Pristiphora cincta Newman, 1837,
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|Pristiphora cincta Newman, 1837|
Pristiphora cincta Newman, 1837 Figs 47, 104, 145-146, 244, 246
Nematus (Nematus ) Friesi [sic!] Dahlbom, 1835: 10. Not available. Nomen nudum.
Nematus quercus Hartig, 1837: 188-189. Syntype ♀ (GBIF-GISHym3403) in ZSM, examined. Type locality: Berlin, Germany. Note. Abdomen is missing in the single known syntype specimen.
Tenthredo borealis Zetterstedt, 1838: 353. Lectotype ♀ (MZLU2014479; here designated) in MZLU, examined. Type locality: Lyngen, Troms, Norway.
Pristiphora coloradensis Marlatt, 1896: 113-114 (key), 121-122. Note. Synonymy with P. cincta questionable ( Smith 1979). Holotype ♂ in ANSP ( Cresson 1928), not examined. Type locality: Colorado, USA.
Pristiphora hoodi Marlatt, 1896: 113-114 (key), 119. Note. Synonymy with P. cincta questionable ( Smith 1979). Holotype ♀ in ANSP ( Cresson 1928), not examined. Type locality: Mount Hood, Oregon, USA.
Pristiphora seorsa Konow, 1897a: 180. 3 ♀♀ syntypes in SDEI, examined. Type locality: Mauken (Norway) and Irkutsk (Russia). Note. We refrain from designating a lectotype, because the syntype series may not be homogenous: the lancet of one of the specimens from Irkutsk has bands of setae on the annuli, unlike the studied European specimen.
Pristiphora idiotiformis Rohwer, 1910b: 199-200. Holotype ♀ (Cat. No. 12923; USNMENT00779081) in USNM, not examined. Type locality: Nerepis, New Brunswick, Canada. Synonymised with P. cincta by Smith (1979).
Pristiphora cincta ab. nigriventris Hellén, 1943: 71. Not available. Infrasubspecific name.
Pristiphora cincta ab. maukeniensis Hellén, 1943: 71. Not available. Infrasubspecific name. Note. Published as " maukeniensis Conde".
Pristiphora nigrogroenblomi Haris, 2002: 74-75, syn. n. Holotype ♂ (DEI-GISHym80334; http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.5100994) in HNHM, examined. Type locality: Ulaanbaatar 10 km N, Mongolia.
The most similar species is P. condei , which has a pale supraclypeal area (usually black in P. cincta ) and darker metatibia (half or more is black in P. condei , usually less than half in P. cincta ). The shorter postocellar area in P. cincta (1.0-1.5 times longer than diameter of lateral ocellus) can also distinguish it from at least females of P. condei (1.5-2.5 times longer). Because males of P. cincta frequently lack a red band on the abdomen, penis valves (which are very similar to species in the rufipes group) should be studied to distinguish them from many other species (see the Key). It is possible that more than one species is involved under P. cincta , but this requires additional research (names are possibly already available among current synonyms).
Based on COI barcode sequences, P. cincta belongs to its own BIN cluster (BOLD:AAG3565) (Fig. 5). Maximum distance within the BIN is 3.21%. The nearest neighbour to BOLD:AAG3565, diverging by minimum of 6.26%, is BOLD:AAU8834 (specimens from Canada, which externally look like P. cincta , but apparently belong to the rufipes group; Fig. 5). Based on nuclear data, maximum within species divergence is 0.7% (based on four specimens and both genes combined) and the nearest neighbour is 1.0% (both genes combined) or 0.4% (only NaK) different ( P. brevis ).
Betula pubescens Ehrh. ( Conde 1938, Stritt 1952, as P. quercus ), Salix sp. ( Lindqvist 1955b), Vaccinium myrtillus L. ( Loth 1913, Stritt 1952, as P. quercus , ex ovo rearing experiments by VV), Vaccinium uliginosum L. ( Weiffenbach 1962, as P. quercus ), Vaccinium myrtilloides Michx. ( Neilson 1955, 1958, as P. idiota ), Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. ( Neilson 1955), Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. ( Neilson 1955, Bardwell and Averill 1996, as P. idiota ). It is possible, that three species (each on Betula , Salix , and Vaccinium ) are involved. Spiraea sp. ( Verzhutskii 1966, Verzhutskii 1981, as P. quercus ) as a host is doubtful, because similar species might be involved, perhaps P. pallidiventris , P. nigricans (which feed on Rosaceae ), or something else.
Ovipositing experiment no. 5/1971: Finland, North Karelia, Ilomantsi, Heinävaara. One captured female laid eggs on 31.V.1971 in pockets through margins of the leaves of Vaccinium myrtillus . Larvae hatched on 5.VI.1971; four larval instars were observed. The development was rapid, the larvae were fully grown on 14.VI.1971. No “extra” moult after feeding. Also leaves of Betula pubescens were offered, but the female did not lay any eggs on them.
Distribution and material examined.
Palaearctic, Nearctic. Specimens studied are from Canada, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Norway, Mongolia, Russia (Irkutsk Oblast, Primorsky Krai), Slovakia, Sweden, and Ukraine.
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