Phaenocora unipunctata ( Ørsted, 1843 ) Bendl, 1908, (Orsted, 1843) Bendl, 1908

Houben, Albrecht M., Steenkiste, Niels Van & Artois, Tom J., 2014, Revision of Phaenocora Ehrenberg, 1836 (Rhabditophora, Typhloplanidae, Phaenocorinae) with the description of two new species, Zootaxa 3889 (3), pp. 301-354: 343-344

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3889.3.1

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DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3510490

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/CF039A58-FFCE-C53A-17C4-0E01E7EFFAAB

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scientific name

Phaenocora unipunctata ( Ørsted, 1843 ) Bendl, 1908
status

 

Phaenocora unipunctata ( Ørsted, 1843) Bendl, 1908  

( Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 )

Derostoma unipunctatum   ØRSTED 1843: 560; Ørsted 1844: 66, plate 2 Fig. 25; Schmidt 1848: 36 –38, plate 2 Figs 5, 5 View FIGURE 5 a, 5 b; Schultze 1851: 44; Vejdovský 1880: 503; Graff 1882: 367 –368; Braun 1885: 221 –226, plate 4 Figs 21–22; Lippitsch 1889: 147 –167, TextFig. p 156, plate 8 Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 –17; Fuhrmann 1894: 217, 220–221, 274– 280; Vejdovský 1895: 113 –114, 116, 118, 122, 124– 128, plate 5 Figs 34–36; Fuhrmann 1900: 730; Dorner 1902: 493; Sekera 1904: 441; Brinkmann 1906: 134 –136 table 5 Figs 22–23.

Derostoma schmidtianum Schultze 1851: 44   –46, 50– 52, plate 4 Fig. 6–9, Braun 1885: 221; Vejdovský 1895: 124.

Derostomum schmidtianum Schmidt 1858: 26   .

Phaenocora unipunctata Bendl 1908   , 129– 130; Bendl 1909: 294, 297–298, Fig. 2; Graff 1909: 93, Fig. 189; Wahl 1910: 42 –44 plate 2 Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ; Hofsten 1911: 4, 32–33; Hofsten 1912: 553, 559, 582, 624, 625; Graff 1913: 134 –137, 138 Figs 136 a, 136 b; Wilhelmi 1913: Fig. 67; Böhmig 1914: 91; Meixner 1915: 535, 537–538, 541; Hofsten 1918: 35, TextFig. 8 C, plate XXVIII Fig. 23, 24; Luther 1918: 49; Nasonov 1919: 620, 621, 633, 1192; Beklemischev 1921: 641 –643, plate 2 Figs 12, 13; Luther 1921: 9, 11, 25; Reisinger 1923: 9, 26, 57–58, Figs 28, 32; Reisinger 1924: 251; Nasonov 1926: 869 –870; Beklemischev 1927: 205; Beklemischev 1929: 534, 538; Sekera 1930: 100; Stummer-Traunfels & Meixner 1930 (and references therein): 3410, 3456, 3460; Steinböck 1932: 210, 212; Gilbert 1935: 284, 286, 294–295, 302, 315, 318, 340–345, 348, 352–353, 369, 377, TextFigs 1 C, 3 Aa, 3 Ab, tables 1, 2; Beauchamp 1936: 149 –151; Gilbert 1938 a: 212, 214; Weise 1942: Fig. 22 Marcus 1946: 66 –68, 70, 75; Steinböck 1948: 22 –23; Steinböck 1949: 232, 242, 250– 251; Rixen 1961: 500, Fig. 45; Luther 1963: 127 –130, Fig. 42, plate I Fig. L; Steinböck 1966: 131, 175; Young 1970: 221 –222 Fig. 4 A, table 1; Young 1973 a: 208 –209, 212, 219 tables 1, 5; Young & Harris 1973: 85 –87; Mack-Fira 1974: 249, 262; Eaton & Young 1975: 66; Heitkamp 1981: 30, table 1; Heitkamp 1982: 141 –142; Müller & Faubel 1993: 379, 387, tables 1, 2; Noreña-Janssen 1995: 243–244, Fig. 16 View FIGURE 16 ; Gamo & Noreña-Janssen 1998: table 1; Noreña et al. 1999: table 1; Korgina 2002: table 1; Noreña et al. 2004: 234; Willems et al. 2006: 3, 8, 11; Noreña et al. 2007: 1998, table 2, 3; Noreña et al. 2008: 10 View Cited Treatment , Fig. 8 View FIGURE 8 .

Phoenocora unipunctata   (incorrect subsequent spelling) Cognetti de Martiis 1916: 193–194, 198 –199, 201, 207, 209– 212, 217–219, 224 – 225, 228 –229, 233, 235– 236.

Derostoma unipunctata Hofsten 1912: 624   ; Luther 1921: 9.

Phaenocora unipunctata   (?) Nasonov 1919: 622.

Phaenocora unipunctata acaudata Weise 1942: 145   , 165, Fig. 21.

Known distribution: Widely distributed: many localities in Europe (also see Luther 1963 for localities and references): Münchenstein and Reinach ( Switzerland) ( Fuhrmann 1894); Bulychevo ( Russia) ( Nasonov 1919); United Kingdom and Ireland ( Young 1970); Hatch Mere, Cheshire ( United Kingdom) ( Young 1973 a); Romania (see Mack-Fira 1974 for localities and references); Seeburger lake, Seeburg ( Germany) ( Heitkamp 1981); environment of Göttingen ( Germany) ( Heitkamp 1982); in the vicinity of Hamburg ( Germany), along the Elbe estuary (see Müller & Faubel 1993 for localities and references); Along the Zapatón river and the Salor river ( Spain) ( Noreña et al. 1999); upper Volga river basin ( Russia) ( Korgina 2002); Diepenbeek ( Belgium), De Maten ( Willems et al. 2006), Ason River near Santa Ulalla Sanctuary (Cantabria, Spain), 43 ° 20 ’N; 03° 26 ’W; Artificial spring in Ramales de la Victoria (Cantabria, Spain), 43 ° 16 ’N; 03° 27 ’W ( Noreña et al. 2007); Djursholm, trench at Ekebysjön ( Sweden) ( SMNH no. 93018); Tingvallavatn ( Iceland) ( SMNH nos 92993–92998, 96991, 96995).

Asia: Eastern Russia, Indonesia and the Tien-Shan area ( China / Kyrgyz Republic border) at about 3500 m altitude (see Luther 1963 for localities and references); Keren Carmel ( Israel); Temporary, artificial pool in Hai Bar Carmel Nature Reserve ( Israel); Lahav, northern Negev ( Israel) ( Noreña et al. 2008).

South America: Cordoba, ( Argentina), series of ponds along from Marina to Angelica; Rio Negro ( Argentina), small pond near to lake Nahuel Huapi (Noreña-Janssen 1995).

New localities: Vijlen ( The Netherlands) Sediment collected on 28 March 2004, inundated in the laboratory in June 2004.

Material examined: Nine serially-sectioned specimens from Vijlen (six sagitally-, two horizontally- and one transversely-sectioned specimens). One sagitally-sectioned specimen designated neotype (sections of one specimen located on two slides: SMNH Type- 8674 a and Type- 8674 b), the others reference material (sections of eight specimens located on sixteen slides: HU nos VI.3.43–VI.3.50; VI.4.01–VI.4.08). Eight transverselysectioned specimens from Tingvallavatn, Iceland ( SMNH nos 92993–92998, 96991, 96995), one whole mount from Djursholm, trench at Ekebysjön, Sweden ( SMNH no. 93018).

Diagnosis: Animals up to 3 mm long, with a small tail. Eyes black, yellowish or reddish up to red, clearly present or only weakly visible. Pigmentation absent or sometimes present as small spots of brown pigment. Zoochlorellae often present. The male copulatory organ is of the duplex-type IIIA. The female genital system is of the UNIPUNCTATA   - type. A small intestinal bursa is connected directly to the gut, a long genito-bursal duct and a short female genital canal are present. The oviduct opens into the junction of the genito-bursal duct and the female genital canal.

Descriptive notes: The studied animals are about 1.5 mm long (measured on sagitally-sectioned specimens). The testes are somewhat lobular and are situated laterally. The vitellaria are situated at the ventral side.

The male copulatory organ ( Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 A) is of the duplex-type IIIA. A clear sphincter is present between the seminal vesicle and the prostate vesicle ( Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 A: sph). The unarmed penis papilla is lined with a thin epithelium.

The female genital system ( Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 B) is connected to the gut by a simple valvular apparatus ( Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 B: va), which can be closed by a weak sphincter. From this point muscles ( Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 B: mu) run toward the epithelial lining of the pharynx ( Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 B: ph) and (probably) towards the ventral epidermis (although this is not clearly observed). The valvular apparatus is directly attached to a small intestinal bursa ( Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 B: bi), which is only slightly wider than the rather long burso-intestinal duct ( Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 B: dbi). Both are often filled with sperm and lined with an irregular, nucleated epithelium. They are surrounded by muscles, which distally become stronger. The ovo-vitelloduct (od) opens between the burso-intestinal duct and the female genital canal ( Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 B: fgc). The female genital canal is rather short and it receives the shell glands ( Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 B: sg).

Remarks: According to Reisinger (1923), the pigmentation of the eye spots varied considerably among individuals of the same population, ranging from completely absent to strongly coloured. Moreover, he ( Reisinger 1923) kept animals in dark conditions and observed a diminishing eye pigmentation over generations. In addition, the presence and quantity of zoochlorellae can also differ among individuals of the same population; for instance, some populations of P. unipunctata   found in Britain ( Young & Harris 1973) entirely lacked zoochlorellae.

The whole mount present in the collections of the Swedish Museum of Natural History ( SMNH no. 93018) does not show any internal structure, hence we cannot confirm whether it is indeed this species. This specimen has eaten Microdalyellia rossi ( Graff, 1911)   , the stylet of which can clearly be observed. Slides SMNH nos 96991 and 96995 are both sampled at the same date (23 / 7 / 1947) at Tingvallavatn ( Iceland). Slide SMNH no. 96991 is probably P. unipunctata   , although this is difficult to assess because it is a transversely-sectioned specimen and the male copulatory organ is evaginated, both hampering the assessment of the exact type of copulatory organ and hence species identification. The specimen on slide SMNH no. 96995 shows no reproductive organs at all, but most probably it is the same species as on slide no. 96991, since both specimens were sampled at the same date and location (Tingvallavatn, Iceland; 23 June 1947).

SMNH

Saskatchewan Museum of Natural History

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Platyhelminthes

Class

Rhabditophora

Order

Rhabdocoela

Family

Typhloplanidae

Genus

Phaenocora

Loc

Phaenocora unipunctata ( Ørsted, 1843 ) Bendl, 1908

Houben, Albrecht M., Steenkiste, Niels Van & Artois, Tom J. 2014
2014
Loc

Phaenocora unipunctata acaudata

Weise 1942: 145
1942
Loc

Phaenocora unipunctata

Nasonov 1919: 622
1919
Loc

Derostoma unipunctata

Luther 1921: 9
Hofsten 1912: 624
1912
Loc

Phaenocora unipunctata

Norena 2008: 10
Norena 2007: 1998
Willems 2006: 3
Norena 2004: 234
Muller 1993: 379
Heitkamp 1982: 141
Heitkamp 1981: 30
Mack-Fira 1974: 249
Young 1973: 208
Young 1973: 85
Young 1970: 221
Steinbock 1966: 131
Luther 1963: 127
Rixen 1961: 500
Steinbock 1949: 232
Steinbock 1948: 22
Marcus 1946: 66
Gilbert 1938: 212
Beauchamp 1936: 149
Gilbert 1935: 284
Steinbock 1932: 210
Sekera 1930: 100
Beklemischev 1929: 534
Beklemischev 1927: 205
Nasonov 1926: 869
Reisinger 1924: 251
Reisinger 1923: 9
Beklemischev 1921: 641
Luther 1921: 9
Nasonov 1919: 620
Hofsten 1918: 35
Luther 1918: 49
Meixner 1915: 535
Bohmig 1914: 91
Graff 1913: 134
Hofsten 1912: 553
Hofsten 1911: 4
Wahl 1910: 42
Bendl 1909: 294
Graff 1909: 93
1909
Loc

Derostomum schmidtianum

Schmidt 1858: 26
1858
Loc

Derostoma schmidtianum

Vejdovsky 1895: 124
Braun 1885: 221
Schultze 1851: 44
1851
Loc

Derostoma unipunctatum

Brinkmann 1906: 134
Sekera 1904: 441
Dorner 1902: 493
Fuhrmann 1900: 730
Vejdovsky 1895: 113
Fuhrmann 1894: 217
Lippitsch 1889: 147
Braun 1885: 221
Graff 1882: 367
Vejdovsky 1880: 503
Schultze 1851: 44
Schmidt 1848: 36
Orsted 1844: 66
ORSTED 1843: 560
1843