Caloptilia mwamba De Prins,

Prins, Jurate De, Gumovsky, Alex & Coninck, Eliane De, 2015, Discovery of a new species of Caloptilia (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) from east and central Africa with its suggested associated host (Gentianales: Rubiaceae) and natural enemies (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), Zootaxa 3957 (4), pp. 383-407: 388-394

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Caloptilia mwamba De Prins

sp. nov.

Caloptilia mwamba De Prins  sp. nov.

Diagnosis. Fore wing bright yellow with slightly greenish shading. The ground colour of Caloptilia mwamba  matches that of the Asian C. bipunctata  , C. camphorae  and C. sassafrasicola  , and distinguishes the new species from all other Afrotropical Gracillariinae  . Caloptilia mwamba  differs from C. bipunctata  in bearing a prominent spot in the middle of the fore wing slightly below the costa, while C. bipunctata  bears two black spots on the fore wing ( Kumata 1982: plate X, fig. 57g). Caloptilia camphorae  and C. sassafrasicola  have no prominent black markings on the fore wings ( Kumata 1982: plate X, fig. 57 h; Liu & Yuan 1990: 201). Externally, the new species resembles Caloptilia protiella  (van Deventer, 1904) from Asia, which was assigned to the subgenus Timodora  by Kumata (1982). In male genitalia the new species differs from all four close relatives in possessing a short narrow vinculum, while that of the other three species is as long as 1 / 3 of valva or longer. Diagnostic differences in the female sex are minor (see description below), less conspicuous than in the male. This new Afrotropical species can be separated from externally similar Asian species also from their bionomics, as C. mwamba  feeds on Rubiaceae  , while C. bipunctata  , C. camphorae  and C. sassafrasicola  feed on Lauraceae  . Caloptilia protiella  feeds on Anacardiaceae  and Burseraceae  (van Deventer 1904; Kumata 1982; Yuan & Robinson 1993).

Type material. Holotype: ♂. [1] ‘ Kenya / Arabuko Sokoke / Mixed forest, 50 m / 03° 17 ’S 39 ° 58 ’E (E 8) / 05.iv. 2001 / leg. J. & W. De Prins’; [2] ‘ex Cremaspora triflora  / (Thonn.) K. Schum. / 17.iv. 2001 ’; [3] ‘Gen. Prep. 3835 ♂ / De Prins’; [4] ‘ Holotype ♂ / Caloptilia  / mwamba  / De Prins, 2014 ’, in NMK.

Paratypes: 63 ♂, 83 ♀ (including 6 ♂ and 5 ♀ genitalia preparations). Democratic Republic of Congo: 1 ♂, Ht. Katanga, Panda, 06.ii. 1930, leg. J. Romieux, gen. prep. De Prins 3844 ♂, in MHNG. Kenya: 2 ♂, 4 ♀, Arabuko Sokoke, Mixed forest, 50m, 03° 17 ’S 39 ° 58 ’E, 05.iv. 2001, leg. J. & W. De Prins, ex Cremaspora triflora (Thonn.) K. Schum.  , 14.iv. 2001, gen. prep. De Prins 3834 ♂ ( MRAC / KMMA 00708), De Prins 3829 ♂ ( MRAC / KMMA 00711), De Prins 3841 ♀ ( MRAC / KMMA 00713), De Prins 3842 ♀ ( MRAC / KMMA 00712), De Prins 3840 ♀ ( MRAC / KMMA 00714), De Prins 3839 ♀ ( MRAC / KMMA 00716), in RMCA; 21 ♂, 24 ♀, same locality data, ex Cremaspora triflora (Thonn.) K. Schum.  , 13.iv.2001, 14.iv.2001, 16.iv. 2001, in BMNH. 4 ♀, Arabuko Sokoke, Mixed forest, 50m, 03° 17 ’S 39 ° 58 ’E, 05.iv. 2001, leg. J. & W. De Prins, in USNM. 1 ♂, 2 ♀, Arabuko Sokoke, 6 km W Gede, 70m, 03° 17 ’S 39 ° 59 ’E, 27.iii. 2004, leg. J. & W. De Prins, 1 ♂ in USNM, 2 ♀ in BMNH. 4 ♂, 5 ♀, Arabuko Sokoke, 15 km W Gede, 50m, 03° 17 ’S 39 ° 59 ’E, 29.iii.2004, 01.iv.2004, 03.iv. 2004, leg. J. De Prins, in BMNH; 4 ♂, 1 ♀ same locality data 01.iv. 2004, in USNM. 1 ♂, 1 ♀, same locality data, 01.iv. 2004, DNA voucher CLV 12307View Materials, CLV 12407View Materials in INRA, later transferred to BIO. 5 ♂, 9 ♀, Arabuko Sokoke, 10,5 km W Gede, 80m, 03° 16 ’S 39 ° 58 ’E, 20.iii. 2004, leg. J. & W. De Prins, 02.iv. 2004, leg. J. De Prins, in BMNH. 7 ♂, 7 ♀, Arabuko Sokoke, 5 km W Gede, 50m, 03° 16 ’S 39 ° 59 ’E, 19.iii. 2004, leg. J. & W. De Prins, in BMNH. 2 ♂, Arabuko Sokoke, 8 km W Gede, 50m, 03° 16 ’S 39 ° 58 ’E, 18.iii. 2004, leg. J. & W. De Prins, gen. prep. De Prins 3838 ♂ ( MRAC / KMMA 00709), De Prins 3837 ♂ ( MRAC / KMMA 00710), in RMCA. 14 ♂, 23 ♀, same locality data, in BMNH. 1 ♀, Arabuko Sokoke, 12 km W Gede, 70m, 03° 17 ’S 39 ° 59 ’E, 30.iii. 2004, leg; J. De Prins, specimen ID: RMCA ENT 0 0 0 0 0 2504, gen. prep. De Prins 3833 ♀ ( MRAC / KMMA 00715), in RMCA, 1 ♀ same locality data, in BMNH. 1 ♀, Arabuko Sokoke, 20 km W Gede, 90m, 03° 25 ’S 39 ° 53 ’E, 25.iii. 2004, leg; J. & W. De Prins, in BMNH. Tanzania: Morogoro, Kiday, 580m, 14 km E Mbuyuni, “Baobab Valley”, 8–9.xii. 2004, leg. K. Larsen & T. Zandersen, gen. prep. De Prins 3843 ♂ ( MRAC / KMMA 00718), in RMCA.

Description. Adult: ( Figs. 5, 6). Fore wing length: 4.65 ± 0.16 mm (23 specimens measured); fore wing length of the holotype 4.72 mm.

Head: Vertex smooth, covered by brown piliform scales directed anteriorly, occiput covered by roundish greenish yellow flat scales; dorsal 1 / 3 of frons covered with smooth thick shiny white scales; ventral 2 / 3 of frons is white with intermixture of light ochreous and scattered brown scales on lateral sides. Anterior tentorial pit big, oval, two micro tentorial pits on labrum small, round ( Figs. 13View FIGURE 13, 14View FIGURE 14). Maxillary palpus porrect, protruding above the eye, slightly longer than eye, bent, directed upwards, white internally, brownish, intermixed with white externally, terminal palpomere with brown blunt apex; labial palpus ca. 2 × longer than maxillary palpus, long, slender, whitish internally, ochreous intermixed with white externally, directed dorso-anteriorly upwards, above the head capsule, basal palpomere short, second longest, longer than eye, terminal ca. 2 / 3 long as second palpomere, with sharp apex, both palpi covered with tight prolonged scales ( Figs. 16, 17). Haustellum beige with yellow shading very long, longer than 2 × height of head (Fig. 15) in rest position multi-spiralled (Fig. 18), bases of haustellum supported by labral long setae (Fig. 17), lamellae of proboscis covered with prolonged spinulae which are more dense at distal part ( Fig. 19). Antenna about ¼ longer than fore wing, filiform, consisting of 95–97 flagellomeres; scape thickened, elongated, longer than flagellomere, brownish, mottled with a few dark brown scales covered with short roundish scales, while frons covered with roundish scales centrally and with prolonged lamella-like scales laterally, base of scape bearing a tubercle covered with tiny spicules, pedicel prolonged, covered with scales that decrease in size towards distal part (Figs. 9–11); pecten absent, pedicel as long as basal flagellomere, of the same brown colour as scape; flagellum bronzy shiny until 1 / 3, and grey apically, apical 1 / 3 of flagellum usually spiralled. Facets of eyes hexangular, bearing numerous visual micro-sensillae ( Fig. 12). Interocular index 1.375 ( Fig. 8).

Thorax: green-yellow, tegulae of the same ground colour as notum but of slightly darker shading. Fore wing lanceolate, rather bluntly pointed, elongated, ground colour greenish yellow, costal margin with several small greyish dots at regular intervals until ½ of fore wing, a distinct irregular black mark at base along costa, round distinct black costal spot at ca. ½ length of fore wing, a small black subbasal dot just anteriorly to midline of fore wing, apical area brown with 4–5 waving rows of dark brown scales, adterminal area outline dark brown, apical dot or streak absent; fringe grey-brown, longest at tornus and shorter towards inner part of anal margin. Hind wing grey-brown; fringe very long at tornus and shorter at apical area, of the same colour as ground colour of hind wing. Profemur dark brown irrorated with a few white spots internally and a faint yellow spot in the middle; protibia thickened, dark brown with two yellowish rings: one at middle and the other, with black tipped scales, at apex; tarsomere I shiny white, distally pale ochreous apex and with black tip, tarsomere II shiny white with ochreous apex, tarsomere III white, tarsomeres IV –V dark brown; mesofemur dark brown, mesotibia yellowish with brown tipped apex, mesotarsus white with brown tip; metafemur white with two brown spots in the middle, metatibia ochreous, smooth with long ochreous median and apical spurs, metatarsus ochreous, apically black.

Abdomen: greyish brown dorsally, dirty light yellow ventrally with beige shade on genital segments; terga A 1 – A 3 light beige, terminal terga dark grey. Segment VII of females trapezoid, of medium length, about 475 µm long.

Male genitalia: ( Figs. 20, 21). Tuba analis protruded ca. 170 µm, weakly sclerotized, bifurcate at apex, apical part mottled with tiny tubercles. Tegumen prolonged as long as ca. 530 µm; a sclerotized fold as long as ca. 315 µm extends along tegumen from basal 1 / 3 to apex; peniculus imperceptible. Valvae symmetrical, oar shaped, slightly longer than tegumen, ca. 720 µm long, gently upturned, costal margin straight, strongly sclerotized, ventral margin gently bent, more weakly sclerotized than costal margin; a bunch of 15–16 spinules set in the middle of the ventral surface of valva, apical half of valva setose with slender long setae, marginal setae on cucullus short, curved. Vinculum narrow, ca. 70 µm, trapezoid, lateral margins strongly sclerotized with paratergal sclerite connecting vinculum and tegumen; saccus long, about as long as valva, ca. 740 µm, narrow, slender slightly bulbous terminally. Aedoeagus long, ca. 790 µm, slender, tubular, straight, with a very long ductus ejaculatorius, longer than aedoeagus; vesica with a pair of narrow scarves of variable length. Paired hair brushes on intersegmental membrane A 7 –A 8 with long hairy scales, slightly shorter than valva, as long as ca. 700 µm.

Female genitalia: ( Figs. 22–24). Papillae anales flattened, with strongly sclerotized basal belt, caudally covered with setae of different length of which the longest are ca. 170 µm. Apophyses posteriores moderately elongated, ca. 350 µm with very broad triangular bases; the broad basal part of the apophyses posteriores extends until about half of apophyses length, ca. 165 µm. Segment VIII about as long as wide, ca. 350 µm, with area bearing bases of apophyses anteriores strongly sclerotized. Apophyses anteriores about the same length as posteriores, slender, with broadened bases, terminal part hooked, with sharp pointed apices reaching posterior 1 / 5 of segment VII. Ostium bursae with subrectangular lamella postvaginalis, situated at subposterior part of segment VIII, antrum weakly sclerotized towards ostium, tubular, with tiny granulation, as long as ca. 290 µm, with two small sclerotized plates situated at anterior end. Ductus bursae tubular, of unusually extended length, more than 4.5 mm, convoluting along the whole abdomen; girth of ductus bursae slightly smaller than that of antrum, slightly dilated at junction with corpus bursae. Corpus bursae elongated, as long as ca. 1280 µm and ca. 900 µm wide; two curved sickle-shaped signa present in slightly asymmetrical position on corpus bursae; length of each signum ca. 340 µm.

DNA sequences. Sequence data are available for COI ( CLV 12407View Materials see Table 2). The distance of the sample CLV 12407View Materials to the nearest neighbour ( BOLD AAV 4639, GenBank KP037056View Materials KP037058View Materials, JN 299191View Materials, KC 158232View Materials) is 5.83 %. This specimen is unidentified Caloptilia  sp. from Papua New Guinea ( Miller et al. 2013) which externally resembles very closely the new species Caloptilia mwamba  .

Species Sample ID Specimen ID Process ID BIN Country Caloptilia mwamba  CLV 12407View Materials RMCA ENT GRACI 014-07 BOLD:AAC 5054 Kenya

0 0 0 0 0 2508

Etymology. The word “ mwamba  ” in Kiswahili, the most widely spoken East African language, means “rock”. This specific name denotes the Mwamba  Field Study Centre in Watamu, Kenya and the appreciation of the activities of its members in exploring and studying the amazingly diverse flora and fauna of the east African coastal region. The Mwamba  Field Study Centre and its director Colin Jackson provided a strong and heartily welcome support to JDP and AG during their field work conducted in the Arabuko Sokoke Forest. The specific name is a noun in apposition.

Habitat. Semi-evergreen or evergreen mixed forest ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1).

Host plant(s). Associated with Rubiaceae  : Cremaspora triflora (Thonn.) K. Schum.  ( Figs. 2, 3).

Biology. The boat-shaped cocoons are constructed outside the mine on the abaxial side of the leaf. Several semi-transparent cocoons can be found on the same leaflet ( Fig. 2). Pupa protected by a double layer of spun surfaces. Pupation period ca. 9–11 days. In Arabuko Sokoke Forest, Kenya, we observed C. mwamba  in its environment, i.e. mixed coastal forest of eastern Africa at about 30 m in elevation. The moths were active in mid evening (between 21.00 and 22.00).

Note: The cocoons have been found only on C. triflora  , however, we did not detect larvae of C. mwamba  or the feeding damage on this plant. This fact introduces the possibility that C. mwamba  actually feeds on some other plant species, and that cocoons found on C. triflora  represent larvae that moved there after they finished feeding on the other plant, only for the purpose of spinning cocoons for pupation. This is a common phenomenon in tree- and shrub-feeding microlepidoptera.

Flight period. Adults on the wing are recorded in February –April, and in December. The earliest record is of 0 6 February 1930, the latest record is of 0 8 December 2004 ( Fig. 25View FIGURE 25).

Distribution. ( Fig. 26). Democratic Republic of Congo: Katanga province; Kenya: type locality in the Coast province, and Tanzania: Morogoro region.

Natural enemies. Hymenoptera  : Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae  : Afrotroppopsis risbeci Gumovsky, 2007  and Zaommomentedon newbyi ( Kerrich, 1969)  .


National Museums of Kenya


Museum d'Histoire Naturelle


Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale


Koninklijk Museum voor Midden Afrika


Royal Museum for Central Africa


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Department of Natural Resources, Environment, The Arts and Sport


Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique


University of the Basque Country


Ministry of Natural Resources


University of Coimbra Botany Department