Drassodella tolkieni, Mbo & Haddad, 2019

Mbo, Zingisile & Haddad, Charles R., 2019, A revision of the endemic South African long-jawed ground spider genus Drassodella Hewitt, 1916 (Araneae: Gallieniellidae), Zootaxa 4582 (1), pp. 1-62: 32-34

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4582.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:9DC61794-4BD7-4F6D-BB8C-84D9855C8151

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/B74F87AB-9E7E-4000-53B3-CC8F66A9982B

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Drassodella tolkieni
status

sp. nov.

Drassodella tolkieni   sp. nov.

Figs 22 View FIGURES 18–26 , 32, 33 View FIGURES 27–38 , 40, 42, 45, 47 View FIGURES 39–50 , 53, 54 View FIGURES 51–59 , 67 View FIGURES 60–77 , 83 View FIGURES 78–92 , 105, 106 View FIGURES 93–110 , 141–145 View FIGURES 141–145

Etymology. Named after John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, who was born in Bloemfontein, Free State, South Africa on 3 rd January 1892 and died on 2 nd September 1973. He is internationally recognised for his authorship of The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings and The Silmarillion, amongst other works. His fictional “Middle Earth” is believed to have been inspired in part by the exceptional natural scenery of Hogsback, the type locality of this species.

Diagnosis. Females of D. tolkieni   sp. nov. can be distinguished from others in the D. melana   group by the distinctly concave posterior margin of the anterior hood ( Fig. 67 View FIGURES 60–77 ) and the chevron markings in the posterior half of the abdomen ( Fig. 105 View FIGURES 93–110 ). Males of D. tolkieni   sp. nov. share with males of D. venda   sp. nov. the dorsal embolic prong that is larger than the ventral prong, but can be distinguished by the shorter RTA with a slightly curved tip, while the RTA is longer and triangular in D. venda   sp. nov. (compare Fig. 145 View FIGURES 141–145 with Fig. 155 View FIGURES 151–155 ).

Description. Female (Holotype, Hogsback, NCA 2013 /4616). Measurements: CL 1.92, CW 2.24, AL 3.44, AW 2.24, TL 6.60 (4.90–6.60), FL 0.46, SL 1.64, SW 1.47, CH 0.12, AME-AME 0.07, AME-ALE 0.02, ALE- ALE 0.29, PME-PME 0.10, PME-PLE 0.09, PLE-PLE 0.48, PERW 0.60, MOQAW 0.23, MOQPW 0.44, MOQL 0.28.

Length of leg segments: I 3.00 + 1.60 + 2.64 + 2.40 + 1.58 = 11.22, II 2.60 + 1.54 + 2.18 + 2.16 + 1.44 = 9.90, III 2.52 + 1.38 + 1.76 + 2.24 + 1.18 = 9.08, IV 3.52 + 1.70 + 2.72 + 3.56 + 1.24 = 12.74.

General appearance as in Fig. 105 View FIGURES 93–110 . Carapace orange-brown, with black mottling and scattered white feathery setae; upsilon marking indistinct. Clypeus height twice AME diameter; AME smaller than ALE; AME separated by distance slightly larger than their diameter, AME separated from ALE by distance equal to 0.33 AME diameter; PME equal to PLE; PME separated by distance equal to 1.66 their diameter, PME separated from PLE by distance equal to 1.50 PME diameter. Chelicerae brown; promargin with three teeth, median tooth largest, proximal tooth smallest; retromargin with two teeth, distal tooth smaller than proximal tooth. Endites brown, with mediolateral mottling, pale at maxillar hair tuft. Labium brown, as long as wide. Sternum brown, with dark brown mottling on surface. Legs with dark brown proximal segments, distal segments orange. Leg spination: femora: I do 2, II do 2, III pl 1 do 2 rl 2, IV do 3; patellae: spineless; tibiae: I & II spineless, III pl 2 do 2 rl 2 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 2, IV pl 2 do 2 rl 2 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 2; metatarsi: I & II spineless, III pl 4 rl 4 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 2, IV pl 4 rl 4 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 2; palpal spination: femora do 3; patellae do 1; tibia pl 3 do 3 rl 3; tarsi pl 1 do 2 rl 2. Abdomen dark brown; dorsum with white patch anteriorly, stretching to half abdomen length, with four white lateral markings, posterior half with faint dark grey chevrons, white marking on anal tubercle ( Fig. 105 View FIGURES 93–110 ); lateral sclerites above booklungs narrow; venter brown; lateral sclerites small, post-epigastric sclerites absent; double rows of tiny sclerites from booklungs to spinnerets. Spinnerets cream. Epigyne with deep anterior hood, anterior margin convex, posterior margin strongly concave, lateral ends tapering abruptly to sharp point; lateral hoods curved, close to copulatory openings; ST II yellow, connecting ducts and ST I yellow-brown; ST I and II similar in size, ST II elongate-oval ( Figs 67 View FIGURES 60–77 , 141, 142 View FIGURES 141–145 ).

Male (Paratype, Hogsback, NCA 2013 /4541). Measurements: CL 1.78, CW 1.40, AL 1.96, AW 1.08, TL 3.84 (3.80–5.24), FL 0.21, SL 1.00, SW 0.80, CH 0.10, AME-AME 0.05, AME-ALE 0.01, ALE-ALE 0.17, PME- PME 0.06, PME-PLE 0.08, PLE-PLE 0.33, PERW 0.38, MOQAW 0.14, MOQPW 0.16, MOQL 0.14.

Length of leg segments: I 1.28 + 0.62 + 0.98 + 0.96 + 0.96 = 4.80, II 1.18 + 0.56 + 0.88 + 0.98 + 0.72 = 4.32, III 1.04 + 0.48 + 0.76 + 1.04 + 0.66 = 3.98, IV 1.68 + 0.64 + 1.24 + 1.76 + 0.82 = 6.14.

General appearance as in Fig. 106 View FIGURES 93–110 . Carapace uniformly dark brown, with radiating black mottling; white feathery setae scattered; upsilon marking indistinct but thick white line composed of feathery setae diverging behind fovea to posterior margin. Clypeus height equal to 1.43 times AME diameter; AME smaller than ALE; AME separated by distance slightly smaller than their diameter, AME almost touching ALE; PME equal to PLE; PME separated by distance equal to 1.16 their diameter, PME separated from PLE by distance equal to 1.33 PME diameter. Chelicerae brown; promargin with three teeth, median tooth largest, proximal tooth smallest; retromargin with two teeth, distal tooth smaller than proximal tooth. Endites brown, pale at maxillar hair tuft. Labium brown, slightly longer than wide. Sternum brown. Legs brown to dark-brown. Leg spination: femora: I pl 1 do 2, II do 2, III do 3, IV pl 1 do 2 rl 1; patellae: spineless; tibiae: I & II spineless, III pl 2 do 2 rl 2 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 2, IV pl 2 do 2 rl 2 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 2; metatarsi: I & II spineless, III pl 4 do 1 rl 4 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 2, IV pl 4 rl 4 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 2; palpal spination: femora do 3; patellae do 1; tibiae spineless; tarsi do 1. Abdomen dark-brown, markings similar to female, but with less dense white feathery setae ( Fig. 106 View FIGURES 93–110 ); dorsal scutum and anterior marginal sigilla absent; venter creamy-yellow; laterally with two large distinct oval sclerites; two pairs of tiny sclerites running from epigastric furrow to spinnerets; small ante- and post-epigastric sclerites present. Spinnerets cream. Palp yellowbrown; RTA short, protruding retrolaterally, not obscured in ventral view by retrolateral heel of cymbium, tip slightly curved; in retrolateral view subtriangular, with broad base and slightly curved tip; cymbium broad, 1.60 times longer than wide, distal end broadly rounded; ventral and dorsal embolic prongs spike-like, dorsal prong larger in prolateral view; dorsal prong distinctly bent away from tegulum in ventral view; median apophysis stout, hook-shaped ( Figs 83 View FIGURES 78–92 , 143–145 View FIGURES 141–145 ).

Type material. Holotype ♀: SOUTH AFRICA: Eastern Cape Province: Amatola Mountains, Hogsback, Amatola Forestry Company , 32°37.671'S, 26°58.311'E, 1210 m a.s.l., 25–30.III.2013, leg. C. Haddad & J. Neethling (pitfall traps, fynbos) ( NCA 2016 /2819). GoogleMaps  

Paratypes: SOUTH AFRICA: Eastern Cape Province: Same data as holotype, 5♂ (NCA 2016/2823), 6♂ 5♀ ( NCA 2013/4541); Amatola Mountains, Hogsback, Amatola Forestry Company, Robinson Dam, 32°37.279'S, 26°58.196'E, 1190 m a.s.l., leg. C. Haddad & J. Neethling (pitfall traps, fynbos), 4♂ 1♀ ( NCA 2013/4616).

Distribution. Known only from the type locality in the Eastern Cape, South Africa ( Fig. 156 View FIGURE 156 ).