Beardius tupinamba, Pinho & Mendes & Andersen, 2013
Pinho, Luiz Carlos, Mendes, Humberto Fonseca & Andersen, Trond, 2013, Revision of Beardius Reiss et Sublette, 1985 (Diptera: Chironomidae), with the description of twenty new species, Zootaxa 3742 (1), pp. 1-78: 63-66
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Beardius tupinamba sp. n.
Type material. Holotype male with larva and pupa, BRAZIL, São Paulo State: Salesópolis, Boraceia Biological Station, Rio Coruja , 08.xii.2005, in submersed wood, C.G. Froehlich et al. ( MZSP) . Paratypes: 1 female with pupa, as holotype ( MZSP) ; 6 males, as holotype ( ZMBN) ; 1 male, as holotype except 11.xii.2001, at light, H.F. Mendes ( MZSP) ; 1 male, as holotype except 27.xii.1967, at light ( MZUSP) . 1 male, Campos do Jordão State Park, Córrego Campo do Meio , 06.vi.2005, light trap, A.R. Calor et al. ( INPA) ; 1 male, as previous except 22.vi.2006, M.R. Spies & A.E. Siegloch ( INPA) . 7 males, Ubatuba, Maranduba, Pousada , 13.ix.2006, light trap, A.R. Calor et al. ( MZSP) ; 1 male, as previous except Sítio Santa Cruz , 14.ix.2006 ( MZSP) . 1 male, Pindamonhangaba, Fazenda São Sebastião, 3° afluente Rio Cedro , 18.ix.2006, light trap, M.R. Spies & A.E. Siegloch ( MZSP) . 2 males, Cananeia, Restinga , 18.vii.2001, light trap, F.O. Roque ( MZUFBA) . 1 male, Bahia State: Camacan, Fazenda do Waldemar da Farmácia , escoadouro da represa de abastecimento, S15°25'17'' W39°34'01'', 306 m a.s.l., 05.xi.2009, drift net, A.R. Calor et al. ( MZUFBA) GoogleMaps . 1 male, Minas Gerais State: Ipoema, Serra do Cipó, Fazenda Cachoeira alta, córrego abaixo da cachoeira, S19°34'46'' W43°29'34'', 838 m a.s.l., light trap, A.R Calor et al. ( MZUFBA) GoogleMaps . 1 male with pupa, Rio de Janeiro State: Bacia de Sepetiba , 13.vii.1989, B. Göltner ( ZSM) . 1 male, Teresópolis, Vale da Revolta, Rio Paquequer , 07.vii.1996 ( ZSM) .
Diagnostic characters. The species belongs in the tupinamba group. The male can be separated from other members of the tupinamba group by the combination of the following characters: comparatively small body size (2.3–3.0 mm); coloration pale; R 1 without setae; and superior volsella without microtrichia. The female by: coloration pale; acrostichals absent; and ventrolateral lobe with long microtrichia. The pupa by: tergite II with slightly stronger shagreen orally; tergites VII and VIII without shagreen; paratergite VIII without spines; tergite VIII with simple spur; and stout anterior branch of thoracic horn with single spine. The larva by: antenna with 5 segments; pecten mandibularis absent or indistinct; and mentum with median tooth less than 1/2 the length of first lateral tooth.
Etymology. The name refers to the Tupinambá Indians, an ethnic group who used to live along the Brazilian coast. The name is to be regarded as a noun in apposition.
Male (n = 8–10, except when otherwise stated). Total length 2.34–2.96, 2.66 mm. Wing length 1.26–1.69, 1.43 mm. Total length / wing length 1.70–2.02, 1.86. Wing length / length of profemur 2.02–2.51, 2.20.
Coloration. Head and abdomen pale. Thorax pale, with vittae, scutum, postnotum and preepisternum pale to stramineous. Legs pale.
Head. AR 0.84–1.13, 1.00; ultimate flagellomere 96–132, 114 µm long. Inner verticals 1–3, 2; outer verticals 3–5, 4; postorbitals 3–5, 4. Clypeus with 8–12, 10 setae. Tentorium 71–119, 96 µm long; 20–30, 25 µm wide. Stipes 119–159, 132 (5) µm long. Palpomere lengths (in µm): 30–46, 35 (7); 28–46, 35 (7); 106–127, 114 (7); 124– 139, 132 (6); 152–210, 180 (5). Third palpomere with 2–3, 2 (7) sensillae subapically, longest 13–18, 15 (7) µm long.
Thorax. Scutal tubercle absent. Dorsocentrals 6–7, 6; acrostichals absent; prealars 2. Scutellum with 4 setae.
Wing ( Fig. 115 View FIGURES 115–117 ). VR 1.34–1.54, 1.42. R with 6–11, 8 setae; R 4+5 with 2–16, 4 setae. Brachiolum with 2–3, 2 setae. Remaining veins bare.
Legs. Spur of fore tibia (including scale) 32–54, 39 µm long; spur of mid tibia (including comb) 43–54, 48 µm long; spur of hind tibia (including comb) 37–64, 59 µm long. Width at apex of fore tibia 37–54, 45 µm; of mid tibia 43–54, 48 µm; of hind tibia 48–59, 54 µm. Lengths and proportions of legs as in Table 21.
Hypopygium ( Figs 116–117 View FIGURES 115–117 ). Anal point broadly triangular, 0–5 µm long, barely reaching posterior margin of tergite IX in some specimens. Tergite IX without setae, tergal bands present. Laterosternite IX with 1–2, 2 setae. Phallapodeme 56–68, 63 µm long. Transverse sternapodeme 35–53, 46 µm long. Gonocoxite 99–119, 111 µm long. Superior volsella digitiform, curved, 38–56, 46 µm long, with 5–8, 7 dorsal and 2 ventral setae, without microtrichia. Median volsella 3–4, 4 µm long, with 1–2, 2 apical setae, longest 15–23, 20 µm long. Inferior volsella clavate, 40–58, 51 µm long, with 2 apical thin and 3–6, 3 subapical stout setae; projection arising from basal 2/3 of volsella, subtriangular, with microtrichia and fringe of long lamellae. Gonostylus 91–134, 119 µm long. HR 0.83– 1.08, 0.94. HV 1.66–2.37, 2.11 (7).
Female (n = 1). Total length 1.95 mm. Wing length 1.29 mm. Total length / wing length 1.51. Wing length / length of profemur 2.42.
Coloration. Head and abdomen pale. Thorax pale with scutum, vittae, postnotum and preepisternum stramineous. Legs pale.
Head. AR 0.41; ultimate flagellomere 94 µm long. Temporals 7, not well separated in inner and outer verticals and postorbitals. Clypeus with 10 setae. Tentorium 75 µm long, 15 µm wide. Stipes 78 µm long. Palpomere lengths (in µm): 28, 25, 91, 114, 144. Third palpomere with 2 sensillae subapically, longest 18 µm long.
Thorax ( Fig. 119 View FIGURES 118–121 ). Scutal tubercle absent. Dorsocentrals 7, 2 of them close to antepronotum; acrostichals absents; prealars 2. Scutellum with 4 setae.
Wing ( Fig. 118 View FIGURES 118–121 ). VR 1.41. R with 12 setae, R 1 with 9 setae, R 4+5 with 23 setae. Brachiolum with 2 setae. Remaining veins bare.
Legs. Spur of fore tibia (including scale) 27 µm long, spur of mid tibia (including comb) 37 µm long, spur of hind tibia (including comb) 48 µm long. Width at apex of fore tibia 37 µm, of mid tibia 43 µm, of hind tibia 54 µm. Lengths and proportions of legs as in Table 22.
Genitalia ( Figs 120–121 View FIGURES 118–121 ). Tergite IX with 18 setae. Cercus 66 µm long, 51 µm wide. Notum 127 µm long. Gonocoxite IX without setae. Seminal capsule 30 µm long, excluding 13 µm long neck.
Pupa (n = 1–3). Total length 2.83–3.34 mm.
Coloration. Cephalothorax and abdomen pale.
Cephalothorax ( Fig. 124 View FIGURES 122–126 ). Frontal apotome conical ( Fig. 122 View FIGURES 122–126 ), frontal setae 45 µm long. Thorax without dorsal granulation. Thoracic horn with at least 3 branches; anterior branch stout, with 1 spinule about midlength ( Fig. 123 View FIGURES 122–126 ). Distance between Dc1 and Dc2 8–15 µm; between Dc2 and Dc3 171–203 µm; between Dc3 and Dc4 11–12 µm. Precorneal 1, antepronotals and prealars absents.
Abdomen ( Fig. 126 View FIGURES 122–126 ). Tergites I, VII and VIII without shagreen. Tergites II–VI with anterior transverse band of shagreen a little stronger than posterior contiguous shagreen. Row of hooklets on tergite II about 1/3 of tergite width. Conjunctive IV/V with single patch of spinules. Paratergite V with few spinules, restricted to posterior margin. Pedes spurii A and pedes spurii B present. Segment I bare; segments II–IV with 3 L setae; segment V with 3 taeniate L setae; segments VI–VIII with 4 taeniate L setae. Segment VIII without lateral spines, spur simple ( Fig. 125 View FIGURES 122–126 ). Anal lobe 120–142 µm long, with 15–17 taeniate setae.
Larva (n = 1). Total length not measurable. Head capsule 324 µm long.
Head dorsum ( Fig. 131 View FIGURES 127–131 ). Frontoclypeal apotome and labral sclerite 2 present. Frontoclypeal apotome with anterior granulation, extending to S4.
Antenna ( Fig.128 View FIGURES 127–131 ). With 5 segments. AR 0.87. Length of segments (in µm): 33, 15, 10, 8, 5. Blade 63 µm long, 1.7 times longer than flagellum. Lauterborn organs 10 µm long, alternating on segments 2 and 3.
Labrum. Pecten epipharyngis ( Fig. 129 View FIGURES 127–131 ) with 3 plates, mid with 3 teeth, laterals with 4 teeth each. Premandible 58 µm long.
Mentum ( Fig. 127 View FIGURES 127–131 ). Pale median tooth much shorter than first lateral tooth. Ventromental plates 58 µm wide, distance between plates 5 µm. Postmentum 154 µm long, with granulose area between ventromental plates.
Mandible ( Fig.130 View FIGURES 127–131 ). 116 µm long. Seta subdentalis 28 µm long. Seta interna with 3 major branches. Pecten mandibularis indistinct or absent. Mola without spines. Outer margin granulose.
Biology. The single larva was found in submerged wood in a low order stream in the Atlantic Rainforest near Salesópolis, São Paulo State.
Distribution. The species is collected in the Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo states in Brazil.
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