Calcigorgia herba, Dautova, 2019

Dautova, Tatiana N., 2019, New species of deep-water Calcigorgia gorgonians (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) from the Sea of Okhotsk, with a re-diagnosis and a taxonomic review of the genus, European Journal of Taxonomy 549, pp. 1-27 : 3-14

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2019.549

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:DD64BAB9-0A81-4C0C-B964-DCDB3B6AD938

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/D44ADB76-6A55-466F-B41F-1123D3C34534

taxon LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:act:D44ADB76-6A55-466F-B41F-1123D3C34534

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Calcigorgia herba
status

sp. nov.

Calcigorgia herba   sp. nov.

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:D44ADB76-6A55-466F-B41F-1123D3

Figs 1–7 View Fig View Fig View Fig View Fig View Fig View Fig View Fig ; Table 1 View Table 1

Diagnosis

Calcigorgia   colonies scantly branched, with long smooth stem. Polyps in alcohol-preserved material up to 3 mm high and up to 2 mm wide, crowded in distal parts of colonies, arranged irregularly on the surface of the colony. Polyp body wall cylindrical in shape and with smooth surface. Polyp tentacles with scales, warty rods and clubs, poorly developed clubs with leafy processes on head, spindles, capstans (8-radiate) and ovals. Polyp body walls with warty clubs, club-like warty spindles, warty spindles, poorly developed clubs with leafy processes on head, ovals, and capstans (8-radiate). Coenenchyme with capstans (8-radiate) and ovals.

Etymology

The specific epithet ‘herba’ is due to a shape of colonies similar to a plant with a stalk in the form of a hollow straw and with small flower-like protrusions reminiscent of ears of corn or tussocks.

Material examined

Holotype

SEA OF OKHOTSK – Kurile Islands • 135 × 13 mm; Matua Is.; expedition of PFRC, NSCMB, and ZIN RAS on RV Tikhookeansky, station 306, sample 895; 48°01′ N, 153°22′ E; depth 100 m; 18 Aug. 1987; V. Lukin leg.; dredged; MIMB 20744 View Materials . GoogleMaps  

Paratype

SEA OF OKHOTSK – Kurile Islands • 159 × 9 mm; Matua Is.; expedition of PFRC, NSCMB, and ZIN RAS on RV Tikhookeansky, station 306, sample 895; 48°01′ N, 153°22′ E; depth 100 m; 18 Aug. 1987; V. Lukin leg.; dredged; MIMB 20745 View Materials GoogleMaps   .

Additional material

SEA OF OKHOTSK – Kurile Islands • 1 specimen; Rikord Str. ; cruise on RV Tikhookeansky; 47°18′ N, 152°34′ E; depth 100 m; 18 Jul. 1987; S. Grebelniy leg.; dredged; MIMB 20684 View Materials GoogleMaps   1 specimen; Urup Is.; station 420; 46°19′ N, 150°42′ E; depth 100 m; 12 Sept. 1973; MIMB 20688 View Materials GoogleMaps   1 specimen; Ketoy Is. ; cruise on RV Tikhookeansky; 47°23′2′′ N, 152°39′4′′ E; depth 200 m; 18 Aug. 1987; S. Grebelniy leg.; MIMB 20694 View Materials GoogleMaps   1 specimen; Urup Is.; cruise on RV Tikhookeansky; 46°19′ N, 150º42′ E; V. Lukin leg.; MIMB 20709 View Materials GoogleMaps   1 specimen; Diana St. , between Simushir Is. and Ketoy Is.; cruise on RV Tikhookeansky, station 289, sample 846; 47°15′8′′ N, 152°28′1′′ E; depth 75 m; 17 Aug. 1987; MIMB 20746 View Materials GoogleMaps   1 specimen; Rasshua Is. ; cruise on RV Tikhookeansky, station 300, sample 877; 48°01′ N, 153°22′ E; depth 100 m; 12 Aug. 1987; MIMB 20747 View Materials GoogleMaps   2 specimens; Ketoy Is. ; cruise on RV Tikhookeansky; 47°23′2′′ N, 152°39′4′′ E; depth 200 m; 18 Aug. 1987; S. Grebelniy leg.; MIMB 20748 View Materials GoogleMaps   1 specimen; Rasshua Is. ; cruise on RV Tikhookeansky, station 300; 47°49′ N, 153°00′9′′ E; depth 100 m; 19 Aug. 1987; V. Lukin leg.; MIMB 20749 View Materials GoogleMaps   .

Description

Holotype

Colony scantly branched ( Fig. 1A View Fig ), with long smooth stem. Polyps crowded in the distal part of colony, arranged irregularly on the surface of the colony ( Fig. 1F View Fig ).

Colony 135 mm high and 13 mm wide ( Fig. 1A View Fig ). Polyps up to 3 mm high and 2 mm wide. Polyp body wall cylindrical in shape, with smooth surface; tentacles folded over polyp, partly retracted to inside ( Fig. 1F View Fig ).

Coenenchyme 0.5 mm thick and consists of two layers, a 0.4 mm thick outer layer, with smooth surface, and a very thin inner layer. Axis with concentric layers; no mineralization observed. Sclerites unordered in tentacles, polyp body wall and coenenchyme.

Tentacles contain small warty rods, scales, warty spindles, clubs, capstans and ovals. Warty spindles, up to 0.11 mm long ( Fig. 2A View Fig ). Scales, up to 0.11 mm long, flattened, with notched edges ( Fig. 2B View Fig ). Warty spindles, up to 0.22 mm long, with tall and asymmetrically developed processes ( Fig. 2C View Fig ). Warty clubs mainly 0.12–0.2 mm long, with plump warty heads and straight warty handles ( Fig. 2D View Fig ). Smaller clubs, up to 0.15 mm long, poorly developed ( Fig. 2E View Fig ). Their handles short and thick, blunt, bearing small crowded warts; the heads consist of notched leafy processes ( Fig. 2E View Fig ). Club-like spindles, up to 0.23 mm long, with some accumulation of processes on one end ( Fig. 2F View Fig ) and warts tending to be girdled. Capstans (8-radiate), usually up to 0.12–0.14 mm long, not numerous ( Fig. 2G View Fig ). Some well calcified capstans, up to 0.16 mm long, transitional to warty ovals. These ovals, up to 0.19 mm long, bear crowded warts tending to be conjunct ( Fig. 2H View Fig ).

Polyp body wall with warty clubs, mainly 0.15–0.18 mm long, with plump head consisting of warty processes ( Fig. 3A View Fig ). Shorter clubs, up to 0.16 mm long, poorly developed, with notched leafy processes on heads; handles of short clubs thick and covered with small warts ( Fig. 3B View Fig ). Longer clubs transitional to club-like spindles, up to 0.16 mm long, with some accumulation of warts on one end ( Fig. 3C View Fig ). Plump spindles, up to 0.21 mm long, straight, with warts tending to be girdled ( Fig. 3D View Fig ). Short clubs also coincide with ovals, mostly 0.14–0.16 mm long, densely covered by unordered warts ( Fig. 3E View Fig ), and capstans, mostly 0.14–0.16 mm, ornamented with girdled warts ( Fig. 3F View Fig ). Clubs, spindles and ovals abundant. Capstans not numerous.

Outer coenenchyme layer with numerous 8-radiate capstans, mostly 0.15–0.16 mm long ( Fig. 4A View Fig ). Massive capstans, up to 0.18 mm long, with very developed warts, transitional to ovals, up to 0.18 mm long, bearing densely crowded processes ( Fig. 4B View Fig ). Internal layer of coenenchyme contains weakly calcified capstans, up to 0.15 mm long, of same shape as those in outer layer.

Paratype and variations

Paratype MIMB 20745 colony shape and size similar to holotype – 159 mm high and 9 mm wide ( Fig. 1B View Fig ). Polyp body wall smooth and cylindrical; tentacles folded over the polyp and partly retracted to the inside ( Fig. 1G View Fig ). Sclerites composition ( Figs 5–7 View Fig View Fig View Fig ) coincides with that in holotype ( Figs 2–4 View Fig View Fig View Fig ). The only difference is some greater calcification of sclerites in polyp body wall of paratype – its warty clubs ( Fig. 6A View Fig ) and poorly developed clubs ( Fig. 6D View Fig ) with more wide heads than those in holotype ( Fig. 3 View Fig A–B). Club-like spindles in paratype slightly longer – up to 0.25 mm in polyp tentacles ( Fig. 6B View Fig ) vs 0.23 mm in holotype ( Fig. 2F View Fig ). Short, poorly developed clubs and ovals longer in polyp body wall of the paratype – up to 0.18 mm ( Fig. 6 View Fig D–E) vs 0.16 mm in holotype ( Fig. 3B, E View Fig ). Plump spindles of same size numerous in both paratype ( Fig. 6C View Fig ) and holotype ( Fig. 3D View Fig ). The coenenchyme of the paratype double-layered as in holotype, with 8-radiate capstans, up to 0.16 mm long ( Fig. 7A View Fig ), and well calcified ovals up to 0.18 mm long ( Fig. 7B View Fig ).

Colour

In alcohol-preserved material: polyps and coenenchyme creamy; colony axis black or deeply brown, sclerites colourless.

Remarks

The most obvious distinctive characters of C. herba   sp. nov., differing from characters of other known members of the genus, are the shape of colony (with slender smooth stem and polyps crowded in the terminal part of the colony) and the presence of two different types of clubs among the sclerites. One of these types, the poorly developed clubs with notched leafy processes on their heads and short warty handle, has not been described before in any of the known species of the genus ( Figs 2E View Fig , 3B View Fig , 5F View Fig , 6D View Fig , Table 1 View Table 1 ). Moreover, only C. herba   sp. nov. has warty rods along with scales in the tentacles ( Fig. 2A View Fig , Table 1 View Table 1 ) and two types of sclerites in the coenenchyme – 8-radiate capstans and ovals ( Figs 4 View Fig A–B, 7A– B, Table 1 View Table 1 ).

C. herba   sp. nov. coincides with С. lukini   sp. nov. having ovals and capstans in the tentacles but the last has no clubs in the polyp body ( Table 1 View Table 1 ). The composition of the sclerites in the polyp body wall of C. herba   sp. nov. coincides with that of C. spiculifera   , C. matua   and C. simushiri   as all these species have warty clubs, spindles, capstans and ovals in that part of polyp ( Table 1 View Table 1 ). However, only C. herba   sp. nov. has poorly developed leafy clubs with thick warty handles in that part of polyp ( Figs 3B View Fig , 6D View Fig , Table 1 View Table 1 ). Furthermore, C. simushiri   has long-handled clubs that are missing in C. herba   sp. nov. ( Table 1 View Table 1 ). Thus, the morphology of polyps and composition and size of sclerites in the polyp and coenenchyme distinguish C. herba   sp. nov. from all previously described representatives of the genus.

Distribution

This species is known for certain from the Kurile Islands, Sea of Okhotsk, Northwestern Pacific, between 75 and 200 m depth.

MIMB

Museum of the Institute of Marine Biology