Eugenia bemangidiensis N. Snow
Snow, Neil, Callmander, Martin & Phillipson, Peter B., 2015, Studies of Malagasy Eugenia - IV: Seventeen new endemic species, a new combination, and three lectotypifications; with comments on distribution, ecological and evolutionary patterns, PhytoKeys 49, pp. 59-121: 63
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|Eugenia bemangidiensis N. Snow|
Eugenia bemangidiensis N. Snow sp. nov. Holotype: (Figure 5): http://www.tropicos.org/Image/100314916
Haec species Eugeniae wilsonianae N. Snow similis, sed ab ea inflorescentiis fasciculatis caulifloris distinguitur; etiam ad altitudines inferiores crescit.
MADAGASCAR. Prov. Toliara: Anosy, Taolagnaro, Iaboko, Antsotso Avaratra, 24°34'35"S, 47°12'28"E, 25 m, 13 Dec. 2007, R. Razakamalala 4056 + D. Rabehevitra, M. Maka, Roger & B. Mara (holotype: MO-6335452!; isotypes: P [P06490265]!, TAN).
Shrubs 3-4 m; bark of main bole more or less smooth but somewhat flaking, brown to gray. Foliage and reproductive parts glabrous except where noted. Branchlets terete, light brown (dried), smooth, oil glands sparse to moderate (but indistinct). Leaves mostly concentrated near branch tips, coriaceous, slightly discolorus, surfaces matte. Axillary colleters lacking. Petioles 3-4(-5) mm, slightly sulcate above, elgandular. Leaf blades 6-10 × 1.7-3.5 cm, narrowly elliptic to narrowly ovate, base rounded, apex acute to acuminate or a few falcate, margin flat, oil glands not seen (dried material); adaxial midvein broadly but shallowly sulcate, secondary veins indistinct to prominent (with magnification), intramarginal vein 0.5-1.8 mm from edge at midpoint of leaf blade. Inflorescences cauliflorous, arising from amorphous knobby protrusions (short shoots?) at or near nodes; flowers triads, monads, or fascicled (and possibly a few short botryoids); pedicels 1.5-6 mm, flexuous. Bracteoles 2 or absent, ca. 0.5 × 0.5 mm, broadly triangular to broadly rounded, ascending to divergent, stiff. Hypanthium 2.5-4.0 mm, cupuliform, oil glands common but small. Sepals 4, 2-3.0 × 3.5-4 mm, semi-circular to broadly elliptic or oblate, apex broadly rounded to obtuse, lobes very sparsely and minutely ciliate distally, moderately glandular; persistent and crowning (at least) young fruits. Petals 4 (material limited), 5-6 × 3-4 mm, widely elliptic to obovate, glabrous to sparsely and minute ciliate distally, glands sparse to moderate but faint (in dried material). Stamens 50-75, multiseriate; staminal disk short-hairy; ovary apex glabrous but distinctly punctate; filaments 2-5 mm; anthers 0.5-0.8 mm, elliptic, sub-basifixed, connective apex eglandular. Styles 6-7 mm; stigma narrow (scarcely if at all capitate). Fruits ca. 10-15 × 10-15 mm, (material possibly not fully mature) subglobose to globose, base sometimes sharply tapered, glabrous, dark bluish-black (dried).
The epithet is derived from the place name Bemangidy, a biologically rich region within the provisional Protected Area of Tsitongambarika.
Flowering commencing November and December; fruiting likely commencing by late December or early January (unconfirmed).
Known only from southeast Madagascar in Toliara Province, ca. 55 km northeast of Taolognaro, in Tsitongambarika (Fig. 2).
Habitat and ecology.
Label information is sparse, but based on recent satellite imagery, evidently occurring in moderately to highly disturbed hilly areas that retain thin remnants of forest in ssome drainages and on steeper slopes, the type gathering located some 0.5 km east of much less disturbed primary forests that occur on steeper slopes, the paratype gathering in highly disturbed sites; elevation ca. 25-110 m.
With only three collections known, an AOO of 9 km2 and one subpopulation, which is situated outside the current protected area network, Eugenia bemangidiensis is assigned a preliminary risk of extinction of "Critically Endangered" [CR A3c+B1ab(iii)] following the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria ( IUCN 2012). All the known material of the species was collected in the proposed new protected area of Tsitonggambarika in the south-east (Fig. 2). The new species seems to have a highly restricted distribution and the lowland evergreen tropical forests where the species grows is under threat. Its definitive protection would likely allow this species to be downlisted to “Endangered”.
The leaf morphology of Eugenia bemangidiensis resembles Eugenia wilsoniana (see discussion above). However, the short-pedicellate, fasciculate, and cauliflorous infloresences of Eugenia bemangidiensis differ from the axillary, long-pedicellate flowers of Eugenia wilsoniana . The type gathering at ca. 25 m elevation of Eugenia bemangidiensis is approximately 645 km south of the most southerly collections of Eugenia wilsoniana , the latter of which occur at middle elevations of ca. 980-1100 meters.
An indetermined fruiting specimen (Rakotovao 241 [MO-6437191]) from Near Ivohibe approximately 260 km north of the type gathering of Eugenia bemangidiensis , which appears to have ramiflorous (and possibly cauliflorous) inflorescences, may be related, although it occurs at 1210 m, far above the known occurrences of Eugenia bemangidiensis .
MADAGASCAR. Prov. Toliara: Iaboko, Antsotso, forêt Ivohibe, 24°33'52"S, 47°14'5"E, 26 Nov. 2005, R. Razakamalala 2326 + E. Ramisa & B. Mara (MO-6433204, P [P06490266]); ibid. loc., 24°34'16"S, 47°12'06"E, 8 Dec. 2007, R. Razakamalala 3799 + D. Rabehevitra, M. Maka, Roger & B. Mara (MO-6308460, P [P04827649]).
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