Cryphalus mangiferae Stebbing, 1914,

Johnson, Andrew J., Li, You, Mandelshtam, Michail Yu., Park, Sangwook, Lin, Ching-Shan, Gao, Lei & Hulcr, Jiri, 2020, East Asian Cryphalus Erichson (Curculionidae, Scolytinae): new species, new synonymy and redescriptions of species, ZooKeys 995, pp. 15-66: 15

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Cryphalus mangiferae Stebbing, 1914


Cryphalus mangiferae Stebbing, 1914  Figures 2HView Figure 2, 3HView Figure 3, 12A-IView Figure 12

Cryphalus inops  Eichhoff, 1872: 131 (Guadeloupe).

Hypothenemus griseus  Blackburn, 1885: 194 (Hawaii).

Cryphalus mangiferae  Stebbing, 1914: 542 (India).

Hypocryphalus mangiferae  Eggers, 1928: 85 (Brazi).

Cryphalus subcylindricus  Schedl, 1942: 16 (Indonesia).

Cryphalus mimicus  Schedl, 1942: 17 (Indonesia).

Hypocryphalus opacus  Schedl, 1942; 20 (Indonesia).

Taenioglyptes artestriatus  Browne, 1970: 553 (Uganda), syn. nov.

Type material examined.

India • 1 ♀ Lectotype Cryphalus mangiferae  Stebbing, 1914; 1902; labelled "India// E.P.Stebing//902-309. //// mango twigs // Cryphalus mangiferae  Stb. // C.  Beeson det. //// Lectotype Cryphalus mangiferae  // S.L.W. 1976 Stebb. //// NHMUK 010805929"; UFFE:26286; ( NHMUK) • 1 ♂? Paralectotype; 1902; UFFE:10426; ( NHMUK).

Uganda • 1 ♀ Holotype Taenioglyptes artestriatus  Browne, 1970; Central Region, Wakiso, Zika; 0.12°N, 32.52°E; 21 May 1961; K. W. Brown leg.; " Holotype ////Uganda//Zika//in light trap//K. W. Brown //29/5/61 //B.1715(g) ////1666 //// Taenioglyptes artestriatus  // Browne ♀ // Holotype ////Brit. Mus. 1973-70//// NHMUK 010806013"; UFFE:26192; ( NHMUK).

Other material examined.

China • 1 ♀; Fujian, Quanzhou, Nan’an, Pushan village; 25.1189°N, 118.4276°E; May 2017; You Li leg.; ex. Mangifera indica  ; UFFE:33207; ( UFFE) • 1 ♂; same collection data; UFFE:33208; ( UFFE) • 9 ♀♀, 8 ♂♂; same collection data; UFFE:33206; ( NHMUK, 1♀, 1♂; FSCA, 1♀; MZB, 1♀, 1♂; NIAES, 1♀, 1♂; NMNS, 1♀, 1♂; IOZ 1♀ IOZ(E)2057932, 1♂ IOZ(E)2057933; RIFID, 1♀, 1♂; USNM, 1♀, 1♂; ZIN, 1♀, 1♂) • 1 ♂; same collection data; dissected; UFFE:34966 ( UFFE); • 1 ♀; Hunan, Changsha, Yuelushan; Aug. 2019; You Li leg.; ex. Choerospondias axillaris  ; DNA: 28S:MT431546; UFFE:33551 • 57; Hunan, Changsha, Yuelushan; 28.1897°N, 112.9329°E; Aug. 2019; You Li leg.; ex. Choerospondias axillaris  ; UFFE:33529; ( UFFE) • 1; Yunnan, Mengla XTBG; C.  Bateman leg.; DNA: 28S:MG051112, COI:MG051163; UFFE:14119; ( UFFE) • 1; Yunnan, Menglun XTBG; 20 Jul. 2017; Craig Bateman leg.; DNA: COI:MG051162; UFFE:25419; ( UFFE).

Guadeloupe • 1 ♂; Basse Terre, Point a Lezard; 20 May 2012; R. Turnbow leg.; UFFE:12501; ( FSCA).

Taiwan • 1; Kaohsiung, Liouguei; Tom Harrington, and Caroline Wuerst leg.; Lindgren trap with ethanol; DNA: 28S:MG051118, COI:MG051172; UFFE:15127; ( UFFE).

United States • 1; Florida, Homestead; 29 Jun. 2015; Thomas H. Atkinson leg.; ex. Mangifera indica  ; from vial 9444; DNA: 28S:MG051119, COI:MG051174; UFFE:25414; ( UFFE) • 18; Florida, Miami Dade, Homestead, TREC; 23 Jul. 2018; Andrew J. Johnson leg.; ex. Mangifera indica  ; UFFE:29770; ( UFFE). • 1; Florida, Dade County, Homestead; 2012-Apr-05; L. Bradshaw leg.; ex. Codiaeum variegatum  .

Vietnam • 1 ♀; TamDao; Michelle Jusino, and James Skelton leg.; quercivorol and ethanol trap; DNA: 28S:MG051120, COI:MG051175; UFFE:25936; ( UFFE).


This species is distinguished from other similar Cryphalus  by the frons with a finely aciculate texture, the pronotal disc which is long, and has coarse hair-like setae, the elytral striae which are barely impressed but apparent by the rows without ground vestiture, and by the shape of ground vestiture which have tapered tips.

See notes for diagnosing the very similar Cryphalus paramangiferae  , described below, under the diagnosis for that species.

Female. Length 1.6-2.2 mm. Proportions 2.2 × as long as wide. Frons with weak converging aciculations. Antennal funiculus with four or five funicular segments. Antennal club with three evenly procurved sutures mostly marked by coarse setae. Pronotal profile widest in line with summit. Pronotal margin armed with four to six widely spaces serrations, the median pair larger. Pronotal declivity with more than 60 asperities. Pronotal disc approximately one third of the length, gently sloped. Pronotal vestiture entirely hair-like or dagger-like, very few setae bifurcating in baso-lateral area Suture between pronotum and elytra weakly sinuate. Scutellum shaped as a rounded triangle, almost semi-circular, with sparse, pale, hair-like setae. Elytra 1.6 × as long as pronotum, usually a similar colour to pronotum, translucent yellow-brown, sometimes to dark brown, broadly rounded with no clear transition to the declivity. Striae weakly visible as rows of punctures and hair-like setae with almost no ground vestiture, barely impressed Interstrial bristles erect, curving posteriorly, of approximately even diameter. Interstrial ground vestiture near triangular, dagger-like, tapering to a fine point, longer on declivity, ground vestiture on basal third are usually a light brown/cold colour. Mesocoxae moderately separated, much more than metacoxae. Ventrites with mostly hair-like setae. Last abdominal ventrite with margin of rounded tubercles Proventriculus sutural teeth weakly sclerotised, rounded, irregular, one indistinct row each side of suture. Apical teeth in multiple rows, extending almost the width of a segment. Closing teeth long, barely branched. Masticatory brush short, less than length or apical plate.

Male. Similar to female except: Length 1.5-2.2 mm. Frons identical to females, with granulate texture on median of upper level. Pronotal profile slightly more triangular, widest nearer base. Pronotal vestiture hair like, with a few bifurcating setae on baso-lateral areas, slightly more than on female. Protibiae and protarsi with several larger, coarse curved setae on the proximal edge near the apex. Last abdominal ventrite weakly emarginated. Aedeagus long, penis body sclerotised, tapered to a point at apex, ejaculatory duct with small, evenly sized spinulae, end plates sclerotised. Penis apodemes 2.5 × as long as penis body. Tegmen broad, with very small, almost obsolete paired apodemes.


China (Fujian, Guangdong, Hunan, Yunnan); Taiwan; Thailand; Malaysia; Indonesia; India; Nepal; United States (Florida, Hawaii); Mexico; Puerto Rico; Cuba; Kenya, Uganda; American Samoa, Australia.

Suggested vernacular name.

Chinese: 芒果梢小蠹 [Mango twig bark beetle]; English: Mango bark beetle.

Recorded plant hosts.

Anacardiaceae  : Mangifera indica  L., M. odorata  Griff. ( Kalshoven 1958), Choerospondias axillaris  (Roxb.) B.L.Burtt & A.W.Hill; Euphorbiaceae  : Codiaeum variegatum  (L.) A.Juss. [not confirmed reproductive host].


Choerospondias axillaris  is a specialty crop in southern China, and it represents a new reproductive host record. A record from Codiaeum variegatum  from Florida suggests that the beetle might have a broader host range than previously thought, though Codiaeum  was not confirmed as a reproductive host. Kalshoven (1958) also lists Zizyphus oenopila  (L.) Mill. ( Rhamnaceae  ), Theobroma cacao  L. ( Malvaceae  ), Lansium parasiticum  (Osbeck) Sahni & Bennet ( Meliaceae  ) and Canarium commune  L. ( Burseraceae  ), but the associated vouchers were not examined for accuracy. Beaver (1990) also recorded this species from an unknown angiosperm not Mangifera  . No host outside of Anacardiaceae  has been verified as a reproductive host.

The holotype of Taenioglyptes artestriatus  Browne, 1970, while not from the regions of study, is recognised as a synonym. All diagnostic characters are visible. The antennae have four funicular segments, which previously distinguished the genera Cryphalus  and Hypocryphalus  , probably leading to this error. Several examples from China had similar antennae, and one specimen from Guadeloupe.














Cryphalus mangiferae Stebbing, 1914

Johnson, Andrew J., Li, You, Mandelshtam, Michail Yu., Park, Sangwook, Lin, Ching-Shan, Gao, Lei & Hulcr, Jiri 2020

Taenioglyptes artestriatus

Browne 1970

Cryphalus subcylindricus

Schedl 1942

Cryphalus mimicus

Schedl 1942

Hypocryphalus opacus

Schedl 1942

Cryphalus mangiferae

Stebbing 1914

Hypothenemus griseus

Blackburn 1885

Cryphalus inops

Eichhoff 1872