Knoflach, Barbara & Harten, Antonius Van, 2006, The one-palped spider genera Tidarren and Echinotheridion in the Old World (Araneae, Theridiidae), with comparative remarks on Tidarren from America, Journal of Natural History 40 (25 - 26), pp. 1483-1616: 1575-1580
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Tidarren species from Madagascar
Tidarren apartiolum n. sp.
( Figures 187, 194, 230–233; Table XXIV)
Madagascar: 1♀ holotype, CAS, Mahajanga Prov., Parc National d’Ankarafantsika, Ampijoroa Station Forestière, 40 km 306 ° NW Andranofasika, 16 ° 199150S, 46 ° 489380E, 130 m, 26 March to 1 April 2001, tropical dry forest, EF28 beaten from low vegetation, leg. Fisher, Griswold et al., BLF3524 .
Only the type.
The specific epithet is a diminutive and indicates that the species is apart from the others, and also refers to the APART-grant from the Austrian Academy of Sciences (Austrian Programme for Advanced Research and Technology), by which B.K. was supported.
Smallest species in Madagascar. Epigynal protuberance nose-like, with posterior hump ( Figures 187, 230–233). Copulatory orifices separate. Copulatory ducts run posteriorly. Receptacula rather large. Male unknown.
Total length 2.3, carapace length 0.74, width 0.66, length femur I 1.19, tibia I 0.68. Abdomen higher than long, 2.05 high, 1.56 long, and 1.44 wide. Ventral side (distance petiolus to spinnerets) 1.15 long. Clypeus 0.20 high, chelicerae 0.33 long. Sternum 0.47 long and 0.43 wide. Labium 0.10 long, 0.17 wide. Gnathocoxae 0.23 long, 0.08 wide. Leg formula 1423, see Table XXIV.
Somatic features, colouration ( Figures 187, 194)
Sternum without posterior tubercle. Abdomen higher than long, ending in tubercle ( Figure 187). Carapace dark brown. Chelicerae brown, with dark longitudinal stripes at margins. Sternum, gnathocoxae, and labium dark brown. Legs and palps light yellow with dark patches and annulations. Abdomen dark, except for some white stripes and light brown patches; without dorsal longitudinal median band or longitudinal white outlines ( Figure 194); instead, two short white transverse bars. At sides a distinct white stripe arches downwards; anterior lateral area darker than posterior one. Aboral area of abdomen with white median stripe from apex to spinnerets, surrounded and partially overlain by dark and reddish brown pigmentation. Venter and epigaster dark, book lung covers light. Two lateral white spots next to anterior spinnerets. Spinnerets brown.
Epigynum, vulva ( Figures 230–233)
Epigynal protuberance in side view ca 0.1 mm long, nose-like ( Figures 187, 230), with posterior hump, in ventral view 0.16 mm long, outlines curved ( Figure 231); in aboral view triangular ( Figure 232). Copulatory orifices at anterior border of epigynal protuberance ( Figure 231), in ventral view close to anterior end of receptacula. Copulatory ducts separate, ca 0.12 mm long ( Figure 231), run posteriorly and enter receptacula at posterior inner side. Receptacula seminis comparatively large, 0.20 mm long and 0.12 mm wide ( Figure 233). Epigynal protuberance a little shorter than receptacula ( Figure 231).
Known only from the type locality in Madagascar .
Tidarren dasyglossa n. sp.
( Figures 188, 189, 234–238; Table XXV)
Madagascar: 1♀ holotype, deposited in NMBS, Toamasina, St. Marie, Ch Vavate Plantage , from plants, 19 September 1999, 17 ° 069210S 49 ° 499500E, leg. P. Horak. 1♀ paratype, CAS, Fianarantsoa Prov.: Parc Nationale Ranomafana, Talatakely , 21 ° 14.99S, 47 ° 25.69E, 19–30 June 1998, leg. C. E. Griswold and D. H. Kavanaugh. GoogleMaps
Other material examined
Madagascar: one subadult „, CAS, 20 km S of Betroka , 750 m, 10 December 1959, leg. E. S. Ross.
The species name is derived from ancient Greek dasys, meaning hairy or villous, and from glossa, meaning tongue; compound adjective and noun in apposition, hence invariable. It refers to the tongue-shaped epigynum, which bears numerous hairs on its posterior side.
Tidarren dasyglossa is the only species hitherto known from Madagascar with a small tubercle on posterior end of sternum. As in T. horaki the abdomen is rounded. The species has a characteristic tongue-shaped, hairy epigynal protuberance, which occupies most of the epigastric region ( Figures 188, 234–237). Copulatory ducts are fused at entrance and run posteriorly in parallel. Adult male unknown. It is expected to have a large palp.
[2♀.] Total length 3.05/3.36, carapace length 1.17/1.17, width 1.05/1.03, length femur I 2.11/2.03, tibia I 1.33/1.25. Abdomen higher than long, 2.35/2.66 high, 2.03 long, and 1.64/1.88 wide. Ventral side (distance petiolus to spinnerets) 1.45 mm long. Clypeus 0.27 high, chelicerae 0.44 long. Sternum 0.78/0.72 long and 0.64/0.60 wide. Labium 0.14 long, 0.29 wide. Gnathocoxae 0.39 long, 0.17 wide. Leg formula 1423, see Table XXV.
Somatic features, colouration ( Figures 188, 189)
Sternum with posterior tubercle. Abdomen higher than long, rounded ( Figure 188) or bearing an indistinct tubercle. Carapace dark brown. Chelicerae brown, with dark longitudinal stripes at margins. Gnathocoxae and labium dark brown with margins lighter. Sternum uniformly dark. Legs and palps light yellow with dark patches and annulations. Coxae light yellow, distally with large dark patches. Abdomen with white and dark patches of various extent, in one female rather light. Dorsum with dark irregular median longitudinal band, not distinctly outlined by white stripes. In one female four white paramedian spots. Sides and aboral area whitish with numerous dark spots. White median stripe from apex of tubercle to spinnerets partially overlain by dark pigmentation. Epigaster dominated by sclerotized epigynal protuberance, book lung covers light. Venter dark, with white patches. Spinnerets brown to dark brown.
Epigynum, vulva ( Figures 234–237)
Epigynal protuberance strongly developed ( Figures 188, 234) occupying main part of epigastric region. It is tongue-shaped, in side view ca 0.4 mm long, in ventral view ca 0.5 mm, with evenly tapering outlines; distal end broad; posterior, aboral side hairy ( Figure 236), anterior side heavily sclerotized ( Figure 235). Copulatory orifice at anterior border of epigynal protuberance, in ventral view level with anterior end of receptacula. Copulatory ducts with common orifice ( Figure 235), ca 0.3 mm long, run posteriorly and enter receptacula posteriorly. Receptacula seminis 0.19 mm long and 0.13 mm wide. Epigynal protuberance more than twice as long as receptacula ( Figure 235).
Tidarren dasyglossa is known from three localities in Madagascar.
Matching of sexes
One subadult male is assigned to T. dasyglossa owing to its well-developed palp (ca 0.6 mm long, see Figure 189, 238), which corresponds to the large female genital organ. The male has an indistinct posterior tubercle on the sternum and on the abdomen ( Figure 189). Sternum dark, coxae with dark distal rims, abdomen dorsal with four white spots. Body dimensions (in mm): total length 1.29, carapace length 0.53, width 0.49, length femur 0.72, tibia I 0.47. Clypeus 0.21 mm high, chelicerae 0.27 mm long. The adult male is expected to have a large and elongate palp.
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