Laemosaccus obrieni Hespenheide

Hespenheide, Henry A., 2019, A Review of the Genus Laemosaccus Schönherr, 1826 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Mesoptiliinae) from Baja California and America North of Mexico: Diversity and Mimicry, The Coleopterists Bulletin (MIMICRY AND LAEMOSACCUS In an earlier paper (Hespenheide 1996), I presented the hypothesis that species of Laemosaccus of the L. nephele group with red humeral spots on the elytra were Batesian mimics of members of the Chrysomelidae in the subfamily Clytrinae. There is no evidence that Laemosaccus species are distasteful, and what is either L. nephele and / or L. obrieni have been reported as prey items of birds (Beal 1912). In Cave Creek Canyon, Cochise County, Arizona, 21 forms (species and “ subspecies ”) of Clytrinae were hypothesized to be the primary models of 22 species of mimics in the families Anthribidae (one species), Bruchidae (two species), Buprestidae (four species), Chrysomelidae, subfamily Cryptocephalinae (three species), Coccinellidae (six species), Curculionidae, subfamily Baridinae (one species), and Laemosaccus (five species). Of these, the coccinellids and the cryptocephaline chrysomelids are probably distasteful Mullerian co-mimics. Ecologically, the species of Laemosaccus co-occurred with their clytrine models on both desert legumes and canyon oaks, although more clytrine species occurred in the desert and more Laemosaccus species occurred in the canyons. Species of clytrines showing the mimetic pattern are common throughout Mexico (Bellamy 2003, who renamed the Mexican buprestid genus Acherusia Laporte and Gory, 1837 as Mimicoclytrina Bellamy to reflect their resemblance to clytrines), but decline in numbers of species and in the proportion of the clytrine fauna through Central America to Panama (Hespenheide 1996, fig. 2). Laemosaccus seems to follow a similar pattern. Mimicry is more common in large faunas, especially in wet tropical areas (Hespenheide 1986, 1995); because the largest clytrine fauna is in Mexico, the clytrine mimicry complex is also larger there (Hespenheide 1996). This complex has more members than I first enumerated and deserves further study. The evolution of mimicry produces resemblances between unrelated species (Laemosaccus and other putative mimics, with clytrines and perhaps other Chrysomelidae and Coccinellidae as models; see Hespenheide 1976, 1996) and selects against the divergence of related species. In Batesian mimicry - hypothesized to be the form of relationship between Laemosaccus and clytrines - the selection for precision of mimicry is stronger on the mimic (Laemosaccus), so that resemblances among them should be closer, regardless of ancestry. Close morphological resemblances based on ecology rather than ancestry may be termed mimetic homoplasy (Hespenheide 2005) and can make recognition of species difficult (as in Laemosaccus) or complicate phylogenetic analyses. I have speculated (Hespenheide 1996) that the sympatric “ subspecies ” of the clytrine models (Moldenke 1970) may in fact be reproductively isolated sibling species. It will be interesting to see whether or not genomic studies show the closeness of relationships among Laemosaccus species that the morphology suggests) 73 (4), pp. 905-939: 911-915

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1649/0010-065X-73.4.905

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:DC070901-29D6-4575-9F05-F98A6DE50EC7

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5205693

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/DB5AFC3E-C721-5723-C2BB-E39BFDE1FEA2

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Laemosaccus obrieni Hespenheide
status

new species

Laemosaccus obrieni Hespenheide   , new species

Zoobank.org/ urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:753D474D-D2F4-4242-9402-BEB1B8407492 ( Figs. 4–6 View Figs )

Description. Holotype Male. Length 2.70 mm long, width 1.20 mm wide ( Figs. 4, 5 View Figs ). Robust, subcylindrical in cross section, slightly obovate, broadly rounded behind, more narrowly so in front, black except each elytron with a large red-orange spot on anterior 3/4 just behind anterior margin and from third elytral interval from lateral margin to elytral interval 2 and broadly rounded behind; pronotum and elytra glabrous, thorax and abdomen ventrally and bases of femora with punctures each with a silvery seta, head with inconspicuous setae on sides of rostrum between eyes and antennal insertions and behind eyes, setae inconspicuous, hairlike, and semi-erect on tergite 8; tergite 7 glabrous. Head hemispherical, 0.60 mm wide, rostrum rounded-terete, flattened on apical half and laterally weakly carinate above antennal insertions, finely punctate, 0.45 mm long, antennae inserted at middle. Pronotum weakly convex at base in cross section and lateral view, less so in cross section, constricted before anterior margin, 0.90 mm long, 1.05 mm wide, broadest at basal third, with lateral margins very shallowly arcuate, more strongly so behind, finely, evenly punctate, punctures longitudinally confluent, with distinct medial carina on basal 2/3. Elytra not distinctly wider than pronotum at base, widening slightly to apical 3/4, then broadly rounded, 1.70 mm long, 1.20 mm maximum width, elytral striae subequal to intervals, striae coarsely punctate, intervals angularly rounded to carinate, interval 3 very weakly denticulate on middle third, interval 5 weakly toothed on apical half. Abdominal ventrite 1 very slightly concave along midline, with margin weakly emarginate at middle, abdominal ventrite 5 slightly shorter than ventrites 3+4 at middle and at sides. Profemora with strong, acute ventral tooth beyond middle. Genitalia as in Fig 6 View Figs ; aedeagus 0.80 mm long.

Allotype Female. As male but rostrum forming obtuse angle with plane of eyes, subcylindrical, polished, very finely, inconspicuously punctate, 0.60 mm long; tergite 7 weakly convex, coarsely punctate, glabrous except for inconspicuous short, hair-like, semi-erect setae at apex; body 3.20 mm long, 1.45 mm wide.

Specimens Examined. Holotype: New Jersey: [Essex Co.], “Upper” Montclair, 4.07.1923, A. Nicolay ( USNM). Allotype: Same data as holotype ( USNM). Paratypes: Canada: Ontario: Kent Co., Tilbury , --.06.1961, K. Stephan (1, FSCA). USA: (“Am. Bor.,” [ Sharpe Coll .] (2, BMNH). Alabama: Madison Co., Huntsville , 5.06.1975, L. L. Lampert, weed (1, FSCA); [Talladega Co.] Horn Mt a Tower , 9 mi. SE Talladega , 17.07.1964, L. Camdre, light trap (1, ASUHIC); [Tuscaloosa Co.] Tuscaloosa , 18.07.1950, B. D. Valentine, light (1, CHAH). Arkansas: Bradley Co., 16.05.1965 (1, UAAM); Logan Co., Ozark Nat. For. , Brown Springs on For. Serv. Rd. 1606, 23.05.1986, D. A. Pollock (1, CMNC), 10 mi. SE Paris , 7.05.1974, W. H. Cross, in Leggett trap 2129 (1, MEM), 9.6 mi. [S?] Paris , 30.04.1974, W. H. Cross, in Leggett trap 2102 (1, MEM); Polk Co., [?] 1971 (1, UAAM); Pope Co., 2 mi. E Russellville , 1.05.1974, W.H. Cross, in Leggett trap 2110 (1, MEM); Washington Co., 26.05.1973, R. Thompson (1, UAAM); Yell Co., 10 mi. NE Danville , 20.04.1974, W.H. Cross, in Leggett trap 2064 (1, MEM), 3 mi. W Havana , 22.04.1976, W. H. Cross, in In-field trap 3429 (1, MEM). Connecticut: Fairfield Co., New Canaan , 0 [?].06.1960, M. Statham (1, AMNH); [Litchfield Co.], Kent Falls , 20.06.1964, L. & C. W. O’ Brien (1, ASUHIC); [Tolland Co.] Will’ gton Twp., E Willington , “spg”1974, H. A. Hespenheide, rear ex black bark oak, 4-8 mm diam (1, CHAH). District of Columbia: “D.C.” no date, Horn Coll (2, MCZ); Washington, no date, “18.6,” [ Coll Hubbard & Schwarz ] (2, USNM). Florida: Leon Co., Tallahassee, G. J. Wibmer , em. 16.03.2001, reared ex girdled hickory branch (1, ASUHIC). Georgia: [Chatham Co.], Savannah , Sommer (2, ZMHB); Clarke Co., Whitehall Forest , 30.04.1975, R. Turnbow (1, FSCA); Jackson co., Attica Chr. Rd. , 28.04.1986, J. McKinney (1, RFMC); Tattnall Co., 3 mi. E 147, Ohoopee River , Em. --.03-06.1998, R. Morris, Ex Quercus sp. Limbs (1, RFMC); Upson co., Sprewell Bluff area, 20- 21.04.1989, R. Morris (1, RFMC). Illinois: “ Southern Illinois,” 26.06.1888, H. Soltau (1, USNM), “S. Ill.,” 27.05.1889, H. Soltau (3, USNM), “S.I.,” C. W. Leng collection (3, BYU); [Union Co.], Alto Pass , 08.05.1917 (1, INHS); [Washington Co.] Dubois , 24.05.1917 (1, INHS). Indiana: Tippecanoe Co., 10, 18.07.1956, 17.07.1960, 18, 22.07.1961, 25.07, 02.08.1964, 10, 20.07.1965, 10, 16.07.1966 18.07.1970, 20.07.1971, N. M. Downie (7, FMNH; 1, STRI; 2, UAAM; 3, USNM;); 24.07.1960, 8, 13, 22, 24, 25.07, 04.08.1961, 17.07.1963, N. M. Downie, on Oak (3, LEMQ; 7, USNM); McCormick Woods , 10.08.1981, Wappes & Downie (1, JEWC).   Kansas: Cherokee Co., 2 mi. S Galena, 37°2.64’N 94°38.18’W, G. A. Salisbury, 13.05- 2.06.2005, ex canopy trap KAN1S05 086 (1, SEMC, SM0716889), 28.06- 13.07.2005, ex canopy trap KAN1S05 141 (1, SEMC, SM0716920);   Douglas Co., 3.2 km N Bladwin, Breidenthal Reserve,, 38°48’14”N 95°1’00”W, 29.05.1996, J. S. Ashe and M. Panaras, ex flight intercept trap (1, SEMC, SM0694349). Maryland: [Baltimore Co.], Baltimore, 19.06, 22.07.1909, F. E. Blaisdell (2, CASC); [Calvert Co.], Plum Point, 21.06.1914, W. L. McAtee (1, USNM); Charles Co., White Plains, 23.06.1979, DRW, oaks (1, USNM); Prin. Georges Co., Bladensburg, 14, 17.1906.19, L. L. Buchanan, no date, reared (1, USNM), 18.06.1973, M. Druckenbrod 1.06.1973, M. Druckenbrod, flying, 25.05.1971, M. Druckenbrod, in twig (4, USNM); Beltsville, 20.1906.’2#, L. L. Buchanan (1, USNM); Greenbelt, Greenbelt Lk., 10.07.1952, G. H. Nelson (1, TAMU); P. G. Co., U. S. Agr. Res. C., 27.06.1954, H. L. Dozier, sweeping white oak (1, USNM); College Park, 17.05.1949, H. L. Dozier (1, USNM); St. Mary’ s [Co.], Mechanicsville, 21.05.1985, C. L. Staines, Jr. (1, CHAH). Massachusetts: “Mass.,” F. Knab (BMNH); [Bristol Co.] Fall River, 31.05.1911, N. S. Easton (1, UMMZ); [Hampshire Co.], Notch, Mt. Holyoke, 24.06.1898 (1, USNM); [Middlesex Co.] Sherborn, 16.06.1947 (1, UMMZ). Michigan: Livingston Co., E. S. George Reserve, 3.07.1950, K. Bohnsack 70 (1, UMMZ), Whitmore Lk., 29.07.1956, G. H. Nelson (1, EMEC; 1, UCDC), 30.06.1956, G. H. Nelson, Quercus velutina   , 14.07.1956, G. H. Nelson, Quercus alba   , 29.07.1956, G. H. Nelson, beating oak (4, AMNH); Muskegon Co., 05.07.1958, R. & K. Dreisbach (1, UMMZ). Missouri: Gasconade Co., 1.7 mi. S Mt. Sterling, 10.06.1978, E. G. Riley (1, ASUHIC); Jasper Co., Wah-Sha-She Prairie, 9.05.1987, T. C. MacRae (1, SEMC); Lafayette Co., Concordia, 08.06.1964, L. & C. W. O’ Brien (1, ASUHIC); Randolph Co., 1 mi. E Moberly, 9.05.1975, E.G. Riley (1, ASUHIC); [St. Louis Co.], St. Louis, no date (1, USNM); Taney Co., Hercules Glades nr tower, 5.05.1979, E. G. Riley (1, ASUHIC). New Jersey: “N.J.,” no date (2, USNM); “N.J.,” “7.4” (1, USNM); “ New Jersey,” no date, [Van Dyke Coll] (1, CASC); Da Costa, “6.15,” H. A. Wenzel (1, OSU); Eagle Rock, “7.8.96,” G. M. Greene (2, USNM); Greenwood Lake, 20.07.1924, A. Nicolay (1, USNM), [NJ?]: “Og. Park,” 10.06.1877 (1, USNM); [Bergen Co.], Hillsdale, 19, 26.06.1932, Quirsfeld (2, USNM), Palisades, 5.07.1927, [F. W. Nunnenmacher], [B. Malkin] (2, FMNH); Burl[ington] Co., 4 mi. NE Moorestown, 3.06.1967, H. A. Hespenheide (1, CHAH), 5 mi. ENE Moorestown, 30.05.1968, H. A. Hespenheide, at Quercus ilicifolia   (1, CHAH), 5 mi. SE Browns Mill, em 5.05.1966, H. A. Hespenheide, rear ex chestnut oak (1, CHAH); Riverton, 13.05.1929, R. J. & M. B. Sim (1, USNM); Camden Co., 19.10.1929, E. J. F. Marx (2, AMNH), Camden, 11.06.--, Wickham (1, USNM); Cumberland Co., Bridgeton, 1.06.1988, J. Huether (1, FSCA); [Essex Co.], same data as Holotype or 4.08.1923, 1.08.1925 (8, USNM); Newark, no date (3, AMNH), S. Orange, 16.06.1888 (2, USNM), 16.06.1889, (1, BMNH), C. W. Leng collection (1, BYU); Orange Mt., no date, E. A. Bischoff (3, USNM), Orange Mts. (1, BMNH), Montclair, 25.07, 21.08.1926, 20.06.1942, 14.07.1943, A. Nicolay (3, USNM), no date, Quirsfeld (4, CASC); [Hudson Co.], Nutley, 18.06.--, [E. L. Dickerson] (1, AMNH); [Middlesex Co.], Highlands, 29.06.1891, H. Soltau (2, USNM); [Monmouth Co.], Freehold, 19.07.1926, J. W. Green, 19.07.1026, collector? (2, CASC); [Ocean Co.], Lakehurst, 2.07.1912 (1, AMNH), Point Pleasant, 5.07.1924, 30.05.1927, A. Nicolay (2, USNM); [Union Co.], Rahway, 8.08.--, E.A. Bischoff (1, USNM). New York: “ New York,” no date, [Coll. Chittenden] (1, USNM); “N. Y.,” no date, [Coll. Chittenden] (3, USNM), “N. Y.” [C.W. Leng collection] (1, BYU); “N. Y.,” no date, O. Dietz (4, CASC); ”N.Y. city & vcty.,” no date] (2, USNM); vicinity of N.Y., no date, [G.Palm] (1, AMNH); NYC, Van Cortland Park, 6.06.1939, [B. Malkin] (1, FMNH); ”L.I.,” no date, [Coll. Chittenden] (1, USNM), no date, [Coll. M. L. Linell] (1, USNM); Bear Mt., 4.07.1924, Quirsfeld (1, USNM); [“Ithaca?,”] C.W. Leng collection (1, BYU); [Erie Co.], Buffalo, 06.1886, 25.06.1900, E. P. VanDuzee (2, EMEC), no date, M. C. VanDuzee (1, CASC), [no date] (1, USNM), --.06.1886, [Wickham Coll.] (1, USNM), no date, C. W. Leng collection (1, BYU, with specimen of L. nephele   ); [Kings Co.]. Flatbush, 04.06.1894, J. L. Zabriskie (1, AMNH); [Nassau Co.]. Roslyn, L. I., 10.07.1930, J. N. Belkin (1, FSCA); [Niagara Co.], Niagara Falls, no date, M. C. VanDuzee (3, CASC); Ontario Co., vic Geneva, 31.03.1990, J. Huether (1, FSCA; 1, JEWC); [Orange Co.] West Point, 3, 8, 14.06.1911, 26.05.1914, W. Robinson (4, USNM), 30.05.1913, W. Robinson (1, USNM); [Richmond Co.], Stat. Isl., 6.06.1915, E. Shoemaker (1, USNM); [Suffolk Co.], Yaphank, L. I., 8.07.1916, [L. B. Woodruff] (1, AMNH), Huntington, L. I., 8, 14.06.1924, F. M. Schott (2, BYU); [Westchester Co.], New Rochelle, 03.08.1910 (1, AMNH). North Carolina: [Buncombe Co.], Graybeard, --.06.17 (1, AMNH), Black Mts, 9.06.1912, Beutenmuller (1, CASC); Catawba Co., Hog Hill, 27.07-07.08, 7- 15.08.1976, R. Turnbow, bl trap (1, FSCA; 1, ASUHIC); Cleveland Co., 20.05.1972, J. S. Ashe, on foliage (1, TAMU); Craven Co., New Bern, 25.04.1988, F. Beck, on rhododendron (1, NCSU); [Durham Co.], Durham, 20.12.1942, W. Haliburton, J. A. Beal 2327 reared, Host: Quercus phellos   (1, USNM); Gaston Co., Crowder Mtn SP, 13.05.2009, J. & M. Heuther (3, CMNC); [Haywood Co.], L[ake] Junaluska, 24.05.1954, H. V. Weems, Jr. (2, FSCA); Johnston Co., at Exp. Sta. 2 mi. W Clayton, 06.05. 1964, G.A. Matuza (12, ASUHIC; 1, MEM); Martin Co., Hwy- 64 at Williamston, 9.05.1996, L. L. Dietz, on Quercus alba   (1, NCSU); Mecklenburg Co., 15.04.1982, T. Daggy, 71693-71708, 72377 (17, NCSU), 4.051982, T. Daggy, 71456 (1, NCSU), 27.03.1985, T. Daggy, 76744 (1, NCSU), Cornelius, 06.2007, M. Heuther (6, CMNC);; [Moore Co.], Southern Pines, 26.04.1910, A. H. Manee (1, NCSU); [Polk Co.], Tryon, no date, W. F. Fiske, Quercus, Hopk. U.S. 1571a   (1, USNM); Rockingham Co., Reidsville, 7-21, 30.05.1973, J.S. Ashe (3, TAMU), 21.05.1978, J. S. Ashe, on oak (1, SEMC); [Surry Co.], Pilot Mt., “1.28”1947, W. Haliburton, 2716 host: Castanea dentata   (1, USNM); Vance Co., SR1619 nr SR1538 @ old cemetary, 14.05.1996, R.L. Blinn, ex Quercus alba   (1, NCSU); Wake Co., Raleigh, 4, 5.05.1962, D. M. Weisman (3, NCSU), 23.04.1953, H. & A. Howden, oak (1, NCSU), 03, 10.05.1953, H. & A. Howden, oak (3, CMNC), 26.04.1953, H. & A. Howden (1, FMNH), 10.05.1952, B. K. Dozier, oak 23.05.1952, B. K. Dozier, sweeping oak (2, FSCA), 30.04.1991, M. J. Rothschild (1, FSCA), Schenck Forest, 23.04.1992, R. L. Blinn, on white oak Quercus alba   (1, NCSU). Ohio: “Ohio,” [C.W. Leng collection] (1, BYU); Adams Co., 13.04.1954, R. W. Rings, Host: Peach (1, OSU); Fairfield Co., 15.08.---, D. J. & J. N. Knull (2, OSU). Oklahoma: Creek Co., 6 mi. W Mannford, 13.05.1971, D. C. Arnold, blackjack oak (1, TAMU); Latimer Co., --.06.1983, --.06.1984, --.04, 05.1985, --.03, 04, 05.1986, --.04, --.05.1988, --.05.1992, --.05.1993, K. Stephan (35, FSCA; 12, ASUHIC; 23, TAMU; 2, WFBM), 5 mi. W Red Oak, 30.04.1977, K. Stephan (1, TAMU), 5 mi. W Red Oak, 9.04.1985, J. Pakuluk #258, beating (1, SEMC); LeFlore Co., Ouachita Natl. Forest, 3 km E jct hwy 1 & 271, Panorama overlook, 10.05.1988, T. Spanton (2, CMNC); Osage Co., West Bartlesville, 5.05.1981, K. Burnham (1, BYU). Pennsylvania: “Penn/hickory twigs,” no date, (2, MCZ); “Penn,” no date (1, CASC), “Penn,” no date, C. V. Riley (1, USNM); Twin Lakes, 16.06.1907, A. Nicolay (1, USNM); All[eghen]y Co., no date (1, CMPI); Pittsburgh, 02, 04, 07.1906.---, [H. Klages] (4, CMPI); [Chester Co.], Downingstown, 22.06.1940, R. L. Casselberry (1, AMNH); [Berks Co.], Stony Creek Mills, 19.07.1950, D. G. Kissinger (1, CSCA); [Cumberland Co.], Shiremanstown, 12.06.1916 (1, USNM); Dauphin Co., Stoverdale, 6.06.1916 (1, USNM), 16.06.28, J. N. Knull (1, CASC), Linglestown, 22.05.1914, H. B. Kirk, A. D. Hopkins, reared, Hickory (1, USNM), 21.07.1914, A. D. Hopkins, reared, hickory (1, USNM); Franklin Co., 3 mi. W Roxbury, 17.06.1990, J. E. Wappes (1, JEWC); Mount Alto, 10.07.1932, J. G. Shanafelt (1, LACM), --.07.1932, J. N. Knull (1, UCDC); [Lackawanna Co.], Scranton, 02.06.1978, [Rosenberg Coll] (1, USNM); [Luzerne Co.], DuPont, 14- 16.08.1944, H. L. Townes (1, USNM); [Montgomery Co.], Glenside, 16.06.1907, [G. M. Greene] (1, USNM); [Monroe Co.], Effort, 20.07.32, J. W. Green (5, UCDC); Del. Water Gap, no date, 14.06.--, [Mrs. A. T. Slosson] (1, AMNH), Tannersville, 6.07.1948, J. W. Green (1, CHAH); [Northampton Co.], Wind Gap, 14.07.31, J. W. Green (3, UCDC), 28.06.1947, J. W. Green (2, CASC); [Philadelphia Co.], Frankford, “7/5,” [G. M. Greene coll] (1, USNM); [Westmoreland Co.], Jeannette, 02, 11, 12, 13, 15.06.---, [H. Klages] (7, CMPI); [York Co.], Hanover, 15.06.1930, Bridwell & Barber (4, USNM). Tennessee: Coffee Co., AEDC, 13.08.1998, Oak Fog (1, ECUT). Texas: “Tex,” no date, [Horn Coll.] (2, MCZ); Bastrop Co., Bastrop St. Pk., 10.05.1992, E. G. Riley (1, ASUHIC); Bosque Co., 2 mi. W Iredell, 6.05.1970, J. C. Schaffner (1, TAMU); Brazos Co., College Station, 15.04.1963, S. G. Wellso, 3.04.1966, P. M. Wagner (2, TAMU);   Brown Co., Camp Bowie Nat. Gd. 6.6 km SE Brownwood, N31.656° W99.949°, 24.03.2008 - 29.04.2008, J. C. Abbott, Malaise-A (1, TAMU); Burleson Co., Big Creek Park, Lake Somerville, 16.03.1971, V. Board & W. Clark, taken on Quercus marilandica Muenchh.   (1, ASUHIC); Comal Co., Bulverde, 20- 26.04.1994, J. E. Wappes (1, JEWC); Erath Co., Stephenville, 11.05.1982, C. W. Agnew (1, TAMU), 5 mi. W Stephenville, 21- 23.05.1980, P. T. Riherd (1, TAMU); Uvalde Co., Garner State Park, 26.05.1983, R. Anderson, sweeping oaks (1, CMNC). Virginia: Afton, no date, [Coll Hubbard & Schwarz] (1, USNM); near Plummer’ s I, 11.06.1922, L. L. Buchanan (1, USNM); Willis Mt., 20.04.1922 (1, CASC); Fairfax Co., Alexandria, 31.05- 19.05.1991, B. Brown, oakmaple forest, malaise (1, ASUHIC); Falls Church, 28.07.1914, H. B. Kirk (1, USNM), Mt. Vernon, “18.6,” H. B. Kirk, F. C. Craighead, reared, Quercus   ; Hopk. U.S. 12637 (1, USNM), Vienna, no date, 2, 9.06.1921, E. A. Chapin (4, USNM); Clarke Co., Appalachian Trail, 12 km SE Berryville, 28.06.1987, W. E. Steiner & J. M. Swearingen (1, USNM); [Lee Co.], Pennington Gap, “2.7,” [Coll Hubbard & Schwarz] (1, USNM); Montgomery Co., Blacksburg, 26.06.1988, R. L. Blinn (1, NCSU); [Shenandoah Co.], New Market, 18.03.1950, D. G. Kissinger (1, CSCA). West Virginia: “W.Va.,” no date, Horn Coll (1 MCZ); Orkney Springs, 11.06.1946, G. H. Dieke, 462 (1, USNM); [Greenbriar Co.], W. Sulphur, 3.07.1912 W. Robinson (1, USNM); Pendleton Co., 5 mi. NW Ruddle, 30.07.1992, J. D. Hacker, Malaise trap (site 214) (1, CMNC).  

Other Specimens Examined. New Mexico: Lincoln Co., 1.5 mi. W Alto , 7400’, 24- 25.07.1982, R. Anderson (3, CMNC)   , 7400-7500’, 20.06.1982, G. A. P. Gibson (1, CMNC)   ; Otero Co., Cloudcroft , 8600’, 24.07.1982, R. S. Anderson, beating Cercocarpus   (1, CMNC)   , 10 mi. W Cloudcroft , 23.07.1989, R. Morris (1, RFMC)   . Texas: Brewster Co., Big Bend National Park, Lost Mine Trail , 29° 16’N 103°15’W, 6000-6850’, 15.07.1982, R. S. Anderson (2, CMNC) GoogleMaps   , Big Bend Nat. Pk. , Boulder Mtn., W.S, 17.07.1984, R. L. Westcott (1, CMNC)   , BBNP, (lower) Emory Peak Trail , ca. 7,050’, 29°14’57”N 103°17’47”W, 21.06.2004, E. G. Riley-51 (8, TAMU) GoogleMaps   ; BBNP, Window Trail , (upper), 29°16’29”N 103°19’01”W, 21.06.2004, E. G. & C. M. Riley-03 (1, TAMU) GoogleMaps   ; Chisos Mts., Big Bend Natl. Park , 20.07.1968, W. H. Tyson, uvlts (1, ASUHIC)   ; Chisos Mts. , 19.07.--, J. W. Green (6, CASC)   , 17.07.1946, 8.07.1955, D. J. & J. N. Knull (2, OSU)   ; Big Bend , 3.07.1942, [Van Dyke Coll] (2, CASC)   ; [Jeff Davis Co.], Davis Mts. , 6.07.1936, 2.06.1937, 3.07.1955, J. N. Knull (4, OSU)   , 09.07, J. W. Green (1, CASC)   ; 9 mi. S Ft. Davis, Hwy. 17, 29.06.1971, G. H. Nelson, on Quercus   (1, ASUHIC)   . Mexico: Nuevo León: 5.3 mi. S La Escondida , 8.07.1986, Kovarik & Schaffner (1, TAMU)   .

Hosts. Laemosaccus obrieni   has been reared from unidentified oaks in Connecticut and Virginia; from chestnut oak in New Jersey; from willow oak, Qurcus phellos   L., in North Carolina; from American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Marsh.)   , in North Carolina; and from unidentified hickories (“ Hicoria   ”) in Pennsylvania and Florida. Adult hosts that have been recorded include unspecified oaks as well as black oak, white oak, Quercus alba   L., bear oak, Quercus ilicifolia Wangenh.   , blackjack oak, Quercus marilandica Muenchh.   , hickory, Cercocarpus sp.   ( Rosaceae   ).

Etymology. This widespread and common species is named in honor of the late Charles W. O’ Brien whose extensive collections and publications on the Curculionidae   (e.g., O’ Brien and Wibmer 1982; Wibmer and O’ Brien 1986) more than justify this nominal recognition.

Discussion. As mentioned above, it is remarkable that the widespread and common L. obrieni   and L. nephele   have not been previously recognized as separate species. The major differences between them are given in the key. Laemosaccus obrieni   is usually smaller in size, and the red posthumeral spots are smaller and do not reach the anterior or lateral margins of the elytra as they do in L. nephele   . The pronotal punctures are finer and confluent on the anterior half in L. obrieni   , whereas the punctures are coarser and separate in L. nephele   . And the male genitalia are quite different ( Fig. 3 View Figs vs. Fig. 6 View Figs ). Specimens from western Texas, New Mexico, and Mexico were excluded from the type series because they appear to represent an allopatric population that may or may not be conspecific. Laemosaccus obrieni   varies somewhat geographically in the size of the red posthumeral patch, as does L. nephele   . Males in the type series vary in size from 2.25 to 3.30 mm (mean = 2.79 mm, n = 118); females vary from 2.20 to 3.80 mm (mean = 2.91 mm, n =168).

USNM

USA, Washington D.C., National Museum of Natural History, [formerly, United States National Museum]

FSCA

USA, Florida, Gainesville, Division of Plant Industry, Florida State Collection of Arthropods

BMNH

United Kingdom, London, The Natural History Museum [formerly British Museum (Natural History)]

CHAH

Henry A. Hespenheide

UAAM

USA, Arkansas, Fayetteville, University of Arkansas, Department of Entomology, The Arthropod Museum

CMNC

Canada, Ottawa, Canadian Museum of Nature

MEM

USA, Mississippi, Mississippi, Mississippi State University

AMNH

USA, New York, New York, American Museum of Natural History

MCZ

USA, Massachusetts, Cambridge, Harvard University, Museum of Comparative Zoology

ZMHB

Germany, Berlin, Museum fuer Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universitaet

RFMC

RFMC

BYU

USA, Utah, Provo, Brigham Young University, Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum

INHS

USA, Illinois, Champaign, Illinois Natural History Survey

FMNH

USA, Illinois, Chicago, Field Museum of Natural History (also used by Finnish Museum of Natural History)

STRI

Panama, Balboa, (via USA, Florida, Miami), Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

LEMQ

Canada, Quebec, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, McGill University, Lyman Entomological Museum

JEWC

James E. Wappes

TAMU

Texas A&M University

OSU

Oklahoma State University, Collection of Vertebrates