Anonidium mannii Engl. & Diels, Notizbl. Konigl . Bot. Gart. Berlin 3: 56, 1900

Couvreur, Thomas L. P., Dagallier, Leo-Paul M. J., Crozier, Francoise, Ghogue, Jean-Paul, Hoekstra, Paul H., Kamdem, Narcisse G., Johnson, David M., Murray, Nancy A. & Sonke, Bonaventure, 2022, Flora of Cameroon - Annonaceae Vol 45, PhytoKeys 207, pp. 1-532 : 46-53

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Anonidium mannii Engl. & Diels, Notizbl. Konigl . Bot. Gart. Berlin 3: 56, 1900


Anonidium mannii Engl. & Diels, Notizbl. Konigl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 3: 56, 1900

Figs 9 View Figure 9 , 10 View Figure 10 ; Map 1I View Map 1

≡ Annona mannii Oliv., Hooker’s Icon. Pl. vol. 11: 7-8, 1867.

= Uvaria crassipetala Engl., Notizbl. Königl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 2: 292, 1899. Type. Cameroon. South-West Region, Station Johann-Albrechtshohe, Staudt A. 813, no date: holotype B destroyed, lectotype, here designated: PH[PH28648].


Nigeria. Cross River State; Old Calabar, Mann G. 2231, 1863: lectotype, sheet here designated: K[K000198881]; isotypes: B[B100153003]; K[K000198882]; P[P00363249] .


Tree, 8-30 m tall, d.b.h. 30-80 cm; stilt roots or buttresses absent. Indumentum of simple hairs; old leafless branches glabrous, young foliate branches sparsely pubescent to glabrous. Leaves: petiole 3-7 mm long, 2-3 mm in diameter, sparsely pubescent to glabrous, slightly grooved, blade inserted on top of the petiole; blade 20-45 cm long, 7-18 cm wide, obovate to oblong-elliptic, apex rounded to abruptly acuminate, acumen 2-3 cm long, base rounded to shortly attenuate generally covering part of the petiole, subcoriaceous to coriaceous, below sparsely pubescent when young, glabrous when old, above glabrous when young and old, concolorous; midrib impressed, above glabrous when young and old, below sparsely pubescent when young, glabrous when old; secondary veins 10 to 20 pairs, glabrous above; tertiary venation reticulate, indistinct. Individuals androdioecious; inflorescences cauliflorous or on old leafless branches, axillary; peduncle 0.3-4 m long, up to 2-3 cm in diameter towards the base, woody, hanging, sparsely pubescent to glabrous. Flowers with 9 perianth parts in 3 whorls, 10 to 20 per inflorescence, male and female inflorescences similar; pedicel 10-85 mm long, 2-4 mm in diameter, glabrous; in fruit 25-100 mm long, 10-20 mm in diameter, woody, glabrous; bracts 2-4, several basal and one upper towards the middle of pedicel, basal bracts 7-12 mm long, 7-12 mm wide; upper bract 10-12 mm long, 12-25 mm wide, clasping the pedicel; sepals 3, valvate, basally fused, 15-22 mm long, 17-20 mm wide, triangular to ovate, apex acute, base truncate, green, tomentose outside, glabrous inside, margins flat; petals free, sub equal; outer petals 3, 25-50 mm long, 20-40 mm wide, elliptic to obovate, apex acute or rounded, base truncate, yellow to green, margins flat, pubescent outside, pubescent inside; inner petals 3, valvate, 12-35 mm long, 15-25 mm wide, elliptic, apex rounded, base attenuate to truncate, yellow-green, margins flat, pubescent outside, pubescent inside; stamens in male flowers: numerous on a conical receptacle, 4-4.5 mm long, oblong, connective truncate, sparsely pubescent, green to cream-yellow; stamens in hermaphrodite flowers: 65 to 100, in 3-4 rows, 2-2.5 mm long, oblong; connective truncate, sparsely pubescent, green to cream - yellow; staminodes absent; carpels free, 180-210, ovary 3-4 mm long, stigma capitate, glabrous. Fruit pseudosyncarpous, 250-500 mm long, 100-300 mm in diameter; individual monocarps 150 to 180, sessile, completely fused between them; apex shortly pyramidal, glabrous, smooth, glossy, yellow at maturity with white pulp; seed 1, 30-50 mm long, 17-30 mm in diameter, flattened to oblong; aril absent.


A central African species, from southeastern Nigeria to the Republic of Congo, and in the Democratic Republic of the Congo; in Cameroon known from the East, South, Central, Littoral, South-West and West regions.


A widespread and very common species across its range; in evergreen or semi-deciduous primary, old or young secondary, lowland or premontane rain forests. Altitude: 0-1600 m a.s.l.

Local and common names known in Cameroon.

mbé, nbwé, ombé (dial. Bagali, Baka), ébom, ében, ébon ntangan (dial. Ewondo, Hochuli 4).

IUCN conservation status.

Least Concern (LC) ( Harvey-Brown 2019a).

Uses in Cameroon.

Food: fruit is eaten; medicine: bark used against arthritis, rheumatism, stomach troubles, diarrho dysentery, menstrual cycle, antidotes, paralysis, epilepsy, convulsions, spasms; social: religion, superstitions, magic.


Anonidium mannii is easily recognizable by its characteristic large leaf blades with a slightly cordate base covering part of the petiole, its long and woody inflorescences hanging from the trunk or old leafless branches and its syncarpous fruits up to 50 cm long and 30 cm large. It is morphologically close to A. brieyi but differs mainly by the wider inner and outer petals, and slightly smaller leaf blades and individuals being androdioecious (see notes under A. brieyi ).

Selected specimens examined.

Central Region: Eastern sector of M’fou Nat Park Footpath running E of bridge SE of Ndanan 1, 3.61°N, 11.58°E, 22 October 2002, Cheek M. 11248 (K,YA); near Otele, 3.43°N, 11.14°E, 25 February 2007, Couvreur T.L.P. 106 (WAG,YA); Mont Mbam Minkon on trail 3 km from Nkol Nyada village , 3.96°N, 11.40°E, 21 March 2013, Couvreur T.L.P. 415 (WAG,YA); Ottotomo Forest Reserve on top of small hill in front of reserve house, 3.65°N, 11.29°E, 25 June 2013, Couvreur T.L.P. 452 (WAG,YA); on trail to Oveng Lodge hotel near parking just behind the village of Oveng 30 km on road from Mbalmayo to Sangmeli 3.41°N, 11.70°E, 09 February 2014, Couvreur T.L.P. 609 (WAG,YA); Ottotomo Forest reserve 7 km north-west from Ngoumou 30 km south west from Yaoundé, 3.65°N, 11.28°E, 24 February 2016, Couvreur T.L.P. 987 (WAG,YA); SSW of M’Balmayo, 3.52°N, 11.5°E, 27 February 1964, de Wilde W.J.J.O 1968 (B,B,BR,K,MO,P,WAG,YA); Mbam-Minkom Village de Nkolniada , 3.96°N, 11.40°E, 26 July 2012, Droissart V. 1416 (MO); Nanga Eboko, 4.68°N, 12.36°E, 17 February 1927, Hédin L. 36 (P); Mbam Minkom, 3.96°N, 11.36°E, 19 September 2013, Kamdem N. 142 (YA); Nkila, 4.68°N, 12.37°E, 12 March 1959, Letouzey R. 1547 (P,YA); Ekom, 3.85°N, 11.7°E, 16 February 1947, Letouzey R. 194 (P) GoogleMaps . East Region: Toungrélo, 4.33°N, 13.53°E, 09 January 1962, Breteler F.J. 2454 (K,P,WAG); 81 km south of Yokadouma 30 km after Ngato 15 km after river ALPICAM 'base de vie’ then 40 km on forestry road starting 4 km before Masea village , 3.17°N, 14.69°E, 05 March 2019, Couvreur T.L.P. 1207 (MPU,WAG,YA); Somalomo, 3.32°N, 12.71°E, 18 March 2016, Kamdem N. 415 (YA); Lomié, 3.11°N, 13.58°E, 01 December 2016, Kamdem N. 454 (YA) GoogleMaps . Littoral Region: Nkam , 4.35°N, 10.67°E, 13 June 1927, Hédin L. 1337 (P) GoogleMaps . South Region: Campo Ma’an National Park 11 km on trail from Ebinanemeyong village on road 7 km from Nyabessan to Campo town , 2.48°N, 10.33°E, 13 February 2015, Couvreur T.L.P. 696 (WAG,YA); 17 km On the newly reconstructed road from Ebolowa to Minkok, 2.75°N, 11.25°E, 29 January 1975, de Wilde J.J.F.E 7930 (BR,K,MO,P,U,WAG,YA); Massif de Ngovayang village de Atog Boga, 3.25°N, 10.49°E, 05 September 2015, Droissart V. 2158 (BRLU); Essam, 4.68°N, 12.37°E, 13 February 1959, Letouzey R. 1276 (P); Essam (Nanga Eboko), 4.68°N, 12.37°E, 14 February 1959, Letouzey R. 1385 (P); Campo-Ma’an area Nsengou, 2.18°N, 10.58°E, 05 February 2001, Tchouto Mbatchou G.P. 3129 (KRIBI,WAG) GoogleMaps . South-West Region: Colline de Bokwa 42 km SE Mamfe, 5.71°N, 9.643°E, 07 December 1986, Achoundong G. 1325 (YA); Nyasoso, 4.86°N, 9.7°E, 03 June 1996, Cable S. 2801 (K,YA); Nature trail, 4.81°N, 9.683°E, 15 January 1995, Cheek M. 6009 (K,WAG); Kupe Mount, 4.82°N, 9.683°E, 20 November 1995, Cheek M. 7896 (K,WAG,YA); Nyasoso village at base of My Kupe forest reserve along nature trail, 4.82°N, 9.686°E, 04 April 2016, Couvreur T.L.P. 1053b (WAG,YA); Cameroon Mountain, 4.08°N, 9.1°E, 29 December 1983, Thomas D.W. 2850 (MO,WAG) GoogleMaps . West Region: Pres Bandounga à 40 km au NW de Ndikinimeki, 4.98°N, 10.55°E, 12 February 1972, Letouzey R. 11202 (P,YA) GoogleMaps .