Viidalepp, Jaan, 2011, A morphological review of tribes in Larentiinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), Zootaxa 3136, pp. 1-44: 11-12

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Tribe Chesiadini   Pierce, 1914

( Figs 31–37 View FIGURES 31 – 37 )

Pierce (1914), while discussing characters of five genera, found female genitalia of Carsia Hübner   and Aplocera   similar to each other and substantially deviating from those of other larentiines. Forbes (1948) treated Carsia   among the tribe Lobophorini   . The names Eucestiini Warren, 1894 and Chesiadini   Stephens, 1850 refer to the same concept, but Eucestiini is based on a younger synonym ( Chesias Treitschke, 1825   = Eucestis Hübner   , [1825]). Chesiadini   Stephens, 1850 was proposed when Chesias   was synonymized in the text to its younger synonym, Eucestis Hübner   and therefore is not valid. Pierce (1914 was the first to use Chesias   and Chesiadinae validly.

Chesiadini   has apomorphic characters summarized as follows: strongly bulbed fore femora; short, flat and strong foretibia ending in two distal teeth (valid for subtribe Chesiadina, see below); remnants of gnathos fused to the posterior margin of tegumen (separate in some aplocerine genera, Fig. 47 View FIGURES 46 – 47 ); tergite A 8 rough and heavily sclerotized at its posterior margin (Chesiadina, Figs 31–32 View FIGURES 31 – 37 ); venation of hind wing sexually dimorphic as vein An 2 is absent from male but present in female; the contact of Sc with anterior margin of discal cell also varies between species and sexes (Aplocerina, see below); fringe of wings long and relatively strong; (Cheriadina) costal basal corners prolonged and produced; valval ornamentation usually medial and costal in Chesiadina, while costal, saccular and medial in Aplocetrina; bursa copulatrix generally scobinate, signa simple or petaloid (Chesiadina).

Here it is obvious that the tribe is to be divided into two groups of taxa as subtribes Chesiadina and Aplocerina, subtribe nov. ( Figs 38–45 View FIGURES 38 – 45 ). The aplocerine genera Aplocera   , and Carsia   possess following apomorphic characters of its own: foretibia slender with a single, external-apical dentiform projection; male genital armature large ( Figs 38, 39, 40, 43 View FIGURES 38 – 45 ), or medium sized (Figs 41,42); valva with dorsal and saccular ornamentations present, often long ( Figs 38–40 View FIGURES 38 – 45 ); bursa copulatrix membranous, globular, without any signa ( Fig. 45 View FIGURES 38 – 45 ); ductus bursae heavily chitinized, tubular, ending in bursa in a pair of leaf-like appendages ( Fig. 45 View FIGURES 38 – 45 ); the last abdominal segment in female is completely fused into a cone ( Fig. 45 View FIGURES 38 – 45 ), while separated by thinner pleurites in Chesiadina.

Distribution of the Chesiadina: Old-Mediterranean. Afrotropical, (Neotropical, Nearctic). Distribution of the Aplocerina, subtribe nov. Palaearctic (penetrating as antropochorous in Australia and America).