Ancyronyx tamaraw Freitag

Freitag, Hendrik, 2013, Ancyronyx Erichson, 1847 (Coleoptera, Elmidae) from Mindoro, Philippines, with description of the larvae and two new species using DNA sequences for the assignment of the developmental stages, ZooKeys 321, pp. 35-64 : 42-48

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Ancyronyx tamaraw Freitag

sp. n.

Ancyronyx tamaraw Freitag sp. n. Figs 3, 6, 10 A–M, 11 A–I, 12 A–H


This small and probably rare species is named in reference to its type locality, the Tamaraw Falls on the island of Mindoro. The tamaraw is a small Mindoro-endemic buffalo. The term is used as noun in apposition.

Type material.

Holotype♂ (NMW) "PHIL: Mindoro, Puerto Galera, NR km 37.2 downstr. Tamaraw Falls; riffle & fall; rocks, woodlitter, roots; sec.veget.; c. 80m asl., 13°27'03"N, 120°59'27"E 22.4.1994, leg. Freitag (302)M", terminal parts of abdomen incl. aedeagus glued separately. Paratypes: 18 ♀♀, 15 ♂♂ (NMW, ZSM [FR011], ZMUC, SMTD, CFM), 9 L (0.24, 0.28, 5 × 0.29, 2 × 0.30) (ZSM [FR012], NMW, SMTD, CFM): same label data as holotype. 3 ♀♀, 4 ♂♂ (PNM): same locality data as holotype, leg. Freitag 11.2.2013.

Adult description.

Body 1.2-1.5 mm long (CL + exposed portions of head & tergit VIII); CL: 1.02-1.36 mm; EW: 0.51-0.58 mm, CL/EW: 2.0-2.4.

Colouration as in Fig. 3: ventral side, coxae, trochanter, and pronotum brown; entire dorsal head capsule and mouthparts dark brown; elytra dark brown except for two pairs of yellow patches; anterior yellow elytral patches round, extending each between first and third row of elytral punctures, not reaching median or anterior elytral margin; posterior yellow elytral patches elongate-oval to subtriangular, not reaching median, lateral, and apical elytral margin; antennae yellow (except for dark tips and scape); legs dominantly yellowish except for coxa, trochanter and brown areas around all articulations, especially proximal and distal areas of femur, proximal third of tibia and distal third of fifth tarsomere.

HW 0.29-0.35 mm; ID 0.15-0.18 mm; labrum and distal portion of clypeus moderately densely micropunctate and covered with short trichoid setae (Fig. 10A); proximal portion of clypeus and frons microreticulate and punctate; frontoclypeal suture inconspicuous, slightly convex. Eyes slightly protruding. Antennae (Fig. 10B) with 11 antennomeres, slender, c. as long as head wide. Genae (Fig. 10D) rugose and reticulate, with indistinct pubescence. Gula (Fig. 10D) with somewhat regularly arranged striae except for central portion, moderately densely pubscent; gular sutures absent. Mandible with bilobed tip. Maxilla (Fig. 10A) with very short cardo; stipes with distinct flat, triangular elevation ventrally; galea palp-like elongate, with apical setae and sensilla (Fig. 10C); lacinia not examined. Labium (Fig. 10A) with subtrapezoidal postmentum, prementum suboval, undivided, with subapical row of ten short trichoid setae; labial palps three-segmented, c. as long as postmentum, with apical setae and sensilla (Fig. 10C).

Pronotum (Fig. 3) 0.35-0.38 mm long (PL), 0.38-0.41 mm wide (MW), inconspicuously wider than long (PL/MW), widest at about posterior 0.4, distinctly narrower than elytra, with moderately deep transverse groove; anteriorly of transverse groove slightly vaulted; posterior portion medially elevated; posterolateral oblique grooves small and round, but conspicuous; lateral margin distinctly arcuate; anterior margin convex; pronotal surface entirely microreticulate and with moderately densely arranged seta-bearing tubercles; lateral pronotal carina absent; hypomeron inconspicuously reticulate. Prosternum (Fig. 10E) punctate; prosternal process broadly subpentagonal, distinctly wider than long, almost flat.

Metascutellum subcordiform, medially slightly impressed, micropunctate. Elytra (Fig. 3) elongate, 0.78-0.98 mm long (EL), c. 1.5-1.7 times as long as wide (EL/EW), laterally arcuate (broadest at about anterior 0.45), anteriorly slightly roundly convergent, posteriorly roundly convergent to apices, with eight longitudinal, moderately impressed rows of punctures (counted at level of metacoxae); median rows more regular than lateral ones; five strial rows between suture and humerus; punctures large and moderately deeply impressed; interstices and intervals convex, granulose to microreticulate; lateral elytral gutter very narrow, inconspicuous; humeri broadly rounded; elytral apices separately rounded. Mesoventrite (Fig. 10E) short, micropunctuate, with a round median impression and a sublateral pair of round elevations. Metaventrite (Fig. 10E) comparably small; medial impression wide, not conspicuously longitudinal, rather a shallow, funnel-like round impression deepest at median posterior margin; disc with scattered inconspicuous setose tubercles, glabrous in-between. Anepisternum 3 microreticulate with additional scattered punctures. No hind wings present in all specimens examined.

Legs (Fig. 3) slightly longer than body; coxae large; pro- and mesocoxae (Fig. 10E) subglobular (drop-shaped), lateral portion visible in dorsal view; metacoxae (Fig. 10E) rather conically elevated from a flat base, not visible in dorsal view; trochanter (Fig. 10E) small, broadly lanceolate, invisible in dorsal view; femora and tibiae with micro-setiferous tubercles; tibiae distally with few trichoid setae; each tarsomere with ventral pair of short trichoid setae; claws moderately wide, rather short (compared to other Ancyronyx species), strongly bent, base of each with two teeth, distal one distinctly larger.

Ventrite 1 (Fig. 10E) distinctly arcuately projected anteriad; medioanterior portion depressed (connecting to funnel-like metaventrite impression). Ventrites 2-4 (Fig. 10E) with small, moderately densely arranged punctures; surface between punctures glabrous; tubercles larger and denser toward lateral declivity; ventrite 5 (Figs 10 F–I) moderately densely covered with short adpressed setae emerging from flat tubercles; lateral projection inconspicuous.

Aedeagus (Figs 11 A–D) 410 µm long, somewhat similar to that of Ancyronyx sophiemarie Jäch, 2004 (see Jäch 2004: figs 3-4), but phallobase longer and apical area of median lobe distinctly wider. Phallobase almost symmetrical, more or less straight, except for tapered and ventrally bent base, slightly longer ventrally, with conspicuous, strongly sclerotised ventral and lateral margins. Median lobe moderately long and wide (c. 70 µm), straight, evenly and slightly tapering towards apex up to apical 0.2 of median lobe, then moderately bent ventrad and more abruptly tapering into a wide apical area; apex pointing ventrad, with numerous pore-like structures on dorsal side; basolateral (penile) apophyses short, not overreaching paramere base; ventral sac distinct, ventrally protruding (Fig. 11C), internal portion speckled, moderately sclerotised (Fig. 11B). Fibula weakly sclerotised; corona inconspicuous. Parameres short, c. 145 µm long, reaching about basal 0.7 of aedeagus, elongately subtriangular, widely separated ventrally; laterobasal margin emarginate (Fig. 11D) apical portion roundly widened, narrowest subapically, with few short setae (two apical, two medio-subapical).

Sternite IX (Fig. 11E), c. 380 µm long, with short anterior strut, not clearly partitioned from apical portion; apical corners rounded, with patches of micro-setae, apical margin broadly emarginate; longer paraproct reaching apical margin.

Ovipositor (Fig. 11F, G) c. 480 µm long. Stylus slender, rather staight, with various sensilla. Coxite long, outer margin curved, distal portion with several rather short and broad, peg-like spines, most densely set subapically at lateral margins; inner margin pubescent; basal portion with similar, slightly slenderer, peg-like spines; near valvifer insertation with dense patch of very small spines. Valvifer as long as coxite; fibula distinctly bent and widened caudally.

Secondary sexual characters: Sternite VIII in male (Fig. 11H) short, weakly sclerotised and with very short median strut; in female (Fig. 11I) distinctly longer, slightly more sclerotised than in male, apical corners broadly rounded and with small seate, median portion with dense micro-pubescence (not conspicuous in males). Tergite VIII in female (Figs 10J, K) long, subtriangular, slightly longer than broad (c. 220 µm long, 210 µm wide), with few moderately short setae (apical ones widest), condyles large and conspicuous. Tergite VIII in male (Figs 10L, M) subsemicircular, distinctly wider than long and shorter than in female (c. 180 µm long, 225 µm wide); in apical half with moderately long setae. Ventrite 5 in female (Figs 10F, G) subtriangular (c. 250 µm long, 360 µm wide); in male (Figs 10H, I) similar in general shape, but slightly shorter (c. 210 µm long, 370 µm wide) and rounder.

Adult differential diagnosis.

Ancyronyx tamaraw superficially resembles Ancyronyx sophiemarie from Sibuyan and Ancyronyx minerva . The new species can be easily distinguished by the combination of elytral colour pattern (anterior yellow elytral patches circularly round, not reaching median or anterior elytral margin; posterior patches elongate-oval to subtriangular), the predominantly yellowish legs, the brown (not black) pronotum and head, and it’s aedeagus with wide and flat apical portion.

Larval diagnosis

(based on sixth instar). Colour (Fig. 6) similar to that of Ancyronyx minerva (see Freitag and Balke 2011: figs 3, 11 A–L), but most distinctly different by anterior median head portions (clypeus, anterior frons) pale; anterior yellow pronotal band small, limited to very most anterior portion; at least pro-, meso-, metanotum with small circular-round (not broadly subtriangular) yellow pattern at medioposterior margin; abdominal segment IX with pale yellowish apex and a conspicuous dark pattern extending c. posterior 0.2-0.4; abdominal segment IX relatively longer than in larvae of Ancyronyx minerva .

HW 0.29 mm; entire larva about 2.7 mm long. Body elongate very similar in the external characters to that of Ancyronyx minerva , except for the following: Posterolateral projections (Figs 12A, F) of all abdominal segments short, generally not overreaching posterior segment margins.

Head (Figs 6, 12 B–D) with subparallel lateral margins posterior 0.1-0.7, moderately tapering anteriad; lateral setae long; a dorsolateral pair of moderately long single setae present (Fig. 12B). Frontal suture distinctly V-shaped. Labrum subtrapezoidal. Antennae (Figs 12C, D) c. ¼ as long as head; peduncle at with at least one faciculate seta; pedicel c. two times as long as scape, c. three times as long as wide. Maxillary stipes (Fig. 12D) slightly tapering towards apex. Labial mentum (Fig. 12D) narrowest basal; lateroapical pair of spines rather small, positioned at distal edge.

Pro-, meso-, metathorax and legs (Figs 6, 12E) almost as in A minerva. Pronotum with rather inconspicuous small round signa (glabrous areas) in posterior half. Ventral sclerites of thorax (Fig. 12E) rugulose, not glabrous.

Abdomen (Figs 6, 12A, E–H) without conspicuous dorsosagittal carinae except for the anterior half of segment IX (Fig. 12G); squamose setae at posterior rim of segments I–VIII large (Figs 12E, F). Ventral sclerites of segment I with distinct sagittal ridge in anterior half, reaching c. ½ to ⅔ of segment length. Apex of segment IX (Fig. 12G) emarginate (sometimes inconspicuous due to apical setae). Operculum (Fig. 12H) longer than in Ancyronyx minerva (more than double as long as wide).

Larval differential diagnosis.

The species can most easily be distinguished from Ancyronyx minerva which looks superficially most similar by the partly pale colour pattern of the dorsal head, the narrower circular medioposterior pale pattern at pro-, meso-, and metanotum and the longer last abdominal segment with pale apical area and distinctly dark subapical portion.

Variation between larval instars.

The final and prefinal instar stages available for this study do not vary conspicuously except for their size.


The species is known from the type locality in north-eastern Oriental Mindoro. Additional material that appears conspecific is known from Subic, Zambales, Luzon and Bohol (unpublished material at CFM and NMW).


The specimens were collected in well oxygenated water from rock surfaces, submerged woodlitter and roots in run and riffle sections of the stream below Tamaraw Falls. Since all examined material comes from this, in fact clean and almost natural small mountain river, any detailed conclusion about the habitat and ecological requirements would be highly speculative. It is, however, surprising that not any single specimen was found at any other collection site in Mindoro so far.