Cylindera (Cylindera) germanica erzincana, Boetzl & Franzen, 2020

Boetzl, Fabian A. & Franzen, Michael, 2020, Taxonomy and distribution of Cylindera germanica (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Middle East with the description of two new subspecies (Coleoptera, Carabidae Cicindelinae), Zootaxa 4809 (1), pp. 95-110: 100-103

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Cylindera (Cylindera) germanica erzincana

ssp. nov.

Cylindera (Cylindera) germanica erzincana   ssp. nov. Boetzl & Franzen, 2020

Type locality: Turkey, Erzincan province, 17 km east of   Erzincan, Ekşisu marshes, approx. 1200 m asl   .

Material examined: Holotype: ♂, ‘Türkei, Prov. Erzincan: 17 km e. Erzincan, ca. 1200 m, Feuchtwiese , Bin- senflur, 14.07.1997, Franzen & Rischel leg.’ [black print on white cardboard label, translation: Turkey, Erzincan province, 17 km east of Erzincan, approx. 1200 m asl, wet meadow, rushes, 14.07.1997, Franzen & Rischel leg.], ‘GER 19 082‘[black print on white cardboard label]   , ‘ HOLOTYPUS, Cylindera (Cylindera) germanica erzincana   ssp. nov., des. F. Boetzl & M. Franzen 2020’ (black print on red label) deposited in ZSM; Paratypes: 2♂ 2♀ [ CFB]   , 2♀ [ CJG]   , 2♀ [ CWH]   , 15♂ 15♀ [ CMF]   , 2♂ 2♀ [ ZSM], all with the same data as the holotype   , ‘ PARATYPUS, Cylindera (Cylindera) germanica erzincana   ssp. nov., des. F. Boetzl & M. Franzen 2020’ (black print on red label); 1♂, ‘ Türkei, Prov. Erzincan: 12 km e. Üzümlü (25 km e. Erzincan), ca. 1150 m, Graben auf Viehweide , 14.07.1997, Franzen & Rischel leg.   ’, ‘ PARATYPUS, Cylindera (Cylindera) germanica erzincana   ssp. nov., des. F. Boetzl & M. Franzen 2020’ (black print on red label), [ CMF]   .

Description: Total length of the holotype male is 8.8 mm (type series: ♂♂ 7.8 to 9.2 mm, mean: 8.5 ± 0.09 mm; ♀♀ 7.6 to 10 mm, mean: 8.84 ± 0.11 mm; Table 1).

Head wider than pronotum (holotype: 2.55 mm; type series: ♂♂ 2.1 to 2.6 mm, mean: 2.38 ± 0.03 mm; ♀♀ 2.2 to 2.9 mm, mean: 2.50 ± 0.03 mm; Table 1), glabrous, metallic green to coppery, sometimes with bright blueishgreen highlights, longitudinally wrinkled with circular wrinkles on the frons typical for Cylindera   . Genae glabrous, metallic dark blue. Two supraorbital setae, one at the anterior margin of the eye, one at the widest point of the head between the eyes. Antennae reaching approximately to the end of the first third of the elytra, segments 1 to 4 glabrous, metallic green with coppery reflections, segments 5 to 11 light brown and densely setose with short, thin setae. Scapus with one long apical seta, antennal segment 3 with 6 shorter setae (holotype) apart from the longer apical setae.

Labrum unidentate, yellowish brown except tip of spine black, with 6 submarginal setae (type series: 5 to 9, mean: 6.86 ± 0.14; Table 1), 0.6 mm long (type series: ♂♂ 0.55 to 0.7 mm, mean: 0.6 ± 0.01 mm; ♀♀ 0.5 to 0.75 mm, mean: 0.64 ± 0.01 mm) and 1.25 mm wide (type series: ♂♂ 1.05 to 1.35 mm, mean: 1.21 ± 0.02 mm; ♀♀ 1.05 to 1.5 mm, mean: 1.27 ± 0.02 mm; Table 1). Labial and maxillar palpi yellowish brown with the end segments darkened with a coppery metallic sheen.

Pronotum cylindrical, wider (holotype: 1.9 mm; type series: ♂♂ 1.5 to 1.85 mm, mean: 1.80 ± 0.03 mm; ♀♀ 1.5 to 1.9 mm - mean: 2.1 ± 0.03 mm; Table 1) than long (holotype: 1.8 mm; type series: ♂♂ 1.5 to 2.0 mm, mean: 1.69 ± 0.02 mm; ♀♀ 1.6 to 2.2 mm, mean: 1.70 ± 0.02 mm; Table 1), lateral edges of the pronotum setose, its sides glabrous. Colouration typically brightly blueish-green metallic to coppery dark green, sometimes with bright coppery highlights dorsally, ventrally dark metallic blue. Pronotum disc convex, with a clear midline and deep impressions near the posterior margin, wrinkled, especially near the anterior and posterior margins as well as around the midline. Thoracic segments metallic green to dark coppery-violet, all segments glabrous but the metathorax which is covered with a brush of thick short white setae.

Legs metallic green with dark coppery reflections except for the dark brown tibiae and trochanters, fore and middle femora with sparse white setae along the anterior and posterior margins and on both sides in between, hind femora without setae between he margins on the side that faces the abdomen. Fore and middle trochanters with a single, long subapical seta. Basal three tarsomeres of forelegs in males broadened.

Elytra elliptical, slightly dilated in apical third in females, rather parallel in males (length: holotype: 5.4 mm; type series: ♂♂ 4.5 to 5.7 mm, mean: 5.11 ± 0.07 mm; ♀♀ 4.3 to 6.1 mm, mean: 5.23 ± 0.10 mm; width (at broadest point): holotype: 3.3 mm; type series: ♂♂ 2.7 to 3.4 mm, mean: 3.07 ± 0.04 mm; ♀♀ 2.7 to 3.9 mm, mean: 3.24 ± 0.05 mm; width (at the tip of the scutellum): holotype: 2.55 mm; type series: ♂♂ 2.15 to 2.7 mm, mean: 2.44 ± 0.03 mm; ♀♀ 2.2 to 3.0 mm, mean: 2.55 ± 0.03 mm; Table 1). Scutellum coppery green to blueish green metallic, same colouration as head and pronotum. Elytral disc dark green metallic with more or less blueish sheen, with a black band on each elytron reaching curved from the humeral (shoulder) spot over the basal spot (endpoint of the not present apical lunule) and the end tip of the middle band towards the apical lunule, the rest of the elytra covered with brightly blueish dots, with a line of large brightly blue dots along the suture. Shoulders prominent with small round maculation, round basal maculation centrally on each elytron at the end of the first quarter, the middle band reaching straight from a marginal spot that is distanced from the lateral margin of the elytron towards the suture near the elytral apex, waisted in the middle of the elytron but ending in a clear broader spot that forms a hook projecting towards the elytral base. The apical lunule is starting at the elytral apex, running along the margin to a spot shortly before the broadest point of the elytron and then projecting in a hook towards the central point of the middle band. Epipleura mid brown. Elytral apex with a clear but short, coppery / green metallic sutural spine.

Abdominal sternites glabrous, black, 1 st and 2 nd segment with coppery-green to blue metallic shine laterally, 3 rd to 5 th segment with blue to violet sheen, 6 th segment more or less without metallic lustre.

The aedeagus generally resembles the aedeagus of C. germanica germanica   in shape and in internal structures ( Figure 10 View FIGURE 8-11 ). It is 3.1 mm long (type series: 2.5 to 3.2 mm, mean: 2.84 ± 0.05 mm; Table 1) which is 57 % of the elytra length (type series: 48 to 64 %, mean: 56.3 ± 1 %).

Holotype glued onto white cardboard mounting board, pinhole from previous mounting on right elytron, centrally at the end of the first fifth of the elytron, left antenna lacking the final two antennomeres, aedeagus embedded in Lompe-solution.

Etymology: The name refers to the region in of both known localities of this likely endemic taxon, the area east Erzincan in the eastern Anatolian highlands.

Differential diagnosis: Though having a very similar elytral pattern and colouration, C. g. erzincana ssp. nov. is easily distinguished from C. descendens (Fischer, 1825)   (= C. obliquefasciata descendens (Fischer, 1825) sensu Gebert 1992   ) by its completely glabrous abdominal sternites. Additionally, both species are separated by a distribution gap of approximately 2000 km, with the closest verified populations of C. descendens   in south-eastern Iran in Sistan and Baluchestan province ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ).

From C. germanica germanica   (which also occurs in north-eastern Turkey) the new subspecies is clearly differentiated by its different colouration, different elytral maculations and its smaller size ( Table 1). Individuals from the closest population of C. g. germanica   (Aras river east of Erzurum, distance approximately 150 km) to the type locality of C. g. erzincana ssp. nov. resemble the nominate form perfectly. On average, individuals from this population have the typically green metallic elytra and red-coppery metallic head and pronotum, are of larger size and have the typical reduced elytral maculation of C. g. germanica   . In addition, individuals from the Erzurum C. g. germanica   population have a longer (in relation to its width) and more slender (in relation to elytra width) pronotum than C. germanica erzincana   ssp. nov. ( Table 1). The internal structure of the aedeagus of C. germanica erzincana   ssp. nov. differs only slightly from those of the closest populations of C. germanica germanica   near Erzurum. Minor differences include size and shape of the ventro-lateral left (VLL), dorso-lateral left (DLL) and dorso-lateral right (DLR) bulges ( Figures 12-19 View FIGURES 12-19 ).

Variability: The comparatively large type series is rather uniform and shows low variability between individuals in terms of colouration and maculation ( Figures 8 & 9 View FIGURE 8-11 ). The colouration of head and thorax however is not always brightly blueish-green metallic – in some specimens these parts are darker coppery green, sometimes with bright coppery highlights.

Habitat and distribution: All specimens of the type series were collected in humid to wet meadows with scattered small puddles. Specimens were observed running on small patches of bare, loamy soil among dense stands of rushes and other grasses ( Figure 11 View FIGURE 8-11 ). We did not observe escape flights.

This new subspecies is currently only known from two sites very close to each other at the eastern edge of the Ekşisu wetlands in the upper Euphrates river valley in Erzincan province in the eastern Anatolian highlands ( Figure 1 View FIGURE 1 ). We expect C. g. erzincana ssp. nov. to be endemic to the wetlands (or the closer surrounding region) with a very restricted range. The strongly localized distribution would also explain its late discovery despite the long history of entomological collecting in Turkey.

The Ekşisu wetlands are known as a biodiversity hotspot in an otherwise dry region and are generally regarded as understudied ( Doğan et al. 2015). The wetlands serve as important feeding, roosting and nesting sites for many birds and are also the only known site of the endemic Erzincan milkwort, Sonchus erzincanicus ( Doğan et al. 2015)   . Although the area was declared a 1st-Degree Natural Site worth of protection, these wetlands are seriously threatened by economic planning, drainage for agricultural use and use for recreation activities ( Baylan & Karadeniz 2018; Doğan et al. 2015; Karadeniz, Tırıl, & Baylan 2009). With the Ekşisu wetlands in danger, this newly discov- ered taxon could already be endangered and needs special protection due to its much-localized occurrence.


Northern Forestry Centre, Canadian Forest Service


Bavarian State Collection of Zoology