Janicharis africanus Gumovsky & Delvare, 2006

Noort, Simon van, Smith, Rosali & Coetzee, Julie A., 2021, Identity of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera, Braconidae and Eulophidae) reared from aquatic leaf-mining flies (Diptera, Ephydridae) on invasive Brazilian waterweed Egeria densa in South Africa, African Invertebrates 62 (1), pp. 287-314: 287

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Janicharis africanus Gumovsky & Delvare, 2006


Janicharis africanus Gumovsky & Delvare, 2006   Fig. 17 View Figure 17


Cameroon • female; Maroua , Djarengol; Malaise trap; 26.ix.1984; G. Delvare ( MNHN not seen).  


Cameroon • 3 females, idem ( CIRAD)   3 females, idem ( RMNH)   Nigeria • Oyo, Ibadan, Iita Compound ; x.1987; J. Noyes ( NHMUK)   Madagascar • Lac Alaotra ; on Oryza sativa   , 17.x.1991; P. Bousses ( CIRAD)   . Paratypes not seen   .

Other material.

South Africa • 1 female: Eastern Cape, East London, Nahoon river ; 32°57'45.41"S, 27°54'41.59"E; NHN-WINTER-FOR-R02; July 2019; R. Smith; reared in laboratory; ex Hydrellia egeriae   pupa collected from host plant Egeria densa   ; SAM-HYM-P092807 ( SAMC) GoogleMaps   1 female: idem; except for NHN-WINTER-FOR-R29 and SAM-HYM-P092808 ( SAMC) GoogleMaps   1 female: idem; except for: February 2019; R. Smith; Collected from Egeria densa   infestation with Hydrellia egeriae   pupae; SAM-HYM-P095099 ( SAMC) GoogleMaps   1 male: idem; except for SAM-HYM-P095100 ( SAMC) GoogleMaps   .


Uniquely defined by two large foveae situated anterio-medially on propodeum; anterolateral propodeal strip wide, somewhat angulate above spiracle. Characters shared with morphologically-similar congeners: pronotum dorsally reduced, placed significantly below the level of mesoscutum; propodeum with anterolateral propodeal strips; anterior propodeum with basal cup and foveae on sides; metanotum with anteriorly-delimited foveae at sides of dorsellum; long postmarginal vein ( Gumovsky et al. 2006).


Previously unknown. Here, we record the species as a parasitoid associated with immature stages of the aquatic ephydrid fly Hydrellia egeriae   , having been reared from puparia along with specimens of Ademon lagarosiphonae   and Chaenusa seminervata   and hence is potentially a hyperparasitoid attacking the braconids rather than the fly. The eulophid subfamily Entedoninae   harbours a wide range of life style strategies including species that are usually solitary or gregarious endoparasitoids (more rarely ectoparasitoids or hyper-parasitoids) of concealed dipteran, lepidopteran, coleopteran, hymenopteran or hemipteran larvae or rarely of eggs or pupae. Janicharis africanus   is morphologically similar to the genera Hakuna   Gumovsky & Delvare, 2006 and Pediocharis   Bouček, 1988 ( Gumovsky et al. 2006) and may, therefore, exhibit similar lifestyle strategies. The monotypic species Hakuna matata   Gumovsky & Bouček, 2006 was reared from conical insect galls on a forest plant and each gall contained several pupae in separate cells; adult wasps emerged through a single hole at the apex of the gall. Based on these notes by the collector, Gumovsky et al. (2006) hypothesised H. matata   to be a parasitoid of the gall former. Biology of Pediocharis   is unknown and, together with the lack of detail concerning the biology of Hakuna   , makes it difficult to predict whether J. africanus   is, indeed, a hyper-parasitoid or not. A more remote possibility of morphological congeneric similarity for Janicharis   is to Chrysocharis   Foerster, 1856 ( Gumovsky et al. 2006), but this genus contains a very broad range of lifestyle strategies, including endo- and ectoparasitoids and facultative hyperparasitoids ( Yu et al. 2016), which does not provide any further enlightenment as to potential possibilities for Janicharis   . The only recourse is to pursue direct investigation of the biology for J. africanus   in the field.


Cameroon, Nigeria, Madagascar and South Africa (new country record).


The reared specimens were identified by corroboration of morphological character attributes with the original description and type photographs of J. africanus   ( Gumovsky et al. 2006). The genus is monotypic.


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle


Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Developpement


National Museum of Natural History, Naturalis


Natural History Museum, London


Iziko Museums of Cape Town