Spiris striata ( Linnaeus, 1758 )

Macià, Ramon, Mally, Richard, Ylla, Josep, Gastón, Javier & Huertas, Manuel, 2019, Integrative revision of the Iberian species of Coscinia Hübner, [1819] sensu lato and Spiris Hübner, [1819], (Lepidoptera: Erebidae, Arctiinae), Zootaxa 4615 (3), pp. 401-449: 425-426

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4615.3.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:4D816AA2-2AEA-470F-A79D-45452CFAE9F2

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/E0580B3F-9F36-1C2C-FF50-60B87C753BEA

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Spiris striata ( Linnaeus, 1758 )
status

 

Spiris striata ( Linnaeus, 1758)  

Original combination: Phalaena   Bombyx striata Linnaeus, 1758 Systema Naturae   (Edn 10) 1, 502

LT. Germany

= Bombyx melanoptera Brahm, 1791   .

= Coscinia striata hospitali Marten, 1948   .

Material studied. 1♂ El Masegar, Moscardón (Teruel), 1450 m. 30TXK26, 22.VII.2015, R. Macià leg.   ; 2♂♂ Coll d´Hueres , Collsuspina (Barcelona), 936 m, 31TDG32, 8.IX.2004, R. Macià leg.   ; 1♂ Caneján , Val d´Aran (Lleida), 940 m, 31TCH14, 7.VII.2016, R. Macià leg.   ; 1♂ Villabasil (Burgos) 735 m, 29.VII.1992, R. Macià & J. Ylla leg.   ; 2♂♂ El Cerro, Gredilla la Polera (Burgos), 939 m, 30TVN40, 13. VI.2011, R. Macià & J. Ylla leg.   ; 2♀♀ El Cerro, Gredilla la Polera (Burgos), 939 m, 30TVN40, 13. VI.2011, R. Macià & J. Ylla leg.   ; 1♂ Paterna del Madera (Al- bacete), 1300 m, 4. VI.1997, R. Macià & J. Ylla leg.   ; 1♀ Candelario (Salamanca), 10. VI.2001, R. Macià & J. Ylla leg.   ; 1♂ Candelario (Salamanca), 28.VII.2001, R. Macià & J. Ylla leg.   ; 2♂♂ f. hospitali, Sierra Nevada ( Granada) 2800 m, 12.VII.1991, R. Macià leg.   ; 1♂, 1♀ Abejar (Sória), 11.VII.1995, R. Macià & J. Ylla leg.   ; 2♂♂, 1♀ Col de Menée , Isère ( France), 1457 m, 14.VII.1994, R. Macià & J. Ylla leg.  

Diagnosis. Imagines of S. striata   are indistinguishable from those of S. slovenica   on external characters. In the male genitalia of S. striata   , the cucullus is straight, with the ventral edge concave and the dorsal edge slightly convex, the large ventral thorn on the tip of the cucullus is short and points in a distoventral direction; clavus narrowly conical, with a broad triangular basal half and a tubular, evenly broad apical half ending in a rounded tip with small spines.

Description. Imago ( Figs 19–22 View FIGURES 19–28 ). Average wingspan 33.46 mm (n = 15; 27–42 mm.). Wing maculation as described for the genus. The pattern of black streaks in forewings of the male is hardly ever present in females. There are some examples of melanic forms with the upperside of the hindwing black, known as f. melanoptera ( Ylla et al. 2010)   .

Genitalia ( Fig. 37 View FIGURE 37 ). Male genitalia with short uncus, the base with several long simple setae, central part somewhat constricted, apex ending in a blunt broad edge; tegumen and vinculum broad, rounded semi-circular; juxta large, oval, with a central longitudinal strip of weaker sclerotisation; valvae strongly sclerotized, elongate rectangular, straight and distally slightly bent ventrad, dorsal apical thorn most prominent, pointing distad, ventral apical thorn short with broad base; dorsal base of valva with prominent dorsally directed elongate conical clavus with an evenly rounded spiny tip. Female genitalia as for the genus. It is not possible distinguish females of S. striata   and S. slovenica   on genitalia.

Immature stages ( Fig. 50 View FIGURE 50 ). Last instar larvae measure 20–23 mm in length. Head capsule dark brown. Dark dorsal area extending down to the spiracles and to a narrow orange lateral line; lateral sides whitish with black spots from the spiracle to verruca L2; the area between L2 and L3 dark grey; ventral surface light brown; verruca D1, D2, SD1 dark; L1, L2, L3 whitish; thoracic legs with a light brown femur, tibia, tarsus and dark brown nail; 12 to 13 large nails on the abdominal prolegs. Pupa dark reddish brown; pupa of male erect, that of female slightly tilted ventrad; antennae not touching distally, tips of pterothecae touching broadly in females, less so in males.

Molecular data. Intraspecific uncorrected p-distances of the COI Barcode sequences are 0–1.51%, with a mean of 0.20% (n = 17). The nearest interspecific distance is 3.89% to S. slovenica   . The p-distances to S. bipunctata   are 4.75–5.83% (see also Table 3 View TABLE 3 ). GenBank accession numbers of the four partial COI sequences that are sequenced in this study are MH688116 View Materials MH688119 View Materials (see also Table 2 View TABLE 2 ); the other 13 Barcodes are publicly available on the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD). In BOLD, S. striata   is represented by BIN AAJ5576.

Uncorrected p-distances of S. striata   wingless sequences are 0–0.30% (n = 3). The 21 st amino   acid in the wingless sequence differs in the third codon position for one of the three specimens by having GTC instead of GTT; both codons code for Valin. The only available wingless sequence for S. bipunctata   is identical to the S. striata   wingless allele with the GTC codon. Comparison with wingless sequences of S. slovenica   was not possible. GenBank accession numbers of the three partial wingless sequences are MH688153 View Materials MH688155 View Materials .

In the phylogenetic results, S. striata   is strongly supported as monophyletic (1.00 PP, 100% BS), and is poorly supported sister (59% BS, PP<0.90) to the congeneric S. slovenica   . Together, both species form the sister clade to S. bipunctata   , a relationship that is well-supported in both Bayesian inference and Maximum Likelihood analyses (1.00 PP, 99% BS). Together with Coscinia   and Sagarriella   , Spiris   forms an (unsupported) tritomy in the consensus phylogram ( Fig. 62 View FIGURE 62 ).

Biology. Bivoltine at low altitudes, flying in a first generation from May to June and in a second one from August to September. At higher altitudes, the species is univoltine, flying from mid-June to August. It prefers dry and sunny meadows but can occur in almost any kind of biotope between sea level and 2500 m above sea level. Both sexes are active both by day and at night and are attracted to artificial light. Larvae feed on a great variety of plant species including Calluna   , Festuca   , Cichorium   , Hieracium   , Cytisus   , Artemisia   , Lamium   , Prunus   , Genista   , Urtica   , Sarothamnus   , Galium   , Salvia   , Plantago   , Fraxinus   , Rumex   and Oxalis ( Ylla et al. 2010)   .

Distribution. ( Fig. 59 View FIGURE 59 ) Present in most of Europe and widespread in large areas, absent on the Atlantic coast of southern Spain and Portugal, in the British Isles and the Baltic areas. Outside Europe, it is present in Asia Minor, East and West Turkestan, Siberia (Yakutia, Transbaikalia) and in the Chinese Altai at the Far East of Russia ( Witt & Ronkay 2011).

VI

Mykotektet, National Veterinary Institute

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Lepidoptera

Family

Erebidae

Genus

Spiris

Loc

Spiris striata ( Linnaeus, 1758 )

Macià, Ramon, Mally, Richard, Ylla, Josep, Gastón, Javier & Huertas, Manuel 2019
2019
Loc

Coscinia striata hospitali

Marten 1948
1948
Loc

Bombyx melanoptera

Brahm 1791
1791