Aleiodes apicalis ( Brulle , 1832)

van Achterberg, Cornelis, Shaw, Mark R. & Quicke, Donald L. J., 2020, Revision of the western Palaearctic species of Aleiodes Wesmael (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Rogadinae). Part 2: Revision of the A. apicalis group, ZooKeys 919, pp. 1-259: 1

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Aleiodes apicalis ( Brulle , 1832)


Aleiodes apicalis ( Brulle, 1832)   Figs 50-53 View Figures 50–53 , 54-65 View Figures 54–65 , 66-71 View Figures 66–71

Bracon apicalis   Brullé, 1832: 381 [examined].

Rhogas apicalis   ; Fahringer 1932: 317-318.

Rogas apicalis   ; Shenefelt 1975: 1218.

Aleiodes apicalis   ; Shaw et al., 1998: 63; Fortier and Shaw 1999: 227; Zaldívar-Riverón et al. 2004: 234, 2008: figs 2-6.

Aleiodes (Chelonorhogas) apicalis   ; Falco et al. 1997: 60; Farahani et al. 2015: 240-242; Abdolalizadeh et al. 2017: 36.

Rogas reticulator   Nees, 1834: 211; Shenefelt 1975 (as synonym of A. ductor   ); Papp 2005: 176 (id.). Syn. nov.

Aleiodes reticulator   ; Papp, 1991a: 70 (as synonym of A. ductor   ).

Rogas bicolor   Lucas, 1849: 336-337 (not Spinola 1808); Shenefelt 1975: 1219; Papp 1985a: 157 (lectotype designation), 2005: 176 (as synonym of A. ductor   ). Syn. nov.

Rogas rufo-ater   Wollaston, 1858: 24; Shenefelt 1975: 1247; Papp 1990: 90 (as synonym of A. ductor   ) [examined]. Syn. nov.

Rhogas rufoater   ; Fahringer 1934: 321.

Rhogas bicolorinus   Fahringer, 1932: 318 (replacement name for Rogas bicolor   Lucas). Syn. nov.

Rhogas reticulator var. atripes   Costa, 1884: 13; Papp 1990: 90 (as synonym of R. rufoater   ). Syn. nov.

Rhogas ductor var. atripes   ; Fahringer 1932: 244.

Aleiodes (Neorhogas) ductor var. atripes   ; Papp 1985a: 157.

Rhogas similis   Szépligeti, 1903: 114 (not Curtis 1834); Papp 1985a: 157-158 (lectotype designation and as synonym of A. ductor   ), 2005: 176 (id.). Syn. nov.

Rhogas ductor var. similis   ; Fahringer 1932: 245.

Rogas ductor   auct. p.p.; Shenefelt, 1975: 1226-1227; Zaykov 1980a: 112; Tobias 1976: 85, 1986: 80 (transl.: 133); Samartsev and Belokobylskij 2013: 765.

Aleiodes ductor   auct. p.p.; Bergamasco et al. 1995: 5.

Type material.

Holotype of B. apicalis   , ♂ ( MNHN) "[Greece], Morée, Muséum Paris, Brullé 4187-33", “Type”, " Bracon apicalis Brullé, Type". Lectotype of R. similis, ♂ ( MTMA) "[Hungary], Kecskemét, Szépligeti”, "Hym. Typ. No. 7021, Mus. Budapest", “Lectotypus”, " Rhogas similis Szépl. 1903 ♂, Papp, 1984", " Rhogas reticulator var. similis Sz., det. Szépligeti, 1906", " Aleiodes ductor Thunbg., det. Papp, J., 1983". Holotype of R. rufo-ater, ♂ ( ZJUH) "[Portugal], Madeira, Wollaston, 55.7", " Rogas rufo-ater, W.", Type, H.T.", "B.M. Type Hym., 3.c.241".

Additional material.

Albania, Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, France (including Corsica), Germany, Greece (including Chios, Corfu, Crete, Lesbos, Rhodes), Hungary, Italy (including Sardinia, Sicily), Malta, Moldova, Montenegro, Morocco, North Macedonia, Portugal (including Madeira), Romania, Russia (including Dagestan), Serbia, Slovakia, Spain (including Mallorca and Canary Islands: Tenerife, Fuerteventura), Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, [Georgia, Kazakhstan, Oman, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Syria, Turkmenistan]. Specimens in ZJUH, BZL, CMIM, CNC, HSC, MRC, MSC, MTMA, NMS, RMNH, SDEI, UNS, ZISP, ZSSM. This is a mainly Mediterranean species, extending into Central Europe and West Asia, and one of the commonest species of the group in the Mediterranean area. One surprising female from Sweden ( Skåne, Käseberga, MV light 17-vii-14.ix.2013, N. Ryrholm & C. Källander, in NMS) is presumed, like two British specimens (England, V.C. 3, S. Devon, Slapton Ley, H.St.J. Donisthorpe, in ZJUH; V.C. 22, Berkshire, Beale Park, 25-27.vii.2018, Rothamsted trap, in coll. A.C. Galsworthy destined for ZJUH) and one specimen from Netherlands (Lexmond, ZH, 10.viii.2004, C. Gielis in RMNH) to have been deposited there by winds from southern Europe or N. Africa rather than representing an established breeding population. Whether or not A. apicalis   can eventually establish permanent populations, i.e., with winter survival, in these relatively northerly parts of Europe may depend on whether its host can do likewise.

Molecular data.

MRS008 (Turkey), MRS111 (Turkey), MRS112 (Turkey), MRS181 (Russia), MRS869 (Sweden).


Time of flight varies according to harshness of summer. In its more temperate sites plurivoltine April-September(October), overwintering in the mummy, but in Cyprus (and presumably other places with extremely hot dry summers) it appears to be most active from autumn to spring (October-May), with a prolonged summer diapause (June-October or later) in the mummy (reared series ex " Plusia " in ZJUH and NMS, W.R. Ingram, six with mummification dates recorded in May or June and adult emergence in the following October-December, further specimens in the series have only one date, which is ambiguous). Reared from Noctuidae   : Autographa gamma   (Linnaeus) (6 [4 ZISP/Moldova, 1 HSC/Germany, 1 NMS/Malta]; J.L. Gregory, H. Schnee), indet. Plusiinae   (14). There is no reason to suppose that the hosts recorded as indet. Plusiinae   are anything except A. gamma   . A further specimen labelled as ex Peribroma   [sic] saucia is accompanied by a clearly Plusiinae   mummy (Sicily, NMS). Also, one labelled as from Anarsia lineatella   Zeller ( Gelechiidae   ) (Ukraine, ZISP), but without a mummy and clearly in error on grounds of size alone. Another specimen labelled as "ex Sesamia pupa" (Iran, ZJUH) lacks its mummy but accompanies two individuals of A. aestuosus   (q. v.) from the same source, and the remarks made under that species apply also to this record - but with the added objection that the small hypoclypeal opening and flat clypeus of A. apicalis   strongly suggest that its hosts do not mummify in deep concealment. The mummy (Fig. 52 View Figures 50–53 ) is of a pale chalky buff colour, and the cocoon occupies approx. abdominal segments 4-7 of the host larva. Several of the mummies examined, all of which seem to be penultimate instar, have been formed in a more or less curled leaf beneath a web (Fig. 53 View Figures 50–53 ) that the host had been induced to spin before being mummified, and were weakly stuck to the substrate.


Maximum width of hypoclypeal depression 0.3-0.4 × minimum width of face (Fig. 60 View Figures 54–65 ); antennal segments of ♀ 44-51 and flagellar segments moderately robust (Figs 64 View Figures 54–65 , 65 View Figures 54–65 ); ventral margin of clypeus thick and obtuse apically and clypeus not protruding outwards (Fig. 62 View Figures 54–65 ); vertex, mesoscutum, metapleuron and scutellum normally shiny and without dense granulation, at most with some superficial micro-sculpture; frons (and more or less vertex) with striae (Fig. 61 View Figures 54–65 ) or rugae; scutellum largely smooth and shiny; mesopleuron largely smooth; vein 2-CU1 of fore wing approx. as long as vein 1-CU1 (Fig. 54 View Figures 54–65 ); vein M+CU of hind wing distinctly longer than vein 1-M (Fig. 54 View Figures 54–65 ); hind tarsal claws of ♀ with rather slender and brownish pecten (Fig. 63 View Figures 54–65 ); basal half of hind tibia (largely) pale yellowish, or if black (var. rufoater   ) then also fore femur black; 3rd tergite (except basally) largely smooth; medially 4th-6th tergites of ♂ slightly concave and with dense band of medium-sized setae (Figs 68 View Figures 66–71 , 69 View Figures 66–71 ); head, mesoscutum and scutellum black; 2nd tergite yellowish or reddish.


Redescribed ♀ (RMNH) from Hungary (Budapest), length of fore wing 5.1 mm, of body 6.7 mm.

Head. Antennal segments of ♀ more than 40, but apical segments missing (length of antenna of ♀ from Lesbos 1.4 × fore wing and its subapical segments robust); frons with coarse curved rugae, shiny; OOL 1.5 × diameter of posterior ocellus, and distinctly striate; vertex transversely striate, rather weak; clypeus normal, punctulate and convex; ventral margin of clypeus thick and not protruding forwards; width of hypoclypeal depression 0.3 × minimum width of face (Fig. 60 View Figures 54–65 ); length of eye 1.6 × temple in dorsal view (Fig. 61 View Figures 54–65 ); vertex behind stemmaticum transversely striate; clypeus near lower level of eyes; length of malar space 0.4 × length of eye in lateral view; occipital carina complete, fine.

Mesosoma. Mesoscutal lobes largely smooth, punctulate, shiny; prepectal carina complete, rather strong; precoxal area of mesopleuron largely smooth; mesopleuron above precoxal area weakly and sparsely punctate, especially posteriorly; scutellum largely smooth, with striae laterally; propodeum evenly convex, coarsely vermiculate-rugose, only anteriorly with median carina, without tubercles.

Wings. Fore wing: r 0.6 × 3-SR (Fig. 54 View Figures 54–65 ); 1-CU1 horizontal, equal to or slightly longer than 2-CU1; r-m 0.9 × 3-SR; 2nd submarginal cell comparatively short (Fig. 54 View Figures 54–65 ); cu-a vertical, slightly curved posteriorly; 1-M straight posteriorly. Hind wing: marginal cell basally slightly and distally strongly widened, its apical width 2.6 × width at level of hamuli (Fig. 54 View Figures 54–65 ); 2-SC+R subquadrate; m-cu indistinct; M+CU:1-M = 5:3; 1r-m 0.7 × 1-M.

Legs. Tarsal claws with rather slender and medium-sized brownish pecten (Fig. 63 View Figures 54–65 ); hind coxa largely densely punctate; hind trochantellus medium-sized; length of hind femur and basitarsus 5.1 and 6.0 × their width, respectively; length of inner hind spur 0.5 × hind basitarsus.

Metasoma. First tergite robust, evenly convex; 1st and 2nd tergites rather coarsely obliquely rugose; 1st tergite and basal half of 2nd tergite with median carina; 2nd tergite robust and with striae diverging posteriorly; medio-basal area of 2nd tergite wide triangular, rather short; 2nd suture rather deep medially; 3rd tergite largely smooth, except anteriorly with some striae; 4th and apical half of 3rd tergite without sharp lateral crease; ovipositor sheath with rather long setae and apically rounded (Fig. 51 View Figures 50–53 ).

Colour. Black; scapus, pedicellus, tegulae (but humeral plate brownish yellow), base of hind tibia narrowly, apical half of hind tibia, telotarsi, hind tarsus largely, ventral apical half of metasoma, pterostigma and veins (except C+SC+R of fore wing) dark brown; remainder of basal half of antenna and palpi yellowish brown; remainder of legs (but apical two-fifths of hind femur black), 1st and 2nd tergites, 3rd tergite basally and laterally orange brown; remainder of hind tibia pale yellowish; apex of middle femur and wing membrane somewhat infuscate.

Variation. A. apicalis   is very variable in colour and the colour patterns are not restricted to certain areas, but in general southern Palaearctic specimens are darker than northern ones (or specimens from high altitudes). The tegula is dark brown or black, and the humeral plate usually paler than the tegula or equally black, but both usually yellowish in southern specimens; the hind tarsus is dark brown or black, but sometimes 3rd and 4th segments yellowish; the hind tibia variably reddish to black, but palest at extreme base; the pronotum is very occasionally reddish. The extent of black colouration of the legs is especially variable, and sometimes all legs are entirely black (var. rufoater   (Wollaston, 1858)). Antenna, especially in females, can be more or less light reddish brown, especially basally, or dark brown/black throughout. Antennal segments: ♀ 44(1), 46(3), 47(11), 48(20), 49(31), 50(41), 51(19), 52(10), 54(3), 55(1), 57(1); ♂ 46(3), 47(7), 48(17), 49(29), 50(30), 51(32), 52(11), 53(5), 54(1). Males have on average approx. one antennal segment more than females. Apical tergites of ♂ type 4, setosity dense (making the tergites appear concave; Figs 68 View Figures 66–71 , 69 View Figures 66–71 ) and fringe weak.


*Albania, Austria, *Bosnia & Herzegovina, *Bulgaria, *Croatia, Cyprus, *Czech Republic, *France (including Corsica), *Georgia, *Germany, Greece (including Chios, Corfu, Crete, Lesbos, Rhodes), *Hungary, Iran, *Iraq, *Israel, *Italy (including Sardinia, Sicily), *Kazakhstan, *Malta, *Moldova, *Montenegro, *Morocco, *North Macedonia, *Oman, *Portugal (including Madeira), *Romania, *Russia (including Dagestan), *Serbia, *Slovakia, Spain (including Mallorca and Canary Islands: Tenerife, Fuerteventura), *Syria, Switzerland, *Tunisia, Turkey, *Turkmenistan.

New synonymy.

The synonymy of Rogas rufo-ater   Wollaston, 1858, and Rhogas similis   Szépligeti, 1903, are based on examination of the types listed above. The lectotype of Rogas bicolor   Lucas, 1849 (not Spinola, 1808) and of Rhogas bicolorinus   Fahringer, 1932, has been examined by Dr Jenö Papp and we agree with his opinion that it is a synonym of A. ductor   auct. (= A. apicalis   ). The types of Rogas reticulator   Nees, 1834, and Rhogas reticulator var. atripes   Costa, 1884, are lost or unavailable and their synonymy is based on the original description and the interpretation by later authors.














Aleiodes apicalis ( Brulle , 1832)

van Achterberg, Cornelis, Shaw, Mark R. & Quicke, Donald L. J. 2020

Rhogas apicalis

Agassiz 1846

Rhogas rufoater

Agassiz 1846

Rhogas bicolorinus

Agassiz 1846

Rhogas reticulator var. atripes

Agassiz 1846

Rhogas ductor var. atripes

Agassiz 1846

Rhogas similis

Agassiz 1846

Rhogas ductor var. similis

Agassiz 1846