Xenocynips rhothion Buffington & van Noort
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|Xenocynips rhothion Buffington & van Noort|
Coloration of head, mesosoma, and metasoma black to dark brown; fore and mid legs lighter brown, hind legs dark brown to black. Sculpture on vertex, lateral surface of pronotum and mesoscutum present, moderately striate laterally on head, vertex; pronotum, mesoscutum horizontally striate with interspersed crests.
Head. Broadly triangular, in anterior view. Pubescence on head present, sparse setae scattered over head. Sculpture along lateral margin of occiput absent. Gena (measured from compound eye to posterolateral margin of head) short, ratio of length of gena to length of compound eye in dorsal view <0.3, in dorsal view. Sculpture of gena deeply striate. Lateral margin of occiput defined by evenly rounded, raised, sharp carina. Occiput (except extreme lateral margin) smooth. Ocelli small, ratio of maximum diameter of a lateral ocellus to shortest distance between lateral ocelli 0.2-0.4. Anterior ocellus between lateral ocelli. Relative position of toruli close to ocelli, ratio of vertical distance between inner margin of torulus and ventral margin of clypeus to vertical distance between anterior ocellus and torulus <2.0. Median keel of face present, short, not extending beyond toruli. Vertical carina adjacent to ventral margin of torulus absent. Facial sculpture present, punctate-rugose, transversely striate; striations meeting at midline of face; present, microcoriaceous. Facial impression absent, face flat. Antennal scrobe present, smooth with minute punctation. Anterior tentorial pits small. Vertical delineations on lower face absent. Ventral clypeal margin laterally, close to anterior mandibular articulation, distinctly angled. Ventral clypeal margin medially straight, not projecting. Clypeus foveate-punctate. Malar space adjacent to anterior articulation of mandible evenly rounded, striate-foveate. Malar sulcus absent. Compound eye close to posterior ocellus, ratio of distance between compound eye and posterior mandibular articulation to distance between posterior ocellus and compound eye> 1.2. Compound eye, in dorsal view, not distinctly protruding from the surface of the head. Pubescence on compound eye absent. Orbital furrows absent. Lateral frontal carina of face absent. Dorsal aspect of vertex variously strigate. Posterior aspect of vertex with parallel or slightly radiating, longitudinal strigae. Hair punctures on lateral aspect of vertex absent. Posterior surface of head deeply impressed around postocciput.
Labial-maxillary complex. Apical segment of maxillary palp with pubescence, consisting only of erect setae. First segment of labial palp as long as apical segment. Labial palp composed of two segments. Apical seta on apical segment of maxillary palp shorter than twice length of second longest apical seta. Erect setae medially on apical segment of maxillary palp present. Maxillary palp composed of four segments. Last two segments of maxillary palp (in normal repose) curved inwards. Distal margin of subapical segment of maxillary palp distinctly slanting outwards, apical segment bending outwards. Apical segment of maxillary palp more than 1.5 times as long as preceding segment.
Antenna. Articulation between flagellomeres in antenna connate with articles broadly joined. Female antenna composed of 11 flagellomeres. Female F1 shorter than F2; dark brown in color. Flagellomeres of female antenna cylindrical, distinctly widened towards apex, non-clavate. Placoidal sensilla absent. Distal flagellomeres of female antenna not conspicuously enlarged compared to proximal flagellomeres.
Pronotum. Macrosculpture on lateral surface of pronotum present, deeply costulate with remnants of foveae. Pubescence on lateral surface of pronotum present, sparse, consisting of few short hairs. Anterior flange of pronotal plate distinctly protruding anteriorly, longitudinally striate. Carinae extending posteriorly from lateral margin of pronotal plate absent. Lateral pronotal carina present. Pronotal crest present, raised into a distinct process projecting above anterior margin of mesoscutum. Submedian prono tal depressions closed laterally, deep. Lateral margin of pronotal plate defined all the way to the dorsal margin of the pronotum. Pronotal plate wide, almost as wide as head.
Mesoscutum. Mesoscutal surface convex, evenly curved. Sculpture on mesoscutum present, transversely costate-foveate with dorsally projected serrations. Notaulus present, wide, transversely striate, distinctly wider posteriorly. Median mesoscutal carina absent. Anterior admedial lines absent. Median mesoscutal impression present, long, reaching over 1/2 length of mesoscutum. Parascutal carina nearly straight anteriorly, posteriorly curved mesally.
Mesopleuron. Horizontally strigate dorsally, ventrally smooth with gentle, parallel horizontal striae. Subpleuron anteriorly with two deep cavities, centrally gently striate, posteriorly deeply strigate. Lower mesopleuron medially smooth, setose; costate laterally, ventrally. Epicnemial carina present on ventral half of mesopleuron; shagreened, ventrally bulbous near mesosternum. Lateroventral mesopleural carina present, marking abrupt change of slope of mesopectus. Mesopleural triangle present, distinctly impressed with distinct dorsal and ventral border, glabrous. Subalar pit large and well defined, lying in posterior end of mesopleural triangle. Speculum present, striate, with distinct smooth, glabrous ventral cavity. Mesopleural carina absent.
Scutellum. Dorsal surface of scutellum foveate-areolate. Circumscutellar carina present, complete, delimiting dorsal and ventral halves of scutellum. Posterior margin of axillula marked by distinct ledge, axillula distinctly impressed adjacent to ledge. Lateroventral margin of scutellum posterior to auricula smooth ventrally, longitudinally striate dorsally. Dorsoposterior part of scutellum produced posteriorly into blunt spine. Dorsal part of scutellum entirely rugose. Scutellar plate absent. Scutellar foveae present, three. Longitudinal scutellar carinae absent. Single longitudinal carina separating scutellar foveae absent. Posterolateral margin of scutellum drawn out into distinct protuberance. Lateral bar weakly strigate, narrow.
Metapectal-propodeal complex. Metapectal cavity anterodorsal to metacoxal base absent. Anterior margin of metapectal-propodeal complex seperated from mesopleuron by distinct dorso-ventral ledge. Posteroventral corner of metapleuron (in lateral view) rounded, not drawn out posteriorly. Anterior impression of metepimeron present, triangular, with broadest part ventrally. Posterior margin of metepimeron distinct, separating metepimeron from propodeum. Subalar area slightly broadened anteriorly, without longitudinal division indicated. Calyptra present, blunt, lobe-like, polished posteriorly, strigate anteriorly with setiferous punctures. Dorsellum present with two strong medial fovea, glabrous. Anterior impression of metepisternum, immediately beneath anterior end of metapleural carina, absent. Pubescence consisting of few scattered hairs on posterior part of metapleuron and lateral part of propodeum. Propodeal spurs present, foveate. Lateral propodeal carinae present, not reaching scutellum. Ventral end of lateral propodeal carina reaching nucha, carinae separated from each other. Inter propodeal carinae space glabrous, horizontally striate with central, bifurcating keel. Petiolar rim of uniform width along entire circumference. Petiolar foramen removed from metacoxae, directed posteriorly. Horizontal carina running anteriorly from lateral propodeal carina present. Lateral propodeal carina straight, sub-parallel. Calyptra, in lateral view, elongate. Propodeum 'neck-like', drawn out posteriorly. Calyptra, in posterior view, dorsoventrally elongate.
Legs. Pubescence posterolaterally on metacoxa moderately dense, confined dense hair patch absent. Microsculpture on hind coxa present antero-laterally, smooth posterolaterally. Longitudinal carina on the posterior surface of metatibia present, well developed. Metafemoral spine present, elongate, with adjacent serrate ridge posteriorly. Distal mesotibial spurs shorter than medial spurs. Distal metatibial spurs shorter than medial spurs. Ratio of first metatibial segment to remaining 4 segments less than 1.0. Pubescence on outer surface of metatarsal claw sparse, consisting of few setae. Outer surface of metatarsal claw entirely smooth. Apical seta of metatarsal claw positioned on outer surface below dorsal margin. Base of metatarsal claw weakly expanded, apex slightly bent, ratio width of base to length of apex <0.6.
Forewing. Pubescence of forewing absent on basal half of wing, sparse distally. Apical margin of female forewing rounded. Rs+M of forewing tubular. Mesal end of Rs+M vein situated closer to posterior margin of forewing, directed towards posterior end of basalis. Vein R1 tubular along at least basal part of anterior margin of marginal cell. Basal abscissa of R1 (the abscissa between 2r and the forewing margin) of forewing as broad as adjacent wing veins. Coloration of forewing hyaline with slight infuscation covering marginal cell, area posterior to marginal cell. Marginal cell of forewing membranous, similar to other wing cells. Areolet absent. Hair fringe along apical margin of forewing absent.
Petiole. Slightly elongate, 1.5 –2× longer than wide. Surface of petiole longitudinally costate, ribbed, ventral keel absent. Posterior part of female petiole not abruptly widened. Ventral flange of annulus of female petiole absent.
Metasoma. Setal band (hairy ring) at base of tergum 3 absent, base of metasoma glabrous. Tergum 3 indistinct, fused with syntergum. Posterior margin of tergum 3 i ndistinct, fused with tergum 4 in syntergum. In lateral view, sternum 3 encompassed by syntergum. Sculpture on metasomal terga present, finely punctate laterally, dorsally; posteriorly with large setal pits. Syntergum present with terga 3-5 fused, ventral margin rounded. Annulus absent. Peg-like setae on T6-T7 absent. Posteroventral cavities of female metasoma T7 present, glabrous save for few, long setae. Female posteroventral margin of T6-T7 gently sinuate. Terebrum and hypopygium (in lateral view) straight, pointing posteriorly.
Ovipositor. First valvula of ovipositor narrowing gradually, not broadened apically, smooth at tip. Ovipositor clip absent.
This species differs from all other Xenocynips by the morphology of the pronotum being wave-like, reminiscent of waves on the ocean; in other species, the pronotum is horizontally costate. Also unique is the forked central propodeal keel; in other species, this keel is entire.
Greek for wave or surf, in reference to the wave-like striations of the pronotum.
Central African Republic, Congo. Link to Distribution Map. [http://hol.osu.edu/map-full.html?id=300224]
Holotype, female: CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC: Sangha-Mbaéré Préf. Écon., 21.4km (53°) NE Bayanga, Mabéa Bai, lowland rainforest / marsh clearing, CAR01-M17, Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, 03°02.01'N, 16°24.57'E, 510m, 2. V– 3.V.2001, malaise trap, S. van Noort, USNM ENT 00764785 (deposited in SAMC). Paratypes: (3 females) CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC: Nana-Mambéré Préf., 60km W Bouar, 05°45'N, 15°13'E, 23.III.2010, yellow pan trap, J. Halada (1 female, USNM ENT 00764788 (CNCI)). CONGO: Pool Dépt., Iboubikro, MT 4, Lesio Louna Reserve, 03°16.196'S, 15°28.267'E, 340m, 13.X.2008, malaise trap, Braet and Sharkey (1 female, USNM ENT 00764786 (USNM)). Pool Dépt., Iboubikro, MT 4, Lesio Louna Reserve, 03°16.196'S, 15°28.267'E, 340m, 9. X– 15.X.2008, malaise trap, Braet and Sharkey (1 female, USNM ENT 00764787 (USNM)).
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