Gonatocerus

Triapitsyn, Serguei V., 2013, Review of Gonatocerus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) in the Palaearctic region, with notes on extralimital distributions, Zootaxa 3644 (1), pp. 1-178: 117-118

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3644.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:DF42B735-9A47-48D5-B382-F6A980563914

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5099135

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/DC2687A4-E548-FFD1-68CC-0A2F1F5E5F56

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Gonatocerus
status

 

Subgenus Gonatocerus   ( Cosmocomoidea Howard, 1908   )

Cosmocomoidea Howard 1908: 68   . Type species: Cosmocomoidea morrilli Howard   , by monotypy. Ooctonus Haliday   : Girault 1929: 20.

Lymaenon   ( Cosmocomoidea Howard   ): Ogloblin 1959: 50 –56; Annecke & Doutt 1961: 4.

Gonatocerus   ( Gonatocerus Nees   ): De Santis 1967: 103 –105 (in part).

Gonatocerus   ( Cosmocomoidea Howard   ): De Santis 1967: 106; Triapitsyn et al. 2010: 94–99 (reinstated as a valid subgenus, diagnosis, diagnoses of species groups and subgroups of the ater   group, key to species groups, subgroups, and species in the Neotropical region).

Lymaenon Walker   ( longicauda   species group): Viggiani 1969: 39 (except Oophilus longicauda Enock   [as Lymaenon longicauda (Enock)   , a synonym of G. (Lymaenon) acuminatus   ], G. (Lymaenon) thyrides   , and also G. (Gastrogonatocerus) membraciphagus Ogloblin   ).

Gonatocerus Nees   ( ater   species group): Matthews 1986: 216 (key), 220; Huber 1988: 30, 48– 51 (key to Nearctic species); Yoshimoto 1990: 38 (list of Western Hemisphere species); Zeya & Hayat 1995: 62 –63 (diagnosis, key to Indian species); Donev 2005: 383 (key to species in Balkan Peninsula); Pricop 2010 b: 111 –112 (diagnosis, tentative key to European species), 117 (intuitive scheme of phylogenetic relationships); Zeya & Khan 2012: 54 –56 (key to Indian species).

Diagnosis. Back of head without sutures; female funicle 8 -segmented; pronotum longitudinally divided into two lobes that abut medially; dorsellum triangular to rhomboidal; propodeum almost always with 2 well developed submedian carinae and lateral to submedian carinae without transverse wrinkles, carinae, or punctures; fore wing usually relatively broad and setae behind venation absent or, if present behind marginal and stigmal veins, not as dense or as uniformly distributed as beyond venation.

All the Palaearctic species of G. ( Cosmocomoidea   ) belong to the ater   subgroup of the ater   species group as defined by Triapitsyn et al. (2010) and above. The subgenus is much more diverse and morphologically varied in the Western Hemisphere, where several groups and subgroups within G. ( Cosmocomoidea   ) occur.

Distribution. Almost cosmopolitan (absent in the Australian region but introduced, either accidentally or purposely, into various oceanic islands, e.g., Hawaiian Islands, French Polynesia, and Easter Island).

Hosts. Cicadellidae   (mostly), Membracidae   , and possibly Flatidae (Triapitsyn et al. 2010)   .

Comments. Identification of G. ( Cosmocomoidea   ) species in the Palaearctic region is challenging, particularly the cryptic forms within the G. (Cosmocomoidea) ater Foerster   and G. (Cosmocomoidea) latipennis Girault   complexes. There, variability of morphological characters traditionally used for species separation, e.g., funicle segment proportions and presence or absence of mps on them, fore wing length:width, relative length of ovipositor to length of mesotibia, makes it almost impossible to define these forms unequivocally. In some cases they may be separated by the shape of the submedian carinae on the propodeum, although the carinae may be subject to intraspecific variability but perhaps to a lesser extent than other features. Therefore, new species are not described unless they can be defined confidently. A combination of morphological (including morphometric analyses based on statistically significant number of specimens), molecular, and biological studies would be necessary to resolve more difficult problems as fresh, well-prepared specimens, particularly from the type localities of the nominal taxa, become available.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Mymaridae

Loc

Gonatocerus

Triapitsyn, Serguei V. 2013
2013
Loc

Gonatocerus

Zeya 2012: 54
Pricop 2010: 111
Donev 2005: 383
Zeya 1995: 62
Yoshimoto 1990: 38
Huber 1988: 30
Matthews 1986: 216
1986
Loc

Gonatocerus

De 1967: 103
1967
Loc

Lymaenon

Annecke 1961: 4
Ogloblin 1959: 50
1959
Loc

Cosmocomoidea

Girault 1929: 20
Howard 1908: 68
1908