Pero honestaria, Walker, 1860

Young, Catherine J., 2006, Molecular relationships of the Australian Ennominae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) and implications for the phylogeny of the Geometridae from molecular and morphological data, Zootaxa 1264 (1), pp. 1-147 : 1-147

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.1264.1.1

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Pero honestaria


Pero honestaria and Oratha significata

The sequence (28S D2) divergence between these two species is 4.6% (Appendix 6). Oratha Walker was placed into the Nacophorini by Pitkin (2002). Pero Herrich­Schäffer is a large genus of the tribe Azelinini that is most diverse in the Neotropical regions of America and currently consists of only two genera. Poole (1987) linked the Nacophorini and the Azelinini on the basis of multiple lateral setae on the A6 proleg although this association was based only on Nearctic Group One nacophorines (sensu Rindge 1983); representatives of these tribes also share the presence of pupal antennal tubercles with Ennomos (see discussion above). Holloway (1994) also proposed a relationship between the Azelinini and Odontoperini based on similar multiple lateral setae noted by Singh (1953). Poole noted that the nacophorine genera Dasystole Warren and Salpis Mabille now both synomized as Mallomus Blanchard , a Group Two nacophorine genus ( Rindge 1983), have a spinous sub­apical fold near the apex of the costa of the valva similar to some sections of Pero . However Mallomus has only four lateral setae on the ventral proleg ( Parra & Henriquez­Rodriguez 1993). As mentioned above, Mallomus falcata Rindge has extra vestigial prolegs on A4 and A5 ( Parra & Henriquez­Rodriguez 1993), structures that are not present in Rindge’s Group One of the Nacophorini , e.g. Phaeoura , Gabriola and Holochroa , but common in theAustralian Nacophorini .

O. significata possesses a strongly developed group of setae arising from the subapical dorsal surface of the uncus, the so­called pseudouncus, typical of Group Three of the American Nacophorini (sensu Rindge 1983) . Other attributes of O. significata that are also characteristic of this group are: simple antennae, a protuberant frons, dorsal abdominal tufts, A3 setal comb, hind­tibial hair­pencil, relatively long corpus bursae, signum.

Shared characters

—simple antennae; terminal sensilla only present in O. significata ; A3 pecten only present in O. significata ; complex valvae; simple, acute uncus; socii; sparse cristate hairs; processes of the anellus, absent; straight, moderately wide aedeagi with no distinct cornuti.

The close relationship between these two tribes recovered by molecular data reinforces the historical association that is, again, based on reasonably tenuous morphological observations.

Relationships within the Australian Nacophorini

The monophyly of the Australian Nacophorini was not well supported by the single gene or combined gene analyses. Nevertheless the clade (Tasmanian Archiearinae + Australian Nacophorini ) was recovered with low bootstrap support by the single gene analyses (Figs 10 & 14) and with strong support by the combined gene analysis (Fig. 15), although the 28S D2 phylogeny also included the Lithinini within the Australian Nacophorini . This repeatability of a node from analyses of data from different sources is good evidence for the robustness of a clade ( Chen et al. 2003) and, combined with the morphological evidence presented above there is, thus, good support for a monophyletic clade comprised of the Tasmanian Archiearinae , Lithinini and Australian Nacophorini . The place of the Lithinini , however, will need to be substantiated with further evidence due to under­representation in this analysis.

From both the molecular and morphological evidence discussed above it is likely that the Australian Nacophorini form a group outside the American Nacophorini , although, again, this is unclear because of low bootstrap values at this taxonomic level in the 28S D2 phylogeny. The relationship between the Neotropical and Australian Nacophorini will be discussed in future papers. Despite these uncertainties, several clades within the Australian Nacophorini were well supported and are discussed below.














Pero honestaria

Young, Catherine J. 2006

Nacophorini (sensu Rindge 1983 )

McQuillan & Edwards 1996

O. significata

Walker 1863

O. significata

Walker 1863