Drassodella Hewitt, 1916

Mbo, Zingisile & Haddad, Charles R., 2019, A revision of the endemic South African long-jawed ground spider genus Drassodella Hewitt, 1916 (Araneae: Gallieniellidae), Zootaxa 4582 (1), pp. 1-62: 5-12

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4582.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:9DC61794-4BD7-4F6D-BB8C-84D9855C8151

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5662622

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/B74F87AB-9E65-402A-53B3-CFFB672D9F33

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Drassodella Hewitt, 1916
status

 

Genus Drassodella Hewitt, 1916  

Drassodella Hewitt, 1916: 209   ; Tucker, 1923: 309; Roewer, 1954: 384, 1467; Bonnet, 1956: 1556; Platnick, 1989: 457; Dippenaar-Schoeman & Jocqué, 1997: 166; Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman, 2006: 126.

Type species: Drassodella salisburyi Hewitt, 1916   , by original designation.

Diagnosis: Drassodella   can be recognised from Austrachelas   by the following: 1) carapace almost always with an median upsilon marking of white feathery setae and the lateral margins with a narrow fringe of white feathery setae, which are absent in Austrachelas   ; 2) usually with striped or spotted dorsal markings on the abdomen, which are rarely absent (e.g. Figs 1–4 View FIGURES 1–4 ), while Austrachelas   have chevron markings (see Haddad et al. 2009: figs 1–15); 3) shield-shaped sternum ( Fig. 26 View FIGURES 18–26 ), while oval in Austrachelas   (see Haddad et al. 2009: fig. 17); 4) anterior legs with weakly scopulate metatarsi and tarsi ( Figs 34 View FIGURES 27–38 , 39–42 View FIGURES 39–50 ), while densely scopulate in Austrachelas   (see Haddad et al. 2009: figs 24–26, 33); 5) posterior metatarsi with the pro- and retrolateral dorsal spines occurring singly (i.e. pl 3 rl 3), while usually paired in Austrachelas   (i.e. pl 6 rl 4-6).

Description: Small to medium spiders, body length 2.56–9.85 mm. Carapace broad, oval, cephalic region slightly narrowed, broadest between coxae II and III ( Figs 5–8 View FIGURES 5–17 ); in lateral profile raised evenly along midline, sloping gently posteriorly ( Fig. 9 View FIGURES 5–17 ); posterior margin rebordered, moderately concave above pedicel ( Figs 10 View FIGURES 5–17 , 18 View FIGURES 18–26 ); eight eyes in two rows (4:4); lateral eyes set on low tubercles; all eyes surrounded by black rings; AER slightly recurved when viewed dorsally ( Figs 5 View FIGURES 5–17 , 19 View FIGURES 18–26 ), straight or slightly recurved when viewed from front; AME smaller or equal to ALE; AME separated by more than half their diameter, closer to ALE than to each other; PER slightly recurved, broader than AER ( Fig. 19 View FIGURES 18–26 ); PME flattened, transversely oval, more or less the same distance between each other and PLE; PME smaller than PLE. Clypeus slightly larger than AME diameter, with few long erect setae; surface smooth, sparsely covered in short straight and feathery setae; usually black, rarely yellow-orange or brown with reticulate black mottling, usually with white feathery setae forming an inverted Y-shaped (upsilon) dorsal marking along midline, with split posterior to fovea ( Fig. 18 View FIGURES 18–26 ); lateral margins with narrow fringe composed of white feathery setae ( Figs 20, 21 View FIGURES 18–26 ), rarely without dorsal markings; several long erect setae scattered between fovea and posterior margin ( Fig. 18 View FIGURES 18–26 ); fovea short to elongate, narrow.

Chelicerae usually moderately protruding in males, slightly angled and/or vertically orientated in females, slightly tapering distally ( Figs 5–8 View FIGURES 5–17 ); surface finely granulate, with many moderately long erect setae on anterior surface of paturon; cheliceral escort seta (sensu Ramírez 2014: fig. 15B) present, promarginally near fang base ( Fig. 22 View FIGURES 18–26 ); condyle (boss) small to large ( Fig. 9 View FIGURES 5–17 ); fangs moderately elongate ( Fig. 22 View FIGURES 18–26 ), with fine ridges near opening of venom ducts; promargin with three teeth, retromargin with two teeth ( Fig. 23 View FIGURES 18–26 ). Chilum single, distinct, triangular in shape; endites obliquely depressed, very broad, slightly sinuous, widest medially, without median groove, with distinct dense maxillar hair tuft and serrula ( Figs 24, 25 View FIGURES 18–26 ); labium slightly longer than broad or as long, posterolateral margins of labium with distinct sclerotized groove; anterior portion slightly inclined, posterior portion short; anterior margin with erect setae, slightly concave medially.

Sternum shield-shaped, longer than broad, with blunt apex posteriorly ( Figs 11 View FIGURES 5–17 , 26 View FIGURES 18–26 ); anterior margin concave or straight, widest at coxae II. Intercoxal sclerites present between coxae I & II, II & III, III & IV; precoxal triangles present; pleural bars weakly to moderately sclerotised, isolated or fused ( Fig. 9 View FIGURES 5–17 ). Pedicel composed of broad dorsal sclerite and inverted Y- or V-shaped ventral sclerite ( Figs 9–11 View FIGURES 5–17 ).

Legs long and moderately thin ( Figs 1–4 View FIGURES 1–4 ), leg formula 4123; anterior pairs of legs weakly spined, posterior pairs of legs moderately to strongly spined; trochanters notched; femora with curved elongate ventral setae ( Figs 27, 28 View FIGURES 27–38 ); patellar indentation narrow, with large lyriform organ at proximal end ( Figs 29, 30 View FIGURES 27–38 ); tibiae with distal lyriform organ retrolaterally ( Fig. 31 View FIGURES 27–38 ); tibiae, metatarsi and tarsi with several trichobothria, feathery and chemosensory setae ( Figs 31–33, 35–37 View FIGURES 27–38 ); posterior legs with single or paired ventral metatarsal spines; feathery setae present on all leg segments (e.g. Figs 29, 33, 34 View FIGURES 27–38 ), usually dorsally and laterally situated on metatarsi and tarsi; metatarsi and tarsi weakly scopulate ( Figs 34 View FIGURES 27–38 , 39–42 View FIGURES 39–50 ), anterior metatarsi usually scopulate in distal half only, tarsi scopulate for entire length; tarsal organ oval and slightly elevated ( Fig. 38 View FIGURES 27–38 ); tarsi with paired dentate claws, usually with 3-5 teeth, situated dorsally to claw tufts comprising tenent setae ( Figs 35 View FIGURES 27–38 , 43 View FIGURES 39–50 ); claw tufts denser on anterior ( Fig. 40 View FIGURES 39–50 ) than posterior tarsi ( Fig. 43 View FIGURES 39–50 ); females with ventral row of erect setae on palpal femur.

Abdomen oval-elongate, with yellow, white or cream dorsal stripes or spots, or without markings, on black or grey background ( Figs 1–4 View FIGURES 1–4 , 12–14 View FIGURES 5–17 ); dorsum covered in short erect and feathery setae, markings comprising dense feathery setae ( Fig. 44 View FIGURES 39–50 ); dorsum with two pairs of small sigilla, posterior pair more widely separated ( Figs 12, 14 View FIGURES 5–17 ), often with additional pair of sclerites on anterior margin above pedicel ( Fig. 15 View FIGURES 5–17 ) and laterally above booklungs; males with short dorsal abdominal scutum anteriorly, absent in females; several fine straight erect setae on anterior margin above pedicel; pale ventrally ( Fig. 16 View FIGURES 5–17 ), with one or two lines of tiny sclerites usually present, sometimes absent, with few scattered feathery setae between short straight setae ( Fig. 45 View FIGURES 39–50 ); epigastric region weakly sclerotised, and post-epigastric sclerites weakly to strongly sclerotized ( Fig. 16 View FIGURES 5–17 ), between short straight setae.

Spinnerets (analysed with SEM observations only in females of D. guttata   sp. nov. and D. tolkieni   sp. nov.): ALS conical, nearly cylindrical, not widely separated, with sclerotized apical segment ( Figs 17 View FIGURES 5–17 , 47 View FIGURES 39–50 ); single major ampullate gland spigot and numerous piriform gland spigots present ( Fig. 48 View FIGURES 39–50 ); PMS with two ( Fig. 17 View FIGURES 5–17 ) or three rows of cylindrical gland spigots, single minor ampullate gland spigot and many aciniform gland spigots ( Fig. 49 View FIGURES 39–50 ); PLS with aciniform gland spigots, cylindrical gland spigots, single minor ampullate gland spigot and nubbins ( Fig. 50 View FIGURES 39–50 ); PLS longer and more widely separated than ALS ( Fig. 17 View FIGURES 5–17 ).

Female epigynes with distinct anterior hoods, lateral hoods only present in D. melana   species group ( Fig. 51 View FIGURES 51–59 ); anterior hood transverse, median septum broad and subrectangular in D. melana   species group ( Figs 60–69 View FIGURES 60–77 ), variable but generally more longitudinal in D. salisburyi   species group ( Figs 70–77 View FIGURES 60–77 ); epigyne muscle sigilla ( Figs 51, 52 View FIGURES 51–59 ) broad or elongate, sometimes absent; longitudinal ridge of median septum sometimes broadened posteriorly; copulatory openings forming narrow slit laterally on median septum ( Fig. 51 View FIGURES 51–59 ); copulatory ducts very short, entering ST II along mesal margin ( Fig. 53 View FIGURES 51–59 ); ST II anterior to ST I, with broad, medially-curving duct linking them ( Figs 60–69 View FIGURES 60–77 ); ST II with widely spaced glandular pores on spermathecal head ( Fig. 54 View FIGURES 51–59 ).

Male palp with broad oval cymbium, tapering distally, with sparse to dense cymbial scopula present dorsally ( Figs 55–57 View FIGURES 51–59 , 78–92 View FIGURES 78–92 ); embolus in D. melana   species group originating prolaterally, forming broad arch, with fine retrolateral tip ( Figs 57–59 View FIGURES 51–59 , 78–85 View FIGURES 78–92 ), subtriangular and variably orientated in D. salisburyi   species group ( Figs 86– 92 View FIGURES 78–92 ); embolus with one or two basal prongs prolaterally in D. melana   species group ( Figs 57–59 View FIGURES 51–59 ), absent in D. salisburyi   species group; median apophysis hook-shaped in D. melana   species group ( Fig. 59 View FIGURES 51–59 ), subtriangular or forming stout hook in D. salisburyi   species group ( Figs 86–92 View FIGURES 78–92 ); retrolateral tibial apophysis simple, triangular.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Gallieniellidae

Loc

Drassodella Hewitt, 1916

Mbo, Zingisile & Haddad, Charles R. 2019
2019
Loc

Drassodella

Jocque, R. & Dippenaar-Schoeman, A. S. 2006: 126
Dippenaar-Schoeman, A. S. & Jocque, R. 1997: 166
Platnick, N. I. 1989: 457
Bonnet, P. 1956: 1556
Roewer, C. F. 1954: 384
Tucker, R. W. E. 1923: 309
Hewitt, J. 1916: 209
1916