Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, Crawford, 1911

Halbert, Susan E. & Burckhardt, Daniel, 2020, The psyllids (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) of Florida: newly established and rarely collected taxa and checklist, Insecta Mundi 2020 (788), pp. 1-88: 33

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Diaphorina citri Kuwayama


Diaphorina citri Kuwayama   , 1908

( Fig. 100, 101 View Figures 97–101 )

Materials examined. USA: Florida: The FSCA database has over 10,000 records of this pest, from residences, nurseries, citrus groves, business landscapes, fruit trucks, etc. Most specimens were not retained; many were used for molecular analysis for citrus greening pathogens ( Halbert et al. 2012). Counties represented by FSCA specimens include Alachua, Baker, Brevard, Broward, Gadsden, Hendry   , Highlands, Hillsborough, Calhoun, Charlotte, De Soto, Escambia, Flagler, Lake, Lee, Levy, Miami-Dade, Okeechobee, Orange, Osceola, Palm Beach, Polk, St. John’s, St. Lucie, and Sarasota ( FSCA, dry and slide mounted, ethanol). USA other than Florida: American Samoa, Guam, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Saipan, and Tinian ( FSCA, dry mounted, ethanol). Other countries: Antigua, Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Curaçao, Dominica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Grenada, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Kenya, Mexico, Nepal, St. Lucia, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Viet Nam ( FSCA, dry and slide mounted, ethanol).

Diagnosis. Adults are readily recognizable by the maculation pattern on the forewings ( Fig. 100 View Figures 97–101 ). The fifth instar ( Fig. 101 View Figures 97–101 ) is characterized by three-segmented antennae, forewing pads with prominent humeral lobes and a smooth body surface lacking macroscopic setae.

Distribution. Originating from tropical Asia, adventive in west Asia, Arabian Peninsula, east and west Africa, South, Central and North America ( Percy et al. 2012, Ouvrard 2020), USA (FL) (Halbert 1998).

Florida distribution information. Diaphorina citri   , the Asian citrus psyllid, was found by Susan Halbert, DPI inspectors Ellen Tannehill, and Dennis Clinton, and DPI virologist Lawrence G. Brown on a routine survey for citrus viruses in Delray Beach (Palm Beach County) in June 1998 (FSCA# E1998-1751). Since then, it has colonized Florida everywhere citrus is grown. Thousands of specimens have been collected in Florida from nurseries, citrus groves, dooryards, and suction traps.

Host plants. Citrus L. spp., Murraya J. Koenig   ex L. and other citrus relatives ( Rutaceae   ) ( Halbert and Manjunath 2004).

Comments. Much of the range extension of this pest in Florida can be attributed to movement of ornamental Murraya paniculata   (L.) Jack ( Rutaceae   ) plants through discount and other retail sales ( Halbert et al. 2003, 2012). As a direct pest, D . citri   is not particularly serious, although new growth of young citrus trees can be damaged badly if populations are high. In much of the citrus production area of the world, including Florida, D . citri   causes severe damage to citrus through transmission of the pathogens that cause citrus greening disease ( Halbert and Manjunath 2004). Diaphorina citri   is the only citrus psyllid present in the New World, and it is distinct from the other species that colonize citrus around the world ( Halbert and Manjunath 2004). In the Old World, Diaphorina   has almost 80 described and at least as many undescribed species ( Ouvrard 2020; Burckhardt, unpublished information) whose identification can be tricky and needs some experience.

Katacephala Crawford, 1914  


Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology