Lapsias canandea, Maddison, Wayne P., 2012

Maddison, Wayne P., 2012, Five new species of lapsiine jumping spiders from Ecuador (Araneae: Salticidae), Zootaxa 3424, pp. 51-65 : 55-58

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.208849

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6175392

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/E173EB2F-744F-FF8F-FF55-35C0FA1CFA88

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Lapsias canandea
status

sp. nov.

Lapsias canandea   , sp. nov.

( Figs 11–20 View FIGURES 11 – 14 View FIGURES 15 – 20 )

Type material. Holotype male in QCAZ with data: " ECUADOR: ESMERALDAS: Reserva Canandé, nr Cuckoo Trail. N 0.5210 W 79.2081 to N 0.5204 W 79.2067, 460–500 m el. 23.Aug. 2011 W. MaddisonWPM# 11-188 ", "Photo'd 25 Aug # ECU 2011-9737 ", "UBC-SEM AR00191"

Etymology. Derived from the type locality, Reserva Canandé. To be treated as an arbitrary combination of letters, and hence without the need to agree in gender with the genus.

Diagnosis. The palp with prolaterally-arising embolus and two hooked apophyses is distinctive ( Fig 11 View FIGURES 11 – 14 ), as are the fringed legs of the male ( Fig 17 View FIGURES 15 – 20 ). No other lapsiine has such a large, sclerotized conductor. The body is somewhat elongate and flat, resembling a large Soesiladeepakius   , or a darker Galianora sacha   . The anterior guide of the epigynum of L. canandea   distinguishes it from most lapsiines except some females in the type series of Lapsias cyrboides   (see Galiano 1963: Plate XXV, figure 12; other females in the type series are of a different species, without anterior guide; which females pair with the holotype male is unclear; in MNHN Paris, examined).

Description. Male (holotype). Carapace length 2.1; abdomen length 2.5. Carapace: Fig. 16 View FIGURES 15 – 20 . PME small. Chelicerae not noticeably enlarged compared to female, with 3 small promarginal and 2 small retromarginal teeth. Palpus ( Figs 11–12 View FIGURES 11 – 14 ) with bulb rotated so that embolus arises retrolaterally and revolves about 300 ° around the tegulum. Two hook-shaped processes arise from the tegulum, a larger one that arises almost in the middle (interpreted as the conductor), and a smaller one behind it that arises along the retrolateral distal edge (interpreted as the median apophysis). The larger apophysis has no visible separation from the tegulum, but the smaller is clearly separated from the tegulum by a membrane, like the median apophyses of many other lapsiines and cocalodines (Maddison, 2006, 2009). Following the sperm duct of L. canandea   as it approaches the embolus, the first of the two apophyses encountered is the smaller; later, as the sperm duct loops inward, it approaches the larger apophysis. This also suggests that the smaller apophysis is the median apophysis, because in other lapsiines and cocalodines the sequence following the sperm duct is median apophysis, conductor, embolus (Maddison, 2006: Figs. 1 View FIGURE 1 , 2 View FIGURES 2 – 8 ; Maddison, 2009: Figs. 26 View FIGURES 25 – 36 , 37 View FIGURES 37 – 42 , 57). Cymbium with retrolateral side excavate. Retrolateral tibial apophysis projecting as a small keel that might be mistaken for a paracymbium ( Figs 11, 12 View FIGURES 11 – 14 , rta). Two small dorsal tibial apophyses. Tibia of first leg with 3 pairs of ventral macrosetae; first metatarsus with 3 pairs. Colour ( Figs 15–20 View FIGURES 15 – 20 ): Body medium to dark brown, with orange tones. Thorax slightly paler in band along lower margin and central longitudinal band. Clypeus dark brown, glabrous except for a few setae. Chelicerae dark brown to black. Abdomen with trace of chevrons. Segments of palp paler except for cymbium, which is dark brown to black. White scales on patella and tibia. First legs darkest, with femur, patella and tibia dark brown to black. Patella and tibia with small dorsal and longer ventral fringe of black setae. Legs 2–4 honey-coloured in alcohol, with indistinct darker areas at the ends of the tibiae and metatarsi.

Female (paratype in UBC-SEM, # UBC –SEM AR00192, from ECUADOR: ESMERALDAS: Reserva Canandé, Quail Trail. N 0.5255 W 79.2069 to N 0.5265 W 79.2118, ~ 330 m el. 17.Aug. 2011 W. Maddison WPM# 11- 135). Carapace length 2.0; abdomen length 2.1. Carapace shape as in male. PME small. Chelicerae with 3 promarginal and 2 retromarginal teeth. Palp with tarsal claw. Tibia of first leg with 3 pairs of ventral macrosetae; first metatarsus with 3 pairs. Epigynum ( Fig. 13–14 View FIGURES 11 – 14 ) with a distinctive guide anteriorly. Paired openings hidden behind dark flaps, about half way between hood and posterior margin (arrow, Fig. 13 View FIGURES 11 – 14 ). Internally the ducts proceed posteriorly, then laterally, then loop back to return medially and then anteriorly to the fertilization duct. The lateralmedial loop is twisted into a spiral. Colour ( Figs 19–20 View FIGURES 15 – 20 ): much like the male, though the brown is duller (with gray rather than orange tones), and the first legs lack the fringe. Some females are paler and grayish.

Additional material examined. 16 males, 9 females and 40 juveniles, in UBC-SEM, all from ECUADOR and in UBC-SEM: ESMERALDAS: Reserva Canandé, 17–23 August 2011. Details: N 0.5254 W 79.2080 to N 0.5252 W 79.2076, ~ 300 m el., WPM# 11-129 (1 female); N 0.5253 W 79.2073 to N 0.5255 W 79.2069, ~ 330 m el., WPM# 11-131 (1 male); N 0.5261 W 79.2119, ~ 330 m el., WPM# 11-132 (1 juv.); N 0.5261 W 79.2119, ~ 320 m el., WPM# 11-133 (2 juv.); N 0.5220 W 79.1974 to N 0.5221 W 79.1969, ~ 580 m el., WPM# 11-142 (2 male, 1 juv.); N 0.5222 W 79.1961 to N 0.5223 W 79.1958, ~ 580 m el., WPM# 11-144 (1 female, 2 juv.); N 0.5220 W 79.1954 to N 0.5217 W 79.1951, ~ 580 m el., WPM# 11-146 (1 male, 1 female, 2 juv.; male is designated as paratype, with additional data "Photo'd 18 Aug # ECU 2011-8164 "); N 0.5279 W 79.2036 to N 0.5274 W 79.2088, ~ 300 m el., WPM# 11-153 (1 male, 3 juv.); N 0.5274 W 79.2088 to N 0.5270 W 79.2089, ~ 300 m el., WPM# 11-154 (2 juv.); N 0.5283 W 79.2059 to N 0.5286 W 79.2062, ~ 280 m el., WPM# 11-158 (1 juv.); N 0.5171 W 79.1935 to N 0.5175 W 79.1935, ~ 580 m el., WPM# 11-160 (4 male, 6 juv.); N 0.5175 W 79.1935 to N 0.5179 W 79.1936, ~ 590 m el., WPM# 11-161 (2 females, 1 juv.); N 0.5179 W 79.1937 to N 0.5184 W 79.1939, ~ 560 m el., WPM# 11-162 (2 females); N 0.5184 W 79.1939 to N 0.5187 W 79.1942, ~ 580 m el., WPM# 11-163 (1 male); N 0.5167 W 79.1934, ~ 580 m el., WPM# 11-165 (1 male); N 0.5217 W 79.1951, ~ 580 m el., WPM# 11-166 (3 male 1 female 4 juv.); N 0.5193 W 79.1946, ~ 550 m el., WPM# 11-168 (1 male, 9 juv.); N 0.5214 W 79.2033 to N 0.5214 W 79.2036, ~ 530 m el., WPM# 11-174 (1 male); N 0.5214 W 79.2036 to N 0.5216 W 79.2040, ~ 540 m el., WPM# 11-175 (2 juv.); N 0.5202 W 79.2076 to N 0.5198 W 79.2077, ~ 480 m el., WPM# 11-184 (1 female, 4 juv.).

Natural history. This species was relatively common in the leaf litter at Reserva Canandé. It was rarely seen walking on top of the litter, but was usually collected by quickly moving leaf litter onto a beating sheet, on which the specimens would be seen running quickly toward the edge. They could be found commonly in leaf litter not only on the ground throughout the forest, but also in litter suspended up to 2 m above ground, especially in tree fall clearings. It appeared that when on the ground, to house L. canandea   the litter needed to be loose and well-drained. Their breadth of habitat is unusual; in my experience salticid species typically live either in suspended litter, or on ground litter, but not both. Indeed, L. canandea   females and juveniles were occasionally found beating vegetation, though it is possible in all such cases the vegetation held some suspended litter.

It has previously been noted that many basal salticids have an unusual gait that includes waving of the second pair of legs (see notes under other Lapsias   species here, and W. Maddison, 2009). L. canandea   was never seen to wave the second pair of legs, but nonetheless it does have the fluid gait typical of basal salticids, lacking the pulsed gait of salticoids. Indeed, the first specimen of L. canandea   found was seen walking on leaf litter, and it was recognized immediately as a basal salticid based on its gait. In this regard, L. canandea   is like Galianora sacha   , which also has the fluid gait but has not been seen to wave the second legs (W. Maddison, unpublished observations). Videos of living L. canandea   specimens are available: male, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pyWZWQuHiVU and http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zU 81 v 8 tTMNg; female, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T 8 eM-LBeZVQ.

QCAZ

Museo de Zoologia, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Ecuador

ECU

Edith Cowan University

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

UBC

University of British Columbia

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Salticidae

Genus

Lapsias