Cremastosperma venezuelanum Pirie
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|Cremastosperma venezuelanum Pirie|
Cremastosperma venezuelanum Pirie, Blumea 50: 34, f. 1. 2005.
VENEZUELA, Carababo: Autonomo Mora, Watershed of Río Morón, 3 May 1991, Diaz, W. & Niño, M. 231 (holotype: U! [U0012254]; isotype: NY! [NY00759136]).
Tree 7-10 m tall; young twigs and petioles glabrous. Leaves: petioles 10-20 mm long, 3-4 mm diam.; lamina narrowly elliptic, 30-53 by 9-15 cm (index 3-3.6), chartacous to subcoriacous, shiny, dark brown above, olive green/greyish/light to dark brown below, glabrous on both sides, base cordate (rarely rounded), apex obtuse to acute, primary vein 2.5-5 mm wide at the widest point, secondary veins 15-30, intersecondary veins occasional, distance between from 12 mm at the base to 40 mm closer to the apex, angles with primary vein from 90° at the base to 60-50° closer to the apex, rarely branching, forming more or less indistinct loops, smallest distance between loops and margin 2-3 mm; tertiary veins showing some reticulation. Inflorescence of single flowers clustered in groups of up to 6, produced from leafless branches or from the main trunk; peduncles ca. 2 by 1 mm (in flower), 3-5 by 1.5-3 mm (in fruit); pedicels ca. 11 by 1 mm at the base (in flower), 16-22 by 1.5-2 mm (in fruit), glabrous; one lower bract, very broadly triangular, 0.5-1 mm long, obtuse, persistent, glabrous; upper bract attachment variable within central 80% of length, ca. 1 by 1.5 mm, depressed triangular, obtuse, glabrous; closed flower buds not seen; flowers dark brown to black in sicco, sepals and petals glabrous; sepals free, depressed triangular, reflexed, ca. 1 by 1.5 mm, acute to obtuse, persistent on less mature fruits; outer petals elliptic, ca. 18 by 10 mm, inner petals narrowly elliptic, ca. 21 by 6 mm; androecium ca. 4 mm diam., stamens ca. 1 mm long, connective ca. 0.4 mm wide; gynoecium ca. 1.8 mm diam., carpels 0.6-0.7 mm long, glabrous. Monocarps 20-35, ellipsoid, asymmetrical, 17-20 by 12-13 mm, black in sicco, with a strongly excentric apicule; stipes 15-22 by 1.5-2 mm; fruiting receptacle 5-12 mm diam.; monocarps, stipes and receptacle glabrous. Seeds ellipsoid, orange-brown, shallowly pitted, 15-17 by 13-16 mm, raphe raised, regular.
Venezuela (Aragua, Carabobo).
Habitat and ecology.
Understorey of primary, moist, evergreen forest. At elevations of 350-1100 m. Fruiting: April and May; flowering: August.
Cremastosperma venezuelanum is best distinguished from other species of Cremastosperma by its distinctive acute to obtuse leaf apex (as opposed to acuminate or caudate in other species). The combination of cordate (rarely rounded) leaf base, the large angles of the secondary with the primary veins near the base of the leaves and the lack of indument on any parts are also unique. Only one other species of Cremastosperma has been collected in Venezuela, C macrocarpum Maas, which has longer pedicels and larger monocarps with shorter, thicker stipes.
Preliminary conservation status.
Cremastosperma venezuelanum is known from only four collections and its EOO and AOO would both qualify as Endangered; however it has been found within the bounds of a national park (Parque Nacional Henri Pittier, Venezuela). Near Threatened [NT] (Table 1).
Selected specimens examined.
VENEZUELA. Aragua: Parque Nacional Henri Pittier, Maracay-Ocumare, 10°21'N, 67°43'W, 740 m a.s.l., 1 Apr 1990, Edwards et al. 397 (NY); Parque Nacional Dos Riitos, 10°35'N, 68°00'W, 600 m a.s.l., 19 May 1943, Killip & Lasser 37752 (NY, S). Carababo: Río San Gián, S of Borburata, 10°10'N, 68°05'W, 350-500 m a.s.l., 7 Aug 1965, Steyermark 94314 (NY, US).
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