Gonatocerus (Lymaenon) aureus Girault, 1911, Girault, 1911

Triapitsyn, Serguei V., 2013, Review of Gonatocerus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) in the Palaearctic region, with notes on extralimital distributions, Zootaxa 3644 (1), pp. 1-178: 47-56

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3644.1.1

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scientific name

Gonatocerus (Lymaenon) aureus Girault, 1911
status

 

Gonatocerus (Lymaenon) aureus Girault, 1911  

( Figs 65–77 View FIGURES 65, 66 View FIGURES 67 – 71 View FIGURES 72 – 74 View FIGURES 75 – 77 )

Gonatocerus aureus Girault 1911: 263   –264, 274 (key). Originally described from 3 female specimens, although only 1 female was designated as “ Type ” (“on a slide together with Polynema   and other mymarids”, INHS Accession No. 44,215), thus it was the holotype (not examined); it is lost according to Huber (1988). The other two specimens mentioned (from Du Bois, Washington Co., Illinois, USA) had no type status. Type locality (both original and of the neotype designated here): Urbana, Champaign Co., Illinois, USA.

Gonatocerus brunneus tenuipennis Girault 1911: 263   (as a new variety). Originally described from 2 female specimens, although only 1 female were designated as “ Type ” (i.e., the holotype on slide, INHS Accession No. 44,214, which is lost ( Huber 1988), not examined). The other specimen (from Urbana, Illinois) mentioned had no type status; it belongs to G. aureus   and is designated as its neotype. Type locality: Centralia, Illinois, USA. Syn. n.

Gonatocerus aureus Girault: Girault 1929   : 26 (key); Huber 1988: 31 (member of the litoralis   species group).

Gonatocerus tenuipennis Girault: Girault 1929   : 26 (key); Huber 1988: 31 (member of the litoralis   species group).

Lymaenon chrysis Debauche 1948: 99   –100 + plate X (illustrations). Type locality: Heverlee (as Héverlé in the original description), Leuven, Flemish Brabant, Belgium. Syn. n.

Gonatocerus flavus Soyka: 1950   : 127–128. Holotype female [lost from PPDD] (not examined). Type locality: Giza, Giza Governorate, Egypt. Gonatocerus vopros Triapitsyn   nom. n. pro G. flavus   Soyka, 1950 (nec G. flavus   Foerster, 1841). Syn. n.

Lymaenon aureus (Girault)   : Burks 1958: 63 (catalog [not actually listed but referring to Peck (1951)]); Peck 1963: 21 (catalog).

Lymaenon tenuipennis (Girault)   : Burks 1958: 63 (catalog [not actually listed but referring to Peck (1951)]); Peck 1963: 26 (catalog).

Lymaenon chrysis Debauche   : Boţoc 1960: 144–146 (redescription and illustrations of the female); Mathot 1969: 10 (key).

Lymaenon pahlgamensis Narayanan 1961: 25   –26, 28 (illustration). Holotype female [ IARI] (not examined). Type locality: Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Syn. n.

Gonatocerus kanheriensis Mani & Saraswat   in Mani et al. 1973: 87–89. Holotype female [ USNM] (not examined). Type locality: Thana Hills, Krishnagiri, Mumbai (but in the original description indicated as Borivili National Park, below Kanheri caves, Bombay), Maharashtra, India. Synonymized under G. pahlgamensis   by Zeya & Hayat 1995: 114. Syn. n.

Gonatocerus chrysis (Debauche)   : Graham 1973: 48 (record from England, UK); Matthews 1986: 227 (diagnosis, measurements, distribution); Donev 1988 e: 204 [as Gonatucerus (sic) chrysis   ] (distribution); Zeya & Hayat 1995: 117 (comments); Baquero & Jordana 2003: 7 –10 (diagnosis, female redescription, male description, distribution); Donev 2005: 380 –381 (diagnosis, distribution); Pricop 2009 a: 73 (records from Romania); Pricop 2009 b: 125 (list, references on the records from Romania); Pricop 2010 a: 81 (records from Romania); Pricop 2010 c: 79 (illustration), 81 (record from Romania, diagnosis).

Gonatocerus gracilentus Hellén 1974: 11   . Holotype female (invalidly designated as lectotype by Matthews 1986: 227) [ FMNH] (not examined). Type locality: Parikkala, Finland. Synonymized under G. chrysis   by Matthews 1986: 227. Syn. n.

Gonatocerus pahlgamensis (Narayanan)   : Subba Rao & Hayat 1983: 136 (catalog); Zeya & Hayat 1995: 114 –117 (synonymy, redescription, distribution, important comments) + 129, 154 (illustrations); Zeya & Khan 2011: 13 (distribution in India).

Gonatocerus aligarhensis Shamim & Shafee 1984: 624   , 625 (illustrations). Holotype female (see Zeya & Hayat (1995) for details on the possible holotype) [ ZDAMU] (not examined). Type locality: Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. Synonymized under G. pahlgamensis   by Zeya & Hayat 1995: 114. Syn. n.

Gonatocerus fukuokensis Sahad   in Sahad & Hirashima 1984: 3 (list), 20–22. Holotype female [ KUEC] (not examined but its photograph is available at: http://konchudb.agr.agr.kyushu-u.ac.jp/elkutype/exec/ refile.cgi?&lang=en&no= 2397 &tax= Gonatocerus   % 20 fukuokensis   % 20 Sahad). Type locality: Hakozaki, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka Prefecture (Kyūshū Island), Japan. Synonymized under G. pahlgamensis   by Zeya & Hayat 1995: 114. Syn. n.

Gonatocerus chrisis   [sic] (Debauche): Donev 1990: 68 (distribution); Donev 2003: 75 –76 (distribution).

Gonatocerus flavus Soyka   : Huber et al. 2009: 271 (list).

Gonatocerus (Lymaenon) chrysis (Debauche)   : Triapitsyn et al. 2010: 43–46 (references, records from the Nearctic and Neotropical regions as well from Belgium, France, and Far East of Russia, redescription based on the Neotropical specimens, diagnosis, illustrations, distribution), 57; Triapitsyn & Proshchalykin 2012: 208 (catalog).

Type material examined. Gonatocerus aureus Girault   : neotype female [ USNM], here designated in accordance with Article 75.3 ([ ICZN] 1999) to avoid any ambiguity regarding the identity of this species, to define this nominal taxon objectively and clarify its taxonomic status, and because the original type (i.e., the holotype) of this species is lost ( Huber 1988), on slide ( Fig. 65 View FIGURES 65, 66 ) labeled: 1. “Urbana, Illinois July 1, 1910. Sweeping. Camptoptera pulla Girault   , 1 Ƥ”; 2. “ Gonatocerus   1 Ƥ aureus   . [“ tenuipennis   ”—crossed out in black ink] Ƥ [apparently “ brunneus   ” or an earlier, illegible manuscript name—crossed out in black ink] anthonomi   [added later in pencil]. I searched for the holotypes of G. aureus   and G. brunneus tenuipennis Girault   and the non-type specimens of G. aureus   from Du Bois, Illinois (on which Girault (1911) also based his original description of G. aureus   ) during a visit to the INHS in September 2010 and confirm that these have been lost from that collection. The neotype of G. aureus   ( Fig. 66 View FIGURES 65, 66 ) is complete, poorly mounted more or less laterally except for the head under the same coverslip with a female of Camptoptera pulla Girault   and 5 females of G. litoralis   , the latter identified by A.A. Girault first apparently as G. brunneus Girault   and then as G. anthonomi Girault. Girault   first identified the neotype specimen as G. tenuipennis ( Girault 1911)   but later crossed out his initial identification and marked it on the label as G. aureus   ; apparently he struggled to separate his own species and that is no wonder because they turned out to be the same.

Lymaenon chrysis Debauche   : holotype female [ ISNB] on slide labeled: 1. “Dr. H. Debauche det. Lymaenon chrysis Deb. Ƥ 1943   TYPE [on red rectangle glued onto the label]”; 2. “Lab. d’Entomologie de l’Université Louvain Héverlé 14.VIII. 42 C/ IV– 47 245 3 [faint, in pencil]”. The holotype is complete, uncleared, mounted laterally.

Material examined. AUSTRIA. LOWER AUSTRIA: 1 km W of Hollern, 48 °04’ 22 ’’N 16 ° 52 ’ 37 ’’E, 150 m, 16–17.vi. 2007, S.V. Triapitsyn, C. Thuróczy [1 Ƥ, UCRC]. Hundsheim, 12.xi. 1954, W. Soyka [1 Ƥ, NHMW]. BELGIUM. ANTWERP, Turnhout, 12.viii. 1941, A. Raignier [2 Ƥ, ISNB]. FLEMISH BRABANT: Eyzer, 8.viii. 1944, [H.R. Debauche] [2 Ƥ, ISNB]. Tervuren, 23.viii. 1944, [H.R. Debauche] [5 Ƥ, ISNB]. LIÈGE, Wanze, Antheit, Corphalie, R. Detry: 16–30.vi. 1989 [1 Ƥ, 1 3, ISNB]; 28.vii– 11.viii. 1990 [1 Ƥ, ISNB]. BULGARIA. KYUSTENDIL, Kyustendil, 1928, L. Biró [1 Ƥ, NHMW / HNHM]. CHINA. BEIJING, Mentougou District: Liyan Ling (Linshan Mts.), 40 °00.28’N 115 ° 30.75 ’E, 1749 m, 2.viii. 2002, G. Melika [4 Ƥ, 1 3, UCRC]. Xiaolongmen Station, 39 ° 59.22 ’N 115 ° 31.48 ’E, 1095 m, 28.vii. 2002, G. Melika [1 Ƥ, UCRC]. CZECH REPUBLIC. ÚSTÍ NAD LABEM, České Švýcarsko National Park, 50 ° 50 ’00.494’’N 14 ° 19 ’ 49.508 ’’E, 597 m, 16.v. 2007, J. Macek [1 Ƥ, CUPC]. FRANCE. GARD, near Gardon River, 43 ° 55 ’ 45 ’’N 4 ° 23 ’ 25 ’’E, 10–13.vi. 2005, J. George [2 Ƥ, UCRC]. GIRONDE: Sainte Colombe, 44 ° 54 ’N 00°02’W, M. van Helden: 2.vii. 1998 [3 Ƥ, 1 3, UCRC]; 30.vii. 1998 [2 Ƥ, UCRC]; 13.viii. 1998 [26 Ƥ, 1 3, UCRC]; 10.ix. 1998 [3 Ƥ, UCRC]; 9.vii. 1999 [6 Ƥ, UCRC]; 24.vii. 2000 [1 Ƥ, UCRC]; 17.viii. 2000 [1 Ƥ, UCRC]; 24.viii. 2000 [1 Ƥ, UCRC]. Tourtirac, 44 ° 53 ’ 57 ’’N 00°02’02’’W: 27.viii. 1998, M. van Helden [1 Ƥ, UCRC]; 26–27.vi. 2000, S.V. Triapitsyn [1 Ƥ, UCRC]. HÉRAULT, Lauret, 43 ° 50 ’04’’N 03° 53 ’ 48 ’’E, 29.vi. 2000, S.V. Triapitsyn (on grape) [1 Ƥ, UCRC]. GEORGIA. ADJARA, Keda, V.A. Trjapitzin: 30.viii. 1953 (on alder at Adzharis-Tskali River bank) [1 3, ZIN]; 7.ix. 1953 (on pine) [1 Ƥ, ZIN]. GERMANY. BAVARIA: Erlangen, “ 1950 s”, H.-J. Stammer [1 Ƥ, NHMW]. Veitshöchheim, 22.vii. 2003, S.V. Triapitsyn [7 Ƥ, UCRC]. GREECE. CENTRAL MACEDONIA, Lake Kerkini: Beles Mts., 41 ° 17 ’ 19.5 ’’N 23 ° 12 ’ 18.4 ’’E, 550 m, 9–15.v. 2005, G. Ramel [1 Ƥ, UCRC]. Ecotourism site, 41 °08’ 15.6 ’’N 23 ° 13 ’01.2’’E, 65 m, G. Ramel: 9–15.v. 2006 [2 Ƥ, BMNH, UCRC]; 16–22.v. 2006 [12 Ƥ, BMNH, UCRC]; 23–29.v. 2006 [2 Ƥ, BMNH, UCRC]; 30.v– 5.vi. 2006 [1 Ƥ, UCRC]; 6–12.vi. 2006 [2 Ƥ, UCRC]; 13–19.vi. 2006 [4 Ƥ, BMNH, UCRC]; 20–26.vi. 2006 [14 Ƥ, 1 3, UCRC]. HUNGARY. VAS, W of Köszeg, 47 ° 23 ’09’’N 16 ° 31 ’ 19 ’’E, 355 m, 16–20.vi. 2009, I. Mikó [6 Ƥ, UCRC]. ITALY. CAMPANIA, Benevento Prov., 1.8 km E of Faicchio, 41 ° 16.329 ’N 14 ° 29.884 ’E, 210 m, 7–8.vi. 2003, M. Bologna, J. Munro, A. Owen, J.D. Pinto [1 Ƥ, UCRC]. LAZIO, Roma Prov.: Caldara di Manziana, 42 °05.607’N 12 °05.906’E, 305 m, 10.vi. 2003, M. Bologna, J. Munro, A. Owen, J.D. Pinto [2 Ƥ, UCRC]. Castelporziano Presidential Estate: Fosso di Trafusina, 41 ° 46.670 ’N 12 ° 24.751 ’E, 30 m, 11– 12.vi. 2003, M. Bologna, J. Munro, A. Owen, J.D. Pinto [1 Ƥ, 1 3, UCRC]; Ponte Guidoni, 41 ° 45.415 ’N 12 ° 23.851 ’E, 80 m, 11–12.vi. 2003, M. Bologna, J. Munro, A. Owen, J.D. Pinto [6 Ƥ, UCRC]. 0.8 km W of Sasso, 42 °02.967’N 12 °02.209’E, 264 m, 9–10.vi. 2003, M. Bologna, J. Munro, A. Owen, J.D. Pinto [2 Ƥ, UCRC]. Viterbo Prov., Ponte San Pietro, 42 ° 31.669 ’N 11 ° 36.353 ’E, 75 m, 10.vi. 2003, M. Bologna, J. Munro, A. Owen, J.D. Pinto [1 Ƥ, UCRC]. SICILY, Palermo, University of Palermo garden, 38 °06’ 27.2 ’’N 13 ° 21 ’02.4’’E, 41–43 m, 26–29.viii. 2005, S.V. Triapitsyn [1 Ƥ, UCRC]. KYRGYZSTAN. CHUY: Karagajly- Bulak, 9 km W of Ak-Tyuz, 42 ° 52 ’ 47 ’’N 76 °02’ 13 ’’E, 2180–3400 m, 26.vii. 2000, C.H. Dietrich [9 Ƥ, INHS, UCRC]. Near Telek, 43 °06’ 20 ’’N 74 °05’ 40 ’’E, 590 m, 13.viii. 1998, C.H. Dietrich [1 Ƥ, UCRC]. 10 km N of Telek, 42 ° 10 ’ 51 ’’N 74 °03’ 55 ’’E, 570 m, 13.viii. 1998, C.H. Dietrich [1 Ƥ, UCRC]. DZHALAL-ABAD, At- Ojnoksky Ridge, Kurpsaj Ravine, 41 ° 30 ’ 55 ’’N 72 ° 19 ’ 43 ’’E, 924 m, 23.vi. 1999, C.H. Dietrich [1 Ƥ, UCRC]. OSH, Karakuldzha, Lajsu Ravine, 40 ° 31 ’ 20 ’’N 73 ° 37 ’ 10 ’’E, 1815 m, C.H. Dietrich: 25.viii. 1998 [2 Ƥ, UCRC]; 25.vi. 1999 [1 Ƥ, UCRC]. POLAND. LUBUSZ, Sława Lake (near Sława; on the original label as “Schlawa-See, Schlesien”, now Jezioro Sławskie), 22.vii. 1934, H.-J. Stammer [1 Ƥ, 1 3, NHMW]. REPUBLIC OF KOREA. GANGWON-DO, Pyengchang, Jinbu, Cheokchun, 23.ix. 1998, J.- Y. Choi [1 Ƥ, UCRC]. GYEONGGI-DO, Suwon-si, Seodun-dong: Seoul National University, J.-W. Kim: 15.ix. 2001, [2 Ƥ, UCRC]; 17.ix. 2001, [1 Ƥ, UCRC]. Yeogisan, 7 x. 1997, J.- Y. Choi [3 Ƥ, UCRC]. RUSSIA. KRASNODARSKIY KRAY, Krasnodar, All- Russian Research Institute of Biological Plant Protection, V.V. Kostjukov: 10–29.viii. 2001 [27 Ƥ, UCRC, ZIN]; 23.vii. 2002 [2 Ƥ, 1 3, UCRC]; 31.viii. 2003 [8 Ƥ, UCRC, ZIN]. MOSKOVSKAYA OBLAST’, Noginskiy rayon, Fryazevo, M.E. Tretiakov: 24–25.vii. 2000 [3 Ƥ, UCRC, ZIN]; 26.vii– 14.viii. 2000 [1 Ƥ, UCRC]; 23.viii. 2000 [2 Ƥ, UCRC]; 25–31.viii. 2000 [1 Ƥ, UCRC]; 1.viii. 2002 [3 Ƥ, UCRC]. PRIMORSKIY KRAY: Terneyskiy rayon, Mel’nichnyi, 29.vi– 1.vii. 2001, M.V. Michailovskaya [1 Ƥ, UCRC]. Ussuriyskiy rayon, Gornotayozhnoye, M.V. Michailovskaya: 28.vi– 4.vii. 1999 [1 Ƥ, UCRC]; 11–14.vii. 1999 [3 Ƥ, IBPV, UCRC, ZIN]; 19–20.vii. 1999 [3 Ƥ, UCRC]; 21–22.vii. 1999 [5 Ƥ, IBPV, UCRC, ZIN]; 27–28.vii. 1999 [2 Ƥ, UCRC]; 24.vii– 1.viii. 1999 [2 Ƥ, UCRC]; 1–4.viii. 1999 [1 Ƥ, UCRC]; 5–11.viii. 1999 [10 Ƥ, IBPV, UCRC, ZIN]; 12– 17.viii. 1999 [6 Ƥ, UCRC]; 17–18.viii. 1999 [5 Ƥ, UCRC]; 22–28.viii. 1999 [1 Ƥ, UCRC]; 28.viii– 5.ix. 1999 [3 Ƥ, UCRC]; 6–14.ix. 1999 [4 Ƥ, UCRC]; 10–15.ix. 1999 [3 Ƥ, UCRC]; 25–26.ix. 1999 [1 Ƥ, UCRC]; ix. 1999 [1 Ƥ, UCRC]; 8–11.x. 1999 [1 Ƥ, UCRC]; 11–21.vi. 2000 [8 Ƥ, UCRC]; 22–30.vi. 2000 [7 Ƥ, IBPV, UCRC, ZIN]; 1–10.vii. 2000 [2 Ƥ, UCRC]; 12.vii. 2000 [1 Ƥ, UCRC]; 21–31.vii. 2000 [9 Ƥ, UCRC]; 1–10.viii. 2000 [14 Ƥ, IBPV, UCRC, ZIN]; 12–26.viii. 2000 [2 Ƥ, UCRC]; 9–12.x. 2000 [1 Ƥ, UCRC]; 31.vii– 10.viii. 2001 [9 Ƥ, UCRC]; 17–31.viii. 2001 [4 Ƥ, UCRC]; 1–10.x. 2001 [2 Ƥ, UCRC]; ix–xi. 2001 [2 Ƥ, UCRC]; 10–19.vii. 2002 [4 Ƥ, UCRC]; 1–11.ix. 2002 [1 Ƥ, UCRC]; 24.ix– 5.x. 2002 [1 Ƥ, UCRC]; 11–15.viii. 2003 [3 Ƥ, UCRC]. SAKHALINSKAYA OBLAST’, Sakhalin Island, 6 km E of Sokol, near Belaya River, D.J. Bennett, T. Anderson: 24.vii. 2001 [1 Ƥ, CAS]; 16.viii. 2001 [1 Ƥ, CAS]. STAVROPOL’SKIY KRAY: Georgievskiy rayon, Nezlobnenskiy (stanitsa Nezlobnaya), 26.viii. 2002, V.V. Kostjukov [4 Ƥ, UCRC]. Levokumskiy rayon, Achikulak, V.V. Kostjukov: 17.vii. 2002 [3 Ƥ, UCRC]; 21.viii. 2002 [1 Ƥ, UCRC]; 23.viii. 2002 [1 Ƥ, UCRC]; 26.viii. 2002 [1 Ƥ, UCRC]. Prietokskiy, V.V. Kostjukov: 29.viii. 2002 [1 Ƥ, UCRC]; 2.ix. 2002 [5 Ƥ, 3 3, UCRC, ZIN]; 7.ix. 2002 [3 Ƥ, UCRC]; 13.vii. 2003 [3 Ƥ, UCRC]; 14.vii. 2003 [3 Ƥ, UCRC]; 27.vii. 2003 [2 Ƥ, UCRC]; 7.viii. 2003 [4 Ƥ, 1 3, UCRC]; 12.viii. 2003 [9 Ƥ, 1 3, UCRC, ZIN]; 14.viii. 2003 [2 Ƥ, UCRC]. SLOVAKIA. BRATISLAVA, Jurský Šúr Nature Reserve, 48 ° 14 ’03’’N 17 ° 12 ’ 47 ’’E, 133 m, 8.viii. 2008, B.V. Brown (alder forest) [4 Ƥ, UCRC].

Extralimital records. ARGENTINA. BUENOS AIRES, Luján, Universidad Nacional de Luján, 34 ° 35 ’0’’S 59 °04’ 4 ’’W, 32 m, 1.xii. 2006, C. Coviella [4 Ƥ, UCRC]. BERMUDA ( BERMUDA ISLANDS). Bermuda Island, Southampton Parish: 4 Munro Lane, 32 ° 15 ’ 51 ’’N 64 ° 52 ’08’’W, 16–24.x. 2001, J. Munro [5 Ƥ, UCRC]. Munro Beach Cottages, 32 ° 15 ’ 34 ’’N 64 ° 52 ’ 39 ’’W, 2–16.iv. 2002, J. Munro [6 Ƥ, UCRC]. CHILE. REGIÓN IX: Lonquimay, Las Raíces tunnel, 38 ° 33.5 ’S 71 °30.0’W, 1033 m, 17.xii. 2001, E. Arias (canopy fogging of Nothophagus dombeyi) [1 Ƥ, UCDC]. Parque Nacional Vista Hermosa, 38 ° 45 ’08’’S 71 ° 37 ’ 24 ’’W, 816 m, 22– 24.ii. 2005, J.M. Heraty et al. [4 Ƥ, UCRC]. INDIA. GOA, Bambolim Beach (S of Panaji), 15 ° 26 ’ 46 ’’N 73 ° 51 ’ 19 ’’E, 5 m, 15.xi. 2003, J.M. Heraty [1 Ƥ, UCRC]. KARNATAKA: Bangalore, University of Agricultural Sciences campus (Ghandi Krishi Vignyan Kendra), Botanic Garden, 13 °04’ 49 ’’N 77 ° 34 ’ 37 ’’E, 935 m, 27.xi. 2003, J.M. Heraty [1 Ƥ, UCRC]. Near Dandeli Reserve: 15 ° 20 ’ 36 ’’N 74 ° 37 ’ 19 ’’E, 530 m, 17.xi. 2003, J.M. Heraty [1 Ƥ, UCRC]; 15 ° 24 ’ 43 ’’N 74 ° 48 ’ 43 ’’E, 604 m, 17.xi. 2003, J.M. Heraty [1 Ƥ, UCRC]. Kathagal, 14 ° 30 ’ 41 ’’N 74 ° 31 ’ 49 ’’E, 44 m, 18.xi. 2003, J.M. Heraty [1 Ƥ, UCRC]. Mudigere, 13 °07’09’’N 75 ° 37 ’ 41 ’’E, 994 m, 24– 25.xi. 2003, J.M. Heraty [6 Ƥ, UCRC]. Nandi Hills, 13 ° 22 ’09’’N 77 ° 41 ’ 11 ’’E, 1462 m, 21.xi. 2003, J.M. Heraty [1 Ƥ, UCRC]. [NATIONAL CAPITAL TERRITORY OF] DELHI, New Delhi, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, 28 ° 37 ’ 51 ’’N 77 °09’ 50 ’’E, 220 m, 5.xi. 2003, J.M. Heraty [1 Ƥ, UCRC]. INDONESIA. Sumatra Island, NORTH SUMATRA, Bandar Jalan Indrapura, Bah Lias Estates, 03° 10 ’ 34.3 ’’N 99 ° 20 ’ 13.6 ’’E, 43 m, 16– 23.ii. 2012, M. & C. Hoddle [1 Ƥ, UCRC]. NEW ZEALAND. North Island: Auckland, Whitford, 36 ° 56 ’S 174 ° 58 ’E, B. Hoddle: 22.ii– 4.iii. 2003 [1 Ƥ, UCRC]; 5–15.iii. 2003 [8 Ƥ, UCRC]. Mochau, 36 ° 31 ’S 175 ° 27 ’E, 100 m, Sandy Bay Community, 6–18.ii. 2006, B.V. Brown [3 Ƥ, UCRC]. Puketi State Forest, 31.iii– 3.v. 1999, R.A. Leschen, G. Hall [1 Ƥ, UCRC]. Raglan, 37 ° 49 ’ 39 ’’S 174 ° 49 ’ 28 ’’E, 100 m, B.V. Brown: 5–8.ii. 2006 [1 Ƥ, UCRC]; 8–21.ii. 2006 [2 Ƥ, UCRC]. Taupo District, Kaimanawa Forest, Tree Trunk Gorge, 39.1738 °S 175.8957 °E, 12–14.ii. 2006, B.V. Brown [1 Ƥ, UCRC]. South Island, Karamea Bluff, 9–20.ii. 1999, R.A. Leschen [2 Ƥ, UCRC]. PAKISTAN. PUNJAB, Faisalabad, University of Agriculture Faisalabad: Horticulture Fruit Garden, 31 ° 25.844 ’N 73 °03.665’E, 184 m, citrus orchard: 15–26.iii. 2011, M.S. Hoddle [1 Ƥ, UCRC]; 4– 11.vi. 2011, M.S. & C.D. Hoddle [1 Ƥ, UCRC]. PHILIPPINES. Luzon Island, CAMARINES SUR, Mt. Isarog, 9.3 km E of Naga City, 13 ° 39.922 ’N 123 ° 21.239 ’E, 918 m, 31.v– 2.vi. 2011, N. Chousou Polydouri, C. Griswold [1 Ƥ, CAS]. REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA. GAUTENG: Pretoria, Agricultural Reserch Council campus, 9.xii. 2003, I. Mikó, G. Melika [1 Ƥ, UCRC]. Roodeplaat Nature Reserve, 6–10.xii. 2003, I. Mikó, G. Melika [1 Ƥ, UCRC]. REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO. POOL, Lesio-Louna Reserve: Abio, 3 °06.02’S 15 ° 31.44 ’E, 330 m, 29.vii. 2008, M. Sharkey, Y. Braet [1 Ƥ, UCRC]. Iboubikro, 3 ° 16 ’ 11 ’’S 15 ° 28 ’ 16 ’’E, 340 m, M. Sharkey: 23.vii. 2008 [2 Ƥ, UCRC]; 25.viii. 2008 [3 Ƥ, UCRC]. UNITED ARAB EMIRATES. ABU DHABI, Al Ajban, 24 ° 36 ’N 55 °01’E, 9.xi– 7.xii. 2005, A. van Harten [1 Ƥ, CNCI]. SHARJAH, Shariah, 25 ° 21 ’N 55 ° 24 ’E, 12– 28.vi. 2005, A. van Harten [1 Ƥ, CNCI]. USA. CALIFORNIA: Alameda Co., Albany, University of California, Berkeley ( UCB) quarantine laboratory, 1954 (reared in a ”test case” on Neoaliturus (Circulifer) tenellus ( Baker)   eggs) [4 Ƥ, 2 3, EMEC]; originally from: MOROCCO. SOUSS-MASSA-DRAÂ, Agadir, Yachech [according to the unpublished quarantine records at UCB (Kent M. Daane, personal communication), the originators of the successfully established colony of Lymaenon   sp. “C” were collected by C.B. Huffaker in Agadir (the host was N. tenellus   on various plant material) and received 19.iv. 1954 in UCB quarantine under their Shipper/Receiver ( SR) No. 54 - 7, but the original stock of these specimens, according to the hand-written label by R.L. Doutt, was collected (reared by C.B. Huffaker from eggs of the same host) in Agadir’s section of Yachech and received in UCB quarantine 10.v. 1954 under SR No. 54 - 11]. Amador Co., Sutter Creek, 38 ° 23 ’ 39 ’’N 120 ° 46 ’ 58 ’’W, 373 m, 20–26.vi. 2012, E.F. Drake [5 Ƥ, UCRC]. Santa Clara Co., Alum Rock Park, 37 ° 23 ’ 43 ’’N 121 ° 49 ’ 23 ’’W, 2– 3.vii. 2002, A. Owen (1 Ƥ, UCRC). Stanislaus Co., Frank Raines Regional Park, Ranger Station, 37 ° 25.294 ’N 121 ° 22.666 ’W, 350 m, 20.viii– 18.ix. 2011, R.L. Zuparko [1 Ƥ, EMEC]. GEORGIA, Gordon Co., Fairmount, Salacoa Creek, 34 ° 24 ’ 12 ’’N 84 ° 40 ’08’’W, 16.v. 2002, D. Yanega [9 Ƥ, UCRC]. NEW YORK, Jefferson Co., E of Alexandria Bay, 44 ° 24 ’07’’N 75 ° 48 ’07’’W, 74 m, 31.vii. 2010, S.V. Triapitsyn [1 Ƥ, UCRC]. NORTH CAROLINA, Scotland Co., Sandhills Game Lands, 36 ° 12 ’03’’N 78 ° 53 ’ 13 ’’W, 125 m, 5–19.iv. 2010, R.I. Blinn [1 Ƥ, UCRC].

Distribution. PALAEARCTIC: Austria *, Belgium, Bulgaria ( Donev 1987, 1988e, 1990, 2005), China *, Czech Republic *, Finland (as G. gracilentus   ), France (Triapitsyn et al. 2010), Georgia *, Germany *, Greece (including Crete) ( Donev 1988 c, 2003, 2005), Hungary *, Italy *, Japan ( Sahad & Hirashima 1984) [as G. fukuokensis   ], Kyrgyzstan *, Morocco *, Poland *, Republic of Korea *, Romania (Boţoc 1960; Pricop 2009 b, 2010 a, c), Russia (Triapitsyn et al. 2010), Serbia ( Donev 1985 b), Slovakia *, Spain ( Baquero & Jordana 2003), Sweden ( Hedqvist 2003), Turkey ( Donev 2001), and UK: England ( Graham 1973; Matthews 1986), Scotland, and Wales ( Matthews 1986). AFROTROPICAL*: Republic of South Africa *, Republic of the Congo *, and United Arab Emirates *. AUSTRALASIAN*: New Zealand * (apparently accidentally introduced). NEARCTIC: Bermuda ( Bermuda Islands), Canada, and USA (Triapitsyn et al. 2010). NEOTROPICAL: Argentina, Brazil, and Chile (Triapitsyn et al. 2010). ORIENTAL*: India ( Zeya & Hayat 1995; Zeya & Khan 2011) [as G. pahlgamensis   ], Indonesia *, Pakistan *, and Philippines *. Most previous records were as G. chrysis   except where indicated otherwise.

Redescription. FEMALE (neotype of G. aureus   , holotype of Lymaenon chrysis   , and non-type specimens from Palaearctic region). Body length 630–1365 µm. Body generally golden, yellowish-brown, or light brown with brown markings; antenna, particularly flagellum, darker (brown to dark brown) except radicle yellowish or light brown; legs yellowish to light brown.

Antenna ( Figs 66 –69 View FIGURES 65, 66 View FIGURES 67 – 71 , 72 View FIGURES 72 – 74 ) with radicle 3.2–4.1 × as long as wide, about 0.3 × total length of scape, rest of scape 3.5–5.3 × as long as wide, faintly striate; pedicel notably longer than F 1; typically F 1 about as long as F 2 (or slightly shorter) and both slightly shorter than F 3, F 4 a little longer than F 3 and shorter than following funicle segments except sometimes F 8, F 5 –F 8 more or less subequal in length (F 8 a little shorter and broader and with an incision at apex); F 1 –F 4 without mps, F 5 and F 6 usually with 1 mps ( Figs 66 View FIGURES 65, 66 , 67 View FIGURES 67 – 71 ) but sometimes either F 6 ( Fig. 69 View FIGURES 67 – 71 ) or both F 5 and F 6 ( Fig. 68 View FIGURES 67 – 71 ) without mps on one or both antennae in small specimens (in that case often F 5 and/or F 6 slightly shorter than F 7 or F 8) or, in some southern Palaearctic specimens, either only F 6 or both F 5 and F 6 ( Fig. 72 View FIGURES 72 – 74 ) with 2 mps (with 2 mps on both F 5 and F 6 in large specimens from Moskovskaya oblast’, Russia, and Slovakia), F 7 and F 8 with 2 mps; clava with 6 mps (4 shorter subapical mps and 2 longer mps in the middle), 3.0– 3.5 × as long as wide, about as long as combined length of F 6 –F 8 or a little shorter.

Mesosoma ( Figs 66 View FIGURES 65, 66 , 70 View FIGURES 67 – 71 , 73 View FIGURES 72 – 74 ). Propodeum with faint submedian lines, the distance between them shorter anteriorly than posteriorly. Fore wing ( Figs 66 View FIGURES 65, 66 , 71 View FIGURES 67 – 71 , 74 View FIGURES 72 – 74 ) 4.1–5.4 × as long as wide; hypochaeta often not midway between the macrochaetae but closer to proximal macrochaeta; longest marginal seta 0.4–0.7 × maximum wing width. Fore wing disc with a slight to conspicuous, uniform brownish tinge, almost bare behind submarginal vein except for at most a few setae behind its apex, setose behind marginal vein and elsewhere. Hind wing ( Fig. 74 View FIGURES 72 – 74 ) narrow, 29–35 × as long as wide; disc with a few scattered setae, slightly infumate; longest marginal seta 4.3–4.8 × maximum wing width.

Metasoma ( Figs 66 View FIGURES 65, 66 , 70 View FIGURES 67 – 71 , 73 View FIGURES 72 – 74 ) normally a little longer than mesosoma. Petiole 1.5–1.8 × as wide as long. Ovipositor 0.7–0.8 × length of gaster, not or barely exserted beyond its apex; ovipositor length: mesotibia length ratio 0.9–1.3: 1. External plate of ovipositor with 2 or 3 distal setae.

Measurements of the neotype of G. aureus   (µm). Body: 713; mesosoma 294; gaster 300; ovipositor 248.

Antenna: radicle 64; rest of scape 130; pedicel 55; F 1 24; F 2 27; F 3 31; F 4 36; F 5 54; F 6 52; F 7 55; F 8 52; clava 165. Fore wing? 787:? 175; longest marginal seta 91. Hind wing? 615:? 21; longest marginal seta? 91.

MALE (non-type specimens from the Palaearctic region). Also see Baquero & Jordana (2003) for the description of the male based on specimens from Navarre, Spain, and Triapitsyn et al. (2010) for the illustrations of the male from France, which are also provided here to facilitate recognition of this species. Body length 660–760 µm. In the slide-mounted specimen from France, antenna ( Fig. 75 View FIGURES 75 – 77 ) with scape 2.8 × as long as wide; fore wing ( Fig. 76 View FIGURES 75 – 77 ) 4.4 × as long as wide; genitalia as in Fig. 77 View FIGURES 75 – 77 .

Diagnosis. Gonatocerus aureus   is mostly a light-colored species with brown markings on the body ( Figs 66 View FIGURES 65, 66 , 70 View FIGURES 67 – 71 , 73 View FIGURES 72 – 74 ), also characterized by the female antenna ( Figs 66 –69 View FIGURES 65, 66 View FIGURES 67 – 71 , 72 View FIGURES 72 – 74 ) with 1 mps usually on F 5 and F 6 (sometimes without mps on one or both antennae in small specimens, or, occasionally, with 2 mps in some Palaearctic and Oriental specimens), 2 mps on F 7 and F 8, and 6 mps on the clava; a narrow (4.1–5.4 × as long as wide) fore wing ( Figs 66 View FIGURES 65, 66 , 71 View FIGURES 67 – 71 , 74 View FIGURES 72 – 74 , 76 View FIGURES 75 – 77 ) with relatively long marginal setae (longest marginal seta 0.4–0.7 × maximum fore wing width); and a relatively short ovipositor (ovipositor length: mesotibia length ratio 0.9–1.3: 1). In some extralimital specimens of G. aureus   from India that were previously identified as G. pahlgamensis (Narayanan)   , the fore wing can be relatively wider (fore wing length:width as low as 3.8: 1) and the ovipositor relatively longer (up to 1.4 × length of mesotibia) ( Zeya & Hayat 1995).

Host. Neoaliturus (Circulifer) tenellus ( Baker)   (also in the laboratory) [new record] ( Cicadellidae   ). The record of Lymaenon pahlgamensis   from Quadraspidiotus perniciousus (Comstock)   ( Diaspididae   ) by Narayanan (1961) is probably incorrect ( Noyes 2012).

Comments. The newly designated neotype of G. aureus   , first identified as belonging to G. brunneus tenuipennis   by A.A. Girault (he later changed his mind, possibly when he was preparing his key published in 1929, and re-identified it as G. aureus   ), agrees in every regard with the original description of G. aureus   and comes from its original type locality. Along with the conspecific female in UCRC, listed by Triapitsyn et al. (2010) (collected in Centralia, Illinois, 7.ix. 1993 by J.D. Pinto), this Girault’s specimen could very well serve also as a neotype of G. brunneus tenuipennis   : it more or less agrees with its original description which Girault (1911) actually based on this specimen along with the lost holotype. That, however, is not necessary because I regard G. brunneus tenuipennis   to be an obvious junior synonym of G. aureus   . Both nominal taxa are clearly conspecific with the species known as G. chrysis   from Europe and elsewhere ( Debauche 1948; Matthews 1986; Baquero & Jordana 2003; Triapitsyn et al. 2010), which occurs in North America including Illinois (Triapitsyn et al. 2010). Girault (1911, 1929) seemingly struggled to separate G. aureus   from G. tenuipennis   based on the proportions of the funicle segments (mainly the relative length of F 4) of the female antenna; that likely could be the result of poor mounting, when the antenna is mounted at an angle, particularly when the head is mounted laterally. Also, the relative lengths of F 3 and F 4 of the female antenna may vary among the Holarctic specimens of the species known to me as G. chrysis   , and generally large specimens of G. aureus   tend to have relatively longer flagellar segments of the female antenna than small ones. Therefore, as first reviser (in almost exactly 100 years!), I have no doubt in synonymizing G. tenuipennis   , G. chrysis   , and G. gracilentus   under G. aureus   , which was described on the same page with G. brunneus tenuipennis   but after it. However, G. aureus   takes precedence according to Article 24.1 ([ ICZN] 1999) as the originally described higher ranking taxon.

Zeya & Hayat (1995) redescribed and illustrated G. pahlgamensis   and considered it to be extremely close to G. chrysis   except for a relarively wider fore wing and shorter marginal setae on it in some specimens. I consider these fore wing characters to be subject to intraspecific variability and thus insufficient to separate G. pahlgamensis   from G. aureus   confidently after finding both intermediate forms and specimens very similar to G. pahlgamensis   from India and also to its synonym G. fukuokensis   from Japan in southern (particularly a female from Krasnodar, Krasnodarskiy kray, Russia, in which F 5 and F 6 bear 2 mps each and the fore wing is 4.2 × as long as wide, and a very large female from Fryazevo, Moskovskaya oblast’, Russia, and a female from Slovakia, in which F 5 and F 6 also bear 2 mps each and the fore wing is 4.4 × and 4.1 × as long as wide, respectively) and eastern (several females from Primorskiy kray, Russia) Palaearctic region, hence the synonymy of G. pahlgamensis   and its synonyms under G. aureus   .

Gonatocerus flavus Soyka   was described from a single female, collected xi. 1931 on Echinochloa colona   (as Panicum colonum   ) by H. Priesner ( Soyka 1950); as mentioned here before the holotype is lost. From the poor description initially it had been difficult to figure out even to which subgenus this species may belong. Soyka, however, considered it to be similar to G. litoralis   and G. priesneri   (synonymized here under G. litoralis   ), so G.

flavus   should belong to the subgenus G. ( Lymaenon   ). Based on the unique and distinctive morphological features mentioned in the original description, I consider G. flavus   to be conspecific with G. aureus   as some small specimens of the latter are known to lack mps on F 5 and/or F 6 of the female antenna and in that case F 6 may be slightly shorter than F 5, F 7, or F 8: Soyka (1950) indicated that in G. flavus   mps are present only on F 7 and F 8 and the clava, and the proportions of its antennal segments fit those of such G. aureus   very well. In two females of G. aureus   from the United Arab Emirates F 6 lack mps (except on one antenna in one specimen) and are a little shorter than F 5 or F 7 ( Fig. 69 View FIGURES 67 – 71 ); these fit well the original description of G. flavus   and are from an arid environment very similar to that of its type locality. The narrow fore wing (nearly 5 × as long as wide) with long marginal setae (more than 0.5 × the greatest fore wing width according to the original description), the light yellowish brown body color, and the short ovipositor in G. flavus   also indicate to its conspecificity with G. aureus   : it simply cannot be any other Palaearctic species of G. ( Lymaenon   ). Since G. flavus Soyka, 1950   is a junior homonym of G. flavus Foerster, 1841   , a synonym of G. pictus   , a replacement name G. vopros Triapitsyn   , nom. n. is given here for Soyka’s species. Etymology: vopros   (a noun in apposition) stands for a question in Russian.

In one aberrant female specimen from Mudigere, Karnataka, India, the antennal clava bears 8 mps whereas in the other three females captured in the course of the same collecting event, that number is 6 as it is normal for the species. In another aberrant female from Palermo, Italy, the clava bears 7 mps.

According to Huffaker et al. (1954), J.K. Holloway made 20 shipments of Circulifer tenellus ( Baker)   “parasite material” to the University of California, Berkeley, quarantine laboratory from Spain and French Morocco (now Morocco) in 1953. During 1953 releases were made in California only of Lymaenon   spp. “A” and “B”, which had been both originally collected in Spain. Huffaker also searched for natural enemies of C. tenellus   in French Morocco and other countries in North Africa in 1954 ( Huffaker et al. 1954). Unfortunately, voucher specimens from Huffaker’s collecting were poorly labeled, and releases and possible establishment of the Mymaridae   , which included Lymaenon   spp. “A” and “B” (identified by R.L. Doutt and B.D. Burks) and a Polynema   sp. “A” from French Morocco, were not properly documented.

INHS

Illinois Natural History Survey

PPDD

Ministry of Agriculture

IARI

Indian Agricultural Research Institute

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

FMNH

Field Museum of Natural History

KUEC

Kyushu University Entomology Collection

UCRC

University of California, Riverside

NHMW

Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien

HNHM

Hungarian Natural History Museum (Termeszettudomanyi Muzeum)

ZIN

Russian Academy of Sciences, Zoological Institute, Zoological Museum

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

UCDC

R. M. Bohart Museum of Entomology

NEW

University of Newcastle

ABU

Ahmadu Bello University Herbarium

CNCI

Canadian National Collection Insects

UCB

University of California at Berkeley

EMEC

Essig Museum of Entomology

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Mymaridae

Genus

Gonatocerus

Loc

Gonatocerus (Lymaenon) aureus Girault, 1911

Triapitsyn, Serguei V. 2013
2013
Loc

Gonatocerus flavus

Huber 2009: 271
2009
Loc

Gonatocerus chrisis

Donev 2003: 75
Donev 1990: 68
1990
Loc

Gonatocerus aligarhensis

Zeya 1995: 114
Shamim 1984: 624
1984
Loc

Gonatocerus fukuokensis

Zeya 1995: 114
Sahad 1984: 3
1984
Loc

Gonatocerus pahlgamensis

Zeya 2011: 13
Zeya 1995: 114
Subba 1983: 136
1983
Loc

Gonatocerus gracilentus Hellén 1974 : 11

Matthews 1986: 227
Matthews 1986: 227
Hellen 1974: 11
1974
Loc

Gonatocerus chrysis

Pricop 2010: 81
Pricop 2010: 79
Pricop 2009: 73
Pricop 2009: 125
Donev 2005: 380
Baquero 2003: 7
Zeya 1995: 117
Donev 1988: 204
Matthews 1986: 227
Graham 1973: 48
1973
Loc

Lymaenon chrysis

Mathot 1969: 10
1969
Loc

Lymaenon aureus

Peck 1963: 21
Burks 1958: 63
1958
Loc

Lymaenon tenuipennis

Peck 1963: 26
Burks 1958: 63
1958
Loc

Gonatocerus flavus

Soyka 1950: 1950
1950
Loc

Lymaenon chrysis

Debauche 1948: 99
1948
Loc

Gonatocerus aureus

Huber 1988: 31
Girault 1929: 26
1929
Loc

Gonatocerus tenuipennis

Huber 1988: 31
Girault 1929: 26
1929
Loc

Gonatocerus aureus

Girault 1911: 263
1911
Loc

Gonatocerus brunneus tenuipennis

Girault 1911: 263
1911