IBSP 138952 View Materials )   ; 1♀ ( IBSP 138936 View Materials )   ; 1♀ ( IBSP 138951 View Materials )   ; 1♀ ( IBSP 138955 View Materials )   ; 1♀ ( IBSP 139959 View Materials )   ; 1♂ ( IBSP 138957 View Materials )   ; 1♂ ( IBSP 138947 View Materials )   ; 1♂ ( IBSP 138935 View Materials )   ; 1♂ ( IBSP 138948 View Materials )   , all same locality and collector   ; Pernambuco: Recife , (08°03’14”S; 34°52’51”W), Horto Dois Irmãos GoogleMaps   , 4♂, 4♀, 30/V−02/VI/2001, Equipe Biota leg. ( IBSP 138511−138512 View Materials ; IBSP 138514−138519 View Materials ), all same locality and collector GoogleMaps   ; Alagoas: Murici, Estação Ecológica de Murici (09°15’S, 35°51’W) GoogleMaps   , 1♂, 13-22/IX/2003, Equipe Biota leg. ( IBSP 139920 View Materials )   ; 1♀ ( IBSP 139869 View Materials )   ; 1♂, 1♀ ( IBSP139875 View Materials )   ; 1♂ ( IBSP 139901 View Materials )   ; 1♀ ( IBSP 139916 View Materials )   ; 1♂ ( IBSP 139866 View Materials )   ; 1♀ ( IBSP 139906 View Materials )   ; 1♂ ( IBSP 139885 View Materials )   ; 1♂ ( IBSP 139896 View Materials )   ; 1♂ ( IBSP 139922 View Materials )   ; 1♀ ( IBSP 139878 View Materials )   ; 2♂ ( IBSP 139912 View Materials )   ; 1♂ ( IBSP 139891 View Materials )   ; 1♂ ( IBSP 139889 View Materials )   ; 1♂, 1♀ ( IBSP 139870 View Materials )   ; 1♂ ( IBSP 139881 View Materials )   ; 1♂ ( IBSP 139871 View Materials )   ; 1♀ ( IBSP 139867 View Materials )   ; 1♂ ( IBSP 139892 View Materials )   ; 1♂ ( IBSP 139918 View Materials )   ; 1♀ ( IBSP 139877 View Materials )   ; 1♂ ( IBSP 139879 View Materials )   ; 1♀ ( IBSP 139923 View Materials )   ; 1♂ ( IBSP 139909 View Materials )   , 1♂ ( IBSP 139917 View Materials )   ; 1♂ ( IBSP 139863 View Materials )   , all same locality and collector   ; Sergipe: Santa Luzia do Itanhy, Mata do Crasto (11°21’03”S 37°26’52”W) GoogleMaps   , 1♂, 09−13/IX/1999, A.D. Brescovit et al. leg. ( IBSP 138553 View Materials )   ; 1♀ ( IBSP 138555 View Materials )   ; 1♀ ( IBSP 138556 View Materials )   ; 1♂ ( IBSP 138557 View Materials )   ; 1♀ ( IBSP 138558 View Materials )   ; 1♀ ( IBSP 138559 View Materials )   ; 1♂ ( IBSP 138560 View Materials )   ; 1♂ ( IBSP 138561 View Materials )   ; 1♀ ( IBSP 138562 View Materials )   ; 1♀ ( IBSP 138563 View Materials )   , all same locality and collector   ; Bahia: Mata de São João (12°31’48”S, 38°17’56”W), Fazenda Camurujipe GoogleMaps   , 1♂, 2006, C. Machado leg. ( IBSP 91317 View Materials )   ; 1♂ ( IBSP 91318 View Materials )   ; ♂ 1 ( IBSP 91319 View Materials )   ; 1♀ ( IBSP 91320 View Materials )   ; 1♂ ( IBSP 91321 View Materials )   ; 1♀ ( IBSP 91322 View Materials )   , all same locality and collector; Jussari, Reserva Natural da Fazenda Teimoso (15°09’S 39°31’W) GoogleMaps   , 1♀, 21/XI/1998, F. Dias leg. ( IBSP 35171 View Materials )   ; Espírito Santo: Conceição da Barra, Parque Estadual de Itaúnas (18°25.5’97”S; 39°42’25.68”W)   , 1♀, 15/XII/2002 − 06/III/2003, Equipe Biota leg. ( IBSP 138696 View Materials )   ; Rio de Janeiro: Petrópolis (22°30’18”S; 43°10’44”W), Fazenda Ranchinho da Roça GoogleMaps   , 1♀, 08–15.II.2000, Equipe Biota leg. ( IBSP 139959 View Materials )   .

Etymology. The noun in apposition refers to the type locality.

Diagnosis. Males of Macrophyes pacoti   n. sp. resembles those of M. jundiai   (see Brescovit, 1993, figs. 1−2) by the long tibiae and vestigial tibial retrolateral apophysis but differ by the palp having a sinuous spermatic duct and elongated, bent embolus ( Figs. 1C, D View FIGURE 1 ; 2A View FIGURE 2 ). Females are readily recognizable by the epigynum with triangular atrium and slightly sclerotized lateral borders ( Fig. 1E View FIGURE 1 , 2C View FIGURE 2 ).

Description. Male (IBSP 213909). Carapace yellow with gray cephalic area and paramedian bands. Chelicerae, endites and labium brown. Sternum white. Abdomen white with dorsal median gray band dorsally, ventrally white. Legs I-II orange with green bands in the femora I, and other legs white ( Fig. 1A View FIGURE 1 , 3A View FIGURE 3 ). Total length 4.8, carapace length 1.8, width 1.6. Clypeus height 0.08. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME 0.08, ALE 0.16, PME 0.18, PLE 0.16; AME– AME 0.06, AME–ALE 0.06, PME–PME 0.10, PME–PLE 0.10, ALE–PLE 0.06. Chelicerae 1.0 long, with 5 promarginal teeth and 5 retromarginal denticles. Leg measurements: Leg I—femur 2.1/ patella 0.75/ tibia 2.4/ metatarsus 2.0/ tarsus 0.75/ total 8.0; II—2.0/ 0.7/ 2.0/ 1.8/ 0.8/ 7.3; III— 1.5/ 0.45/ 1.1/ 1.4/ 0.5/ 4.95; IV—2.2/ 0.55/ 1.8/ 2.3/ 0.65/ 7.5. Leg spination: I−II—tibia v2-2 -0, p0, r0, metatarsus v2 -0-0, p0, r0; III—tibia v1 p-2-0, p1-1-0, r1-1-0, metatarsus v2-2 -2, p1- 1-1, r1-1-1; IV—tibia v1 p-1p-2, p1-1-0, r1-1-0, metatarsus v2-2 -2, p1-1-1, r1-1-1. Palp: tibia almost as long as cymbium ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 A−B); short and rounded retrolateral tibial apophysis ( Fig. 2B View FIGURE 2 ); median apophysis subapical, short, curved at tip ( Figs.1C View FIGURE 1 , 2A View FIGURE 2 ). Abdomen: length 3.0, epigastric furrow 1.0 from tracheal spiracle, spiracle 1.0 from base of spinnerets.

Female (IBSP 213910). Coloration as in male, except carapace dorsally with inconspicuous bands and abdomen totally cream ( Fig. 1B View FIGURE 1 ). Total length 4.8, carapace length 1.7, width 1.4. Clypeus height 0.06. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME 0.08, ALE 0.12, PME 0.12, PLE 0.12; AME–AME 0.06, AME–ALE 0.04, PME–PME 0.10, PME–PLE 0.4, ALE–PLE 0.06. Chelicerae 0.7 long, with 5 promarginal teeth and 7 retromarginal denticles. Leg measurements: Leg I—femur 2.1/ patella 0.75/ tibia 2.4/ metatarsus 2.0/ tarsus 0.75/ total 8.0; II—2.0/ 0.7/ 2.0/ 1.8/ 0.8/ 7.3; III—1.5/ 0.45/ 1.1/ 1.4/ 0.5/ 4.95; IV—2.2/ 0.55/ 1.8/ 2.3/ 0.65/ 7.5. Leg spination: I−III—tibia and metatarsus as in male; IV—tibia v1 p- 1p-2, p1-1-0, r1-1-0, metatarsus v2-2 -2, p1-1-1, r1-1-1. Abdomen: length 3.1, epigastric furrow 1.0 from tracheal spiracle, spiracle 1.1 from base of spinnerets. Epigynum: oval spermathecae, short copulatory ducts between the spermathecae, with oval seminal receptacles in the basal third and elongate, posterior fertilization ducts ( Figs. 1E, F View FIGURE 1 ; 2 View FIGURE 2 C−D).

Variation. Males (n = 10): total length 4.5−4.8; carapace 1.7−1.8; femur I 2.7−2.8; females (n = 10): total length 4.1−4.9; carapace 1.5−2.0; femur I 1.8−2.4.

Distribution. Known from the states of Ceará, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe and Bahia in northeast Brazil and state of Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, in southeast Brazil ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 ).

Remarks. In the area of the Reserva Florestal Particular Empresa Arvoredo Floricultura at least 10 specimens of M. pacoti   n. sp. were collected. Among these specimens, five individuals were infected with fungi (1 male and 4 females) and five were not infected. Infected specimens were attacked by a species of araneopathogenic fungus of the genus Gibellula   sp. ( Cordycipitaceae   ), which is the most common genus to infect spiders in South America ( Evans 2013). Some specimens showed white coloration and others orange coloration ( Fig. 3B View FIGURE 3 ), the latter being more abundant. The hyphae of the fungus attack the specimens from the exoskeleton into the hemocele, ultimately covering the whole body of the spider. These infected spiders usually die on the abbatial surface of green leaves, with their legs stretched and fixed to leaf ( Fig. 3B View FIGURE 3 ), which possibly helps in fixing the host to the plant. In addition, spiders, after killed by the parasitic fungus, have developed fungal reproductive structures in their bodies.