Helcystogramma Zeller, 1877

Li, H. H. & Zhen, H., 2011, Review of the genus Helcystogramma Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae: Dichomeridinae) from China, Journal of Natural History 45 (17 - 18), pp. 1035-1087: 1036-1042

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1080/00222933.2011.552798

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/CE67810C-FFA3-FFBF-FE74-FB76FCBC5679

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Helcystogramma Zeller, 1877
status

 

Helcystogramma Zeller, 1877  

Helcystogramma Zeller, 1877: 369   . Type species: Gelechia (Helcystogramma) obseratella Zeller, 1877   = Helcystogramma hibisci ( Stainton, 1859)   , by subsequent designation by Meyrick, 1910: 282.

Ceratophora Heinemann, 1870: 325   (nec Ceratophora Grey [1835]   in the Reptilia  ). Type species: Recurvaria rufescens Haworth, 1828   , by subsequent designation by Walsingham, 1911: 84.

Teuchophanes Meyrick, 1914: 274   . Type species: Teuchophanes leucopleura Meyrick, 1914   , by monotypy.

Schemataspis Meyrick, 1918: 144   . Type species: Brachmia gradata Meyrick, 1910   , by original designation.

Parelectra Meyrick, 1925: 8   , 129. Type species: Strobisia helicopis Meyrick, 1922   , by original designation.

Psamathoscopa Meyrick, 1937: 96   . Type species: Onebala simplex Walsingham, 1900   , by original designation.

Anathyrsotis Meyrick, 1939: 55   . Type species: Anathyrsotis ceriochranta Meyrick, 1939   , by monotypy.

Parelectroides Clarke, 1952: 99   . Repl. name for Parelectra Meyrick, 1925   . Type species: Strobisia helicopis Meyrick, 1922   , by original designation.

General characters

Head smooth, ocellus present or absent; labial palpus sickle-shaped, usually without well-developed scale tuft; antenna without pecten on scape. Mesothorax in male with or without long hair pencil from anepisternum. Forewing with R 4 and R 5 long stalked, R 3 separated or stalked with R 4 +R 5, M 2 close to M 3, CuA 1 and CuA 2 short stalked, CuP absent, 1A+2A forked basally. Hindwing with M 1 arising from middle of Rs, M 3 and CuA 1 short stalked, CuP absent, 1A+2A not forked basally.

Male genitalia

Uncus more or less rectangular or triangular. Culcitula broad. Valva with short ventral free lobe. Vinculum with symmetrical broad-based lobes arising from lateral arms, abruptly narrowed and directed inward distally. Saccus broad and short, or elongate, anteriorly rounded, blunt or pointed. Aedeagus often dilated basally.

Female genitalia

Anterior apophyses shorter than posterior apophyses. Antrum usually with short spines, ductus bursae membranous or partly sclerotized. Ductus seminalis often arising posteriorly from corpus bursae. Corpus bursae usually with granules, spicules or crimples, signum absent or present, accessory bursa present.

Biology

Larvae of Helcystogramma   are leaf rollers and tiers of Asteraceae   , Convolvulaceae   and Poaceae   ( Piskunov 1981; Hodges 1986; Ponomarenko 1999).

Distribution

Most described species of Helcystogramma   occur in the Oriental and Neotropical regions. Of the known species, 43 were reported in Asia ( Ponomarenko 1997) and more than 10 in Europe ( Elsner et al. 1999, Ponomarenko 2008). This paper reports 20 species occurring mostly in the central and southern parts of China (Figures 1–3).

Check-list of the Helcystogramma species   in China

The flavilineolella   group

flavilineolella Ponomarenko, 1998   Figure 1. Distribution of Helcystogramma spp.   flavilineolella   group (' – H. flavilineolella   ); hibisci   group (‘ – H. bicuneum   ; • – H. epicentra (Meyrick)   ; • – H. hibisci   ; · – H. imagibicuneum   sp. nov.); perelegans   group (- – H. perelegans   ; ′ – H. flavifuscum   sp. nov.).

Figure 2. Distribution of Helcystogramma spp.   triannulella   group (' – H. arotraeum   ; ‘ – H. fuscomarginatum   ; ′ – H. lutatella   ; • – H. triannulella   ; · – H. brevinodium   sp. nov.).

The hibisci   group

bicuneum ( Meyrick, 1911)  

epicentra ( Meyrick, 1911)  

hibisci ( Stainton, 1859)  

imagibicuneum   sp. nov.

The perelegans   group

perelegans ( Omelko et Omelko, 1993)  

flavifuscum   sp. nov.

The triannulella   group

arotraeum ( Meyrick, 1894)  

fuscomarginatum Ueda, 1995  

lutatella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)  

triannulella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)  

brevinodium   sp. nov.

The trijunctum   group

hassenzanensis Park et Hodges, 1995  

trijunctum ( Meyrick, 1934)  

albilepidotum   sp. nov.

angustum   sp. nov.

flavistictum   sp. nov.

furvimaculare   sp. nov.

imagitrijunctum   sp. nov.

rectangulum   sp. nov.

Key to the species of Helcystogramma Zeller   in China

1. Ocellus present ( perelegans   group)........................................ 2 Ocellus absent........................................................... 3

2. Uncus narrow mesially (narrower than one-fifth width at base), broadly expanded in distal third, convex posterolaterally in the male genitalia ( Figure 11E View Figure 11 ).................................... H. perelegans (Omelko et Omelko) Uncus   narrow at two-fifths length (about two-thirds width at base), parallel sided in distal three-fifths, slightly acute posterolaterally in the male genitalia ( Figure 11F View Figure 11 )........................................ H. flavifuscum   sp. nov.

3. Labial palpus and forewing with metallic lustre ( hibisci   group)............. 4 Labial palpus and forewing without metallic lustre........................ 7

4. Forewing without terminal fascia........................................ 5 Forewing with two terminal fasciae...................................... 6

5. Forewing with a large dark brown semicircular mark on dorsum, lacking streaks along distal part of costal margin and termen ( Figure 7D View Figure 7 ); ductus bursae about same length as posterior apophyses, corpus bursae not spined on inner surface, signum present in the female genitalia ( Figure 14D View Figure 14 )................................................................. H. hibisci (Stainton)   Forewing without dark brown mark on dorsum, with several dark brown streaks along distal quarter of costal margin and termen ( Figure 7C View Figure 7 ); ductus bursae more than nine times length of posterior apophyses, corpus bursae spined posteriorly and at middle of left side on inner surface, signum absent in the female genitalia ( Figure 14C View Figure 14 ).................... H. epicentra (Meyrick)  

6. Forewing with two short white streaks on costal margin distally ( Figure 7E View Figure 7 ); vinculum with sclerotized semioval plate between apex of lobe and middle of inner margin in the male genitalia ( Figure 11D View Figure 11 )... H. imagibicuneum   sp. nov. Forewing with three short white streaks on costal margin distally ( Figure 7B View Figure 7 ); vinculum without sclerotized plate in the male genitalia ( Figure 11B View Figure 11 )........................................................... H. bicuneum (Meyrick)  

7. Vinculum with distal part of lobes at right angle with margin, aedeagus with large sclerotized distal lobe in the male genitalia ( flavilineolella   group) ( Figure 11A View Figure 11 )....................................... H. flavilineolella Ponomarenko Vinculum   with distal part of lobes directed obliquely in the male genitalia.. 8

8. Uncus nearly oblong, slightly expanded apically, gnathos sharp apically, lobes of vinculum dilated apically in the male genitalia ( triannulella   group).................................................................. 9 Uncus somewhat triangular, tapering to apex, not expanded, gnathos blunt apically, lobes of vinculum not dilated apically in the male genitalia ( trijunctum   group)................................................................. 13

9. Labial palpus with third segment about one-third length of second ( Figure 4B View Figure 4 ); aedeagus rounded apically in the male genitalia ( Figure 12D View Figure 12 ).............................................................. H. brevinodium   sp. nov. Labial palpus with third segment about equal to or slightly shorter than second; aedeagus hooked apically in the male genitalia................... 10

10. Forewing with colour on all veins different from ground colour...........11 Forewing with colour on all veins same as ground colour................ 12

11. Aedeagus with a small sclerotized horned process at dorsal three-fifths in the male genitalia ( Figure 12B View Figure 12 )...................... H. fuscomarginatum Ueda   Aedeagus without sclerotized process in the male genitalia ( Figure 12A View Figure 12 )........................................................ H. arotraeum (Meyrick)  

12. Eighth tergite with anterior margin deeply concave in an oblong mesially in the male genitalia ( Figure 6C View Figure 6 ); signum present in the female genitalia ( Figure 6B View Figure 6 )...................................... H. triannulella (Herrich-Schäffer) Eighth   tergite with anterior margin evenly concave in an arch mesially in the male genitalia ( Figure 10H View Figure 10 ); signum absent in the female genitalia ( Figure 14F View Figure 14 )........................................ H. lutatella (Herrich-Schäffer)  

13. Forewing with fascia from costal three-fifths length to dorsal two-fifths length, faint mesially.......................................................... 14 Forewing without fascia crossing wing................................... 15

14. Vinculum with inner margin obviously protruding, lobes nearly thumb-shaped distally and blunt apically in the male genitalia ( Figure 12F View Figure 12 ); ductus bursae straight in the female genitalia ( Figure 15B View Figure 15 )......... H. trijunctum (Meyrick) Vinculum   with inner margin slightly arched, lobes nearly triangular distally and sharp apically in the male genitalia ( Figure 13E View Figure 13 ); ductus bursae curved near corpus bursae in the female genitalia ( Figure 15E View Figure 15 )..................................................................... H. imagitrijunctum   sp. nov.

15. Forewing with white scale tuft at end of cell ( Figure 9C View Figure 9 )...................................................................... H. albilepidotum   sp. nov. Forewing without white scale tuft at end of cell.......................... 16

16. Forewing with yellow dots along distal quarter of costal margin and termen ( Figure 9E View Figure 9 )......................................... H. flavistictum   sp. nov. Forewing without yellow dots marginally................................ 17

17. Gnathos about one-third length of valva in the male genitalia............ 18 Gnathos slightly shorter than one-quarter length of valva in the male genitalia....................................................................... 19

18. Uncus with median width about one-third of basal width, gnathos slightly narrowed mesially and dilated distally, valva with dorsal and ventral margins parallel in the male genitalia ( Figure 13B View Figure 13 ).............. H. angustum   sp. nov. Uncus with median width about half of basal width, gnathos narrowed gradually from base to apex, valva with distal half protruding dorsally in the male genitalia ( Figure 12E View Figure 12 ).................... H. hassenzanensis Park et Hodges  

19. Forewing yellow, with a small black spot near costal three-fifths length ( Figure 9F View Figure 9 ); culcitula broad trapeziform, straight posteriorly in the male genitalia ( Figure 13D View Figure 13 )..................................... H. furvimaculare   sp. nov. Forewing greyish-brown to brown, without black spot on costal margin ( Figure 9H View Figure 9 ); culcitula semioval, arched posteriorly in the male genitalia ( Figure 13F View Figure 13 )....................................... H. rectangulum   sp. nov.

The flavilineolella   group

The flavilineolella   group is characterized by the absence of ocellus, the ciliate antenna, the male mesothorax with a hair pencil from anepisternum, the forewing with paler colour along costal margin and all veins; the uncus narrowed near apex or at middle, the gnathos slightly hooked apically, the vinculum with distal part of lobes at right angle with margin, the broad saccus bluntly rounded anteriorly ( Figure 16D View Figure 16 ), the aedeagus longer than valva, with large sclerotized distal lobe in the male genitalia; the membranous ductus bursae spined on inner surface, the ductus seminalis arising from distal part of ductus bursae, and the corpus bursae without signum in the female genitalia. This species group has one species in China: H. flavilineolella Ponomarenko, 1998   . It is distributed in the northeast and central parts of this country (Figure 1).

Remarks

According to Ponomarenko and Huemer (2001), H. klimeschi Ponomarenko et Huemer, 1999   from Italy and H. arulensis (Rebel, 1929)   from Austria are similar to H. flavilineolella Ponomarenko   by sharing the above characters of the species group. So we consider them as belonging to the flavilineolella   group.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Lepidoptera

Family

Gelechiidae

Loc

Helcystogramma Zeller, 1877

Li, H. H. & Zhen, H. 2011
2011
Loc

Parelectroides

Clarke JFG 1952: 99
1952
Loc

Anathyrsotis

Meyrick E 1939: 55
1939
Loc

Psamathoscopa

Meyrick E 1937: 96
1937
Loc

Parelectra

Meyrick E 1925: 8
1925
Loc

Schemataspis

Meyrick E 1918: 144
1918
Loc

Teuchophanes

Meyrick E 1914: 274
1914
Loc

Helcystogramma

Meyrick E 1910: 282
Zeller PC 1877: 369
1877
Loc

Ceratophora

Walsingham T de 1911: 84
Heinemann H 1870: 325
1870