Siciliaria calcarae calcarae (Philippi, 1844)

De Mattia, Willy, Reier, Susanne & Haring, Elisabeth, 2021, Morphological investigation of genital organs and first insights into the phylogeny of the genus Siciliaria Vest, 1867 as a basis for a taxonomic revision (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Clausiliidae), ZooKeys 1077, pp. 1-175: 1

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1077.67081

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:C28AD65A-76F2-42CF-BED7-DFB3702CABCE

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/DAB9B5EC-3029-5FB6-B18E-47D2E9F039A2

treatment provided by

ZooKeys by Pensoft

scientific name

Siciliaria calcarae calcarae (Philippi, 1844)
status

 

Siciliaria calcarae calcarae (Philippi, 1844)  

Figs 1.F, 14.1-14.10, 15.1-15.17, 16.1-16.6, 24.1, 24.2 View Figure 1

Clausilia calcarae   Philippi 1844: 107.

Clausilia adelina   Küster 1847: 298.

Clausilia adelina   - Benoit 1876: 152.

Clausilia brugnoneana   Pini 1884: 379.

Clausilia calcarae var. nodosa   Westerlund 1892: 48.

Clausilia adelina var. subsolida   Monterosato 1892: 28.

Delima (Siciliaria) calcarae   - Wagner 1925: pl. 3, fig. 25.

Charpentieria calcarae   - Beckmann 2004: 188.

Siciliaria calcarae   - Welter-Schultes 2012: 338.

Siciliaria calcarae   - Nordsieck 2013b: 7.

Siciliaria (Siciliaria) calcarae calcarae   - Liberto et al. 2015: 489.

Siciliaria (Siciliaria) calcarae calcarae   - Liberto et al. 2016: 372.

Charpentieria calcarae   - De Mattia 2017d.

Specimens examined.

Italy, Sicily, San Vito lo Capo, Castelluzzo , west cliffs E of town, 120 m asl, 38°6'25.71"N, 12°44'33.37"E, [Lab ID 61_1, COI: MW758908 View Materials , ITS2: MW757140MW757141; Lab ID 61_2, COI: MW758909 View Materials , ITS2: MW757142MW757143MW757144], W. De Mattia and J. Macor leg., 14.iv.2017. 2 dissected spm GoogleMaps   . Italy, Sicily, Castellammare del Golfo, Visicari , 395 m asl, 38°02'54.18"N, 12°48'26.61"E, [Lab ID 59_1, COI: MW758905 View Materials , ITS2: MW757068MW757069MW757085], W. De Mattia and J. Macor leg., 15.iv.2017. 2 dissected spm GoogleMaps   . Italy, Sicily, Alcamo, Monte Bonifato , top of the mountain, 640 m asl, 37°57'29.40"N, 12°57'33.64"E, [Lab ID 5_1, COI: MW758925 View Materials , ITS2: MW757125, MW757126, MW757127], I. Niero leg., 15.vi.2010. 2 dissected spm GoogleMaps   . Italy, Sicily, Alcamo, Monte Bonifato , top of the mountain, 640 m asl, 37°57'29.40"N, 12°57'33.64"E, A. Margelli leg., 15.vi.2010. 2 dissected spm GoogleMaps   . Italy, Sicily, Alcamo, Monte Bonifato , west side of the mountain, over the quarry, 550 m asl, 37°57'16.92"N, 12°58'9.06"E, W. De Mattia and J. Macor leg., 10.iv.2017. 2 dissected spm GoogleMaps   . Italy, Sicily, Castellammare del Golfo, Castello di Baida, W of the town along the road to Visicari , 300 m asl, 38°2'41.64"N, 12°48'14.34"E, W. De Mattia and J. Macor leg., 15.iv.2017. 2 dissected spm GoogleMaps   . Italy, Sicily, Piana degli Albanesi, 500 m south of Portella Ginestra, northern cliffs of Monte Kumeta , 970 m asl, 37°58'13.35"N, 13°15'22.06"E, W. De Mattia and J. Macor leg., 18.iv.2017. 2 dissected spm GoogleMaps   . Italy, Sicily, Calatafimi, Castello Eufemio , 395 m asl, 37°57'45.67"N, 12°51'21.13"E, W. De Mattia and J. Macor leg., 18.vi.2020. 2 dissected spm GoogleMaps   .

Shell

(Figs 14 View Figure 14 .1-14.10, 15.1-15.17, 24.1-24.2). Shell not decollate; whorls striated, with sutural papillae; dorsal keel indistinct or missing; inferior lamella moderately high or low; anterior upper palatal plica present, mostly separated from upper palatal plica, rarely lower anterior upper palatal plica present; palatal edge of clausilium plate distally not receding, palatal edge distally more or less strongly bent upwards ( Nordsieck 2013b).

Measurements

(n = 50, not decollate). shell height 19.7 ± 0.8, whorl width 4.3 ± 0.3, aperture height 4.1 ± 0.2, aperture width 2.6 ± 0.1.

External morphology of the genital organs

(Figs 14 View Figure 14 .1, 14.3, 14.5, 14.7, 14.9). The FO is slim and long. The ratio FO/V ranges from 0.9 to 1.8. The VD is very thin along its whole course. The FDBC is shorter or longer than the BC+SDBC (FDBC/BC+SDBC) ranges from 0.9 to 1.8. The BC+SDBC can be either cylindrical or club-like, with either a pointed or a blunt apex. Its ratio with the V (BC+SDBC/V) ranges from 0.9 to 1.8. The transition between the BC and then SDBC can be clearly visible or almost indistinguishable. The D is moderately to extremely long, with a ratio with the V (D/V) that ranges from 1.3 to 4.1. It is thinner than the BC+SDBC, cylindrical in shape, with a rounded thin apex. The ratio D/BC+SDBC ranges from 1.4 to 2.5. The V is thick, cylindrical or hourglass-like in shape and shorter than the PC. The A can be short and narrow or large and long. The PC is longer than the V, with a range (P+E/V) that goes from 2.1 to 4.8. The P is wider than the V, cylindrical or distally swollen. The PR can be both long and thin or short and strong. The distinction between P and E with a visible ER is not always present as it appears randomly among the populations. The E is thinner than the P and can be slightly shorter or longer than the P, with a ratio (E/P) that ranges from 0.9 to 3.0. The actual transition area between E and the VD can be clearly visible or almost indistinguishable and it is clearly visible only from inside.

Internal morphology of the genital organs

(Figs 14 View Figure 14 .2, 14.4, 14.6, 14.8, 14.10). The internal wall of the A presents a variety of sculpture. It can be almost smooth, or with the distal part of the penial longitudinal pleats that gradually fade. Otherwise, it presents longitudinal broad and poorly elevated fleshy pleats or an irregular pattern of fleshy lumps. The internal sculpturing of the P can be distinguished in two main arrangements. The first is represented by 3 to 6 longitudinal fleshy smooth or irregularly segmented pleats that reach the A. The second arrangement presents large fleshy transverse pleats that are interrupted in the median part of the internal P. These pleats become smaller and continuous as approaching the A. The PP is big, elongated or nipple-like/roundish in shape, smooth, with a rounded apex and sometimes slightly depressed in the middle. The P-E transition presents three different structures among the examined populations. The populations from the top of Monte Bonifato and Castelluzzo present one ER with the PP originating from it. The ELP are not connected with the ER. The epiphallar formula is: 1ER(PP)+ELP. The populations from Monte Bonifato, from Monte Bonifato near the quarry and Visicari present one ER with both the PP and the ELP originating from it. The epiphallar formula is: 1ER(PP+ELP). Two additional populations from Portella Ginestra and Castello di Baida present a slightly more complex structure, namely a first distal ER with the PP originating from it and the ELP originating from a second proximal ER. The epiphallar formula is: 1ER(PP)+2ER(ELP).

The E internal sculpturing presents a variety of arrangements, as: two main large smooth or fringed longitudinal pleats that gradually disappear toward the distal origin of the vas deferens or 4 thin smooth longitudinal pleats that abruptly disappear turning into an irregular texture of small dense papillae. The V can be either smooth and showing a very fine granulation or showing a coarse chevron pattern made of large fleshy pleats, merging together along the median longitudinal axis.

Spermatophore

(Figs 16 View Figure 16 .3-16.4). The spermatophore is thin and elongated. It is 6.7 mm long and 0.7 mm wide at its widest point. The tail and the head are missing as probably already digested. The upper and the lower keels are simple and run throughout the known length of the spermatophore. The lower keel is half as tall as the upper one.

Ecology.

Siciliaria calcarae calcarae   was found on south exposed limestone walls (Alcamo, Monte Bonifato), shady and humid north exposed limestone walls (Piana degli Albanesi, 500 m south of Portella Ginestra), shady habitats on decaying woods and tree trunks of Quercus ilex   (Castelluzzo, west cliffs E of town) or among grass and shrub nearby a cave entrance (Castellammare del Golfo, Visicari). Siciliaria calcarae calcarae   appeared to be adapted to many different habitats and niches and it is not an obliged rock-dwelling taxon. According to De Mattia (2017d), Siciliaria calcarae   is Least Concern. The nominate subspecies is common and widespread all over its range and it is somewhere replaced by local rib/striated forms.

Distribution.

Siciliaria calcarae calcarae   presents the widest distributional area among the species of the genus Siciliaria   . It is found from Trapani-Erice in the west to Montagna Grande and Bagheria in the east and Calatafimi-Piana degli Albanesi-Castelvetrano in the south. It is also known from the islands of Favignana and Levanzo ( Nordsieck 2013b; Liberto et al. 2016: 382).

Remarks.

Siciliaria calcarae calcarae   shows Clausilia minor   shell differences among the populations which were described by the introduction of new names, such as a well-developed whole UPP (in Clausilia adelina var. subsolida   ), a well-developed AUPP in Clausilia adelina   ) or the presence of a knob as a second AUPP ( Clausilia calcarae var. nodosa   ) ( Liberto et al. 2016: 382).

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Mollusca

Class

Gastropoda

Order

Stylommatophora

Family

Clausiliidae

Genus

Siciliaria

Loc

Siciliaria calcarae calcarae (Philippi, 1844)

De Mattia, Willy, Reier, Susanne & Haring, Elisabeth 2021
2021
Loc

Clausilia calcarae var. nodosa

Westerlund 1892
1892
Loc

Clausilia brugnoneana

Pini 1884
1884
Loc

Siciliaria calcarae

s. l. 1867
1867
Loc

Siciliaria calcarae

s. l. 1867
1867
Loc

Clausilia adelina

Küster 1847
1847
Loc

Clausilia adelina

Küster 1847
1847
Loc

Clausilia calcarae

Philippi 1844
1844
Loc

Siciliaria (Siciliaria) calcarae calcarae

calcarae (Philippi 1844
1844
Loc

Siciliaria (Siciliaria) calcarae calcarae

calcarae (Philippi 1844
1844